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This article focuses on large-scale petitioning campaigns, or petitionnementen as they were called, organized between 1828 and 1878, including contemporary reflections and debates on this new phenomenon. Although there were only a handful of petitionnementen, they had a remarkable impact—not only on the issues at hand but also on the balance of power between Crown, Cabinet, Parliament, and people. Mass petitions necessarily challenged the political system, whose legitimacy was based on elections under a limited franchise. Based on parliamentary reports, pamphlets, and other sources reflecting on petitioning in general and the petitionnementen more specifically, this article asks how petitioners claimed legitimacy, and how politicians and other observers responded to those claims. Special attention is given to the international context within which Dutch petitioning practices developed. The article focuses on three case studies, representing the major petitioning campaigns of this period: the Southern petition movements of 1828–1830 that were a catalyst for the Belgian revolution (thus reinforcing the association between mass petitioning and revolution), the Anti-Catholic “April Movement” of 1853, and the so-called People’s Petitionnement of 1878, against the liberal education law. Remarkably enough, in the Netherlands it was not progressive reformers, but most prominently conservative Orthodox Protestants who organized petitionnementen.
Alcohol consumption may be wrongly estimated because of inaccurate information on actual portion sizes. We compared portion sizes of wine, fortified wine and straight spirits poured at home with the Dutch standard drink sizes.
Participants measured portion sizes of wine, fortified wine and straight spirits at home up to a maximum of three times and reported these via an online survey. Average portion sizes (in millilitres) were compared with the Dutch standard drink sizes. Portion sizes were compared between subgroups of gender, age, BMI and level of education, and for different glass types.
Wageningen and surroundings, the Netherlands.
Adults (N 201) living in the Netherlands and consuming wine and/or straight spirits at home at least once per week.
Participants poured on average 129·4 ml white wine and 131·7 ml red wine, which is significantly more than the standard of 100 ml. For fortified wine, the average poured amount was 94·0 ml, significantly more than the standard of 50 ml; also for straight spirits the poured amount was significantly more than the standard (47·0 v. 35 ml).
Participants’ portion sizes of wine, fortified wine and straight spirits poured at home were on average larger than the Dutch standard drink sizes. This suggests that at-home alcohol consumption in the Netherlands is underestimated.
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an evidence-based treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Stepped care for CFS, consisting of a minimal intervention followed by face-to-face CBT, was found efficacious when tested in a CFS specialist centre. Stepped care implemented in a community-based mental health centre (MHC) has not yet been evaluated.
(1) To test the effectiveness of stepped care for CFS implemented in a MHC at post-treatment and at long-term follow-up; and (2) compare post-treatment outcomes of implemented stepped care with treatment outcomes of a CFS specialist centre.
An uncontrolled study was used to test effectiveness of stepped care implemented in a MHC (n = 123). The outcomes of implemented care were compared with the outcomes of specialist care reported in previous studies (n = 583). Data on outcomes from implemented stepped care were gathered at post-treatment and at long-term follow-up. Mixed models were used as method of analysis.
Fatigue decreased and physical functioning increased significantly following implemented stepped care (both p < .001). The follow-up was completed by 94 patients (78%) within 1–6 years after treatment. Treatment effects were sustained to follow-up. Patients in the MHC showed less improvement directly following stepped care compared with patients in a CFS specialist centre (p < .01).
Implemented stepped care for CFS is effective with sustained treatment gains at long-term follow-up. There is room for improvement when compared with outcomes of a CFS specialist centre. Some suggestions are made on how to improve stepped care.
This article considers the variation in the metres of the ‘ὥσπερ ξένοι’ epigrams, collected in the Database of Byzantine Book Epigrams (DBBE). In its canonical form, these epigrams follow a dodecasyllabic metrical pattern. The seemingly unmetrical decasyllabic and decatetrasyllabic variants are explained from a cognitive-linguistic perspective as the pairing of different cola – 5+5 and 7+7 instead of the usual 7+5 or 5+7. From this perspective, cola can be equated with the cognitive ‘idea’ or ‘intonation units’ (IUs) used in ordinary speech.
Face-to-face cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) leads to a reduction of fatigue in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).
To test the efficacy of internet-based CBT (iCBT) for adults with CFS.
A total of 240 patients with CFS were randomised to either iCBT with protocol-driven therapist feedback or with therapist feedback on demand, or a waiting list. Primary outcome was fatigue severity assessed with the Checklist Individual Strength (Netherlands Trial Register: NTR4013).
Compared with a waiting list, intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis showed a significant reduction of fatigue for both iCBT conditions (protocol-driven feedback: B = −8.3, 97.5% CI −12.7 to −3.9, P < 0.0001; feedback on demand: B = −7.2, 97.5% CI −11.3 to –3.1, P < 0.0001). No significant differences were found between both iCBT conditions on all outcome measures (P = 0.3–0.9). An exploratory analysis revealed that feedback-on-demand iCBT required less therapist time (mean 4 h 37 min) than iCBT with protocol-driven feedback (mean 6 h 9 min, P < 0.001) and also less than face-to-face CBT as reported in the literature.
Both iCBT conditions are efficacious and time efficient.
The locality of Langenboom (eastern Noord-Brabant, the Netherlands), also known as Mill, is famous for its Neogene molluscs, shark teeth, teleost remains, birds and marine mammals. The stratigraphic context of the fossils, which have been collected from sand suppletions, was hitherto poorly understood. Here we report on a section which has been sampled by divers in the adjacent flooded sandpit ‘De Kuilen’ from which the Langenboom sands have been extracted. The studied section covers part of the marine Miocene Breda Formation and Pliocene Oosterhout Formation, and is topped by fluvial Quaternary deposits of presumably the Beegden Formation. The Breda Formation (15 – 18 m below lake surface) in this section is, based on organic walled dinoflagellate cysts, of an early-middle Tortonian age. The Oosterhout Formation (7 – 15 m below lake surface) comprises two depositional sequences, the lower of which (12 – 15 m below lake surface) presumably is the source of most Langenboom fossils. Combined dinoflagellate cyst and benthic mollusc indicators point to an early Zanclean - early Piacenzian age for this lower cycle. Its basal transgressive lag and (to lesser extent) top comprise reworked Tortonian taxa as well, Dinoflagellate cysts and a single benthic mollusc point to a Piacenzian age for the upper Oosterhout Formation sequence (7 – 12 m below lake surface).
We investigate the stratigraphy of Neogene and Quaternary intervals of the Schelphoek borehole (Schouwen, Zeeland, the Netherlands). The Breda Formation (Miocene-Zanclean) contains three sequences separated by hiatuses. The Oosterhout Formation (Zanclean-Piacenzian) contains at least two sequences. This formation is overlain by seven sequences of the Gelasian Maassluis Formation that almost certainly represent glacial cycles. The three lowermost sequences are provisionally assigned to the Praetiglian (MIS 96, MIS 98 and MIS 100). A large hiatus exists between the top of the Maassluis Formation and the base of the late Middle to Late Quaternary succession. Due to extensive in situ reworking of older strata (including fossils) at the base of several of the formations, their exact boundaries are difficult to establish. The Neogene succession in the Schelphoek borehole is compared to the stratigraphic successions in the Antwerp area to the south and the Dutch coastal area and continental platform to the north. Finally, the stratigraphic context of the Gelasian (‘Tiglian’) mammal fauna dredged from the bottom of a major tidal channel in the adjacent Oosterschelde is assessed by comparison with the Schelphoek borehole.
Although psychiatrists did not form part of the structures of the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC), the Society of Psychiatrists of South Africa (SPSA) at the time did make a submission. Since then, the local association of psychiatrists has been reconstituted as the South African Society of Psychiatrists (SASOP). Psychiatry and psychiatrists may have to extend their activities beyond rehabilitation and restoration, to include endeavours to prevent future violations of human rights.
In this paper I examine two activities which are often attributed with a role to play in social transformation, namely environmental education and research, for their potential to contribute to collective change. I do so by drawing on the results of a recent empirical study in southern Africa, in which I distinguished four orientations to research in/and environmental education. In exploring the transformatory roles of research and environmental education, as conceptualised in these four orientations, I conclude that the most prevalent orientations reveal modernistic assumptions which limit their potential to contribute to social transformation.
The decision to interpret the results by focusing on social transformation grew out of what I regarded as the most significant dimensions of the context of the study. These are the global and regional calls for social transformation in response to the environment crisis, the dramatic political changes in parts of southern Africa, the need to improve education in the region, and finally, less obvious global epistemological shifts in the conceptualisation of science, education and social research.
The paper considers the connections between the environmental crisis and patterns of consumption in the Western, and Westernised, worlds. These patterns are named as ‘malconsumption’, a concept which is defined and then discussed In terms of its importance to the work of environmental educators. Malconsumption as a means of ‘meaning-making’ and of countering ‘the empty self, and as a consequence of the activities of the advertising and other industries is explained. The paper closes with a summary of the orientation and activities associated with the practice of permaculture, and a proposition that a consideration of this practice in environmental education might contribute to a countering of the drive towards malconsumption.
To compare the cost and quality of a memory-clinic-based service (MCS) with a traditional community mental health team (CMHT) service. Using a retrospective case-note review, we studied two groups, each with 33 participants. Consecutive referrals for diagnostic ‘memory’ assessments over 4 months were evaluated. Participants were evaluated for up to 6 months.
The MCS was less costly than the CMHT service but the difference was not statistically significant (mean cost for MCS was £742, mean cost for CMHT service was £807). The MCS offered more multidisciplinary and comprehensive care, including: pre- and post-diagnostic counselling, more systematic screening of blood for reversible causes of dementia, more use of structured assessment instruments in patients/carers, signposting to the third sector as well as more consistent copying of letters to patients/carers.
An MCS service offered more comprehensive and multidisciplinary service at no extra cost to secondary care.
Three specimens of the large-sized Eocene campanilid gastropod genus Campanile have been dredged from the modern sea floor in the Bruine Bank area (North Sea, Dutch sector). The material is identified here as Campanile parisiense rarinodosum, a subspecies hitherto unknown from the North Sea Basin. All three shells are strongly abraded, reflecting their secondary derivation. The new finds suggest that fossiliferous strata of probably late Lutetian (middle Eocene) age are represented in the southern North Sea Basin, situated most likely in the southeastern part of the UK sector. The present material of Campanile must have been reworked into the Dutch sector via Quaternary rivers. The occurrence of Campanile parisiense rarinodosum would indicate close biogeographic ties between the North Sea and the western French Atlantic basins during the late Lutetian. These new records thus shed light on the palaeogeography of the area during two widely separated geological time slices.
We investigated the Quaternary lithological succession and faunas in a borehole near Moriaanshoofd (Province of Zeeland, SW Netherlands), in order to improve our understanding of the depositional context of classical Gelasian mammal faunas from the region. The fossils mostly derive from the base of a fossil-rich interval between 31 m and 36.5 m below the surface, that was initially interpreted as a Middle or Late Pleistocene interglacial marine unit, but turned out to be a Late Quaternary fluvial unit with large amounts of reworked fossils and sediments. Eocene mollusc taxa pinpoint Flanders (Belgium) as the source region for this river. Within the base of this paleo-Schelde River fossil material of various stratigraphic provenance became incorporated.