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The genetic variation and taxonomic status of the four morphologically-defined species of Macropostrongyloides in Australian macropodid and vombatid marsupials were examined using sequence data of the ITS+ region (=first and second internal transcribed spacers, and the 5.8S rRNA gene) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. The results of the phylogenetic analyses revealed that Ma. baylisi was a species complex consisting of four genetically distinct groups, some of which are host-specific. In addition, Ma. lasiorhini in the common wombat (Vombatus ursinus) did not form a monophyletic clade with Ma. lasiorhini from the southern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus latifrons), suggesting the possibility of cryptic (genetically distinct but morphologically similar) species. There was also some genetic divergence between Ma. dissimilis in swamp wallabies (Wallabia bicolor) from different geographical regions. In contrast, there was no genetic divergence among specimens of Ma. yamagutii across its broad geographical range or between host species (i.e. Macropus fuliginosus and M. giganteus). Macropostrongyloides dissimilis represented the sister taxon to Ma. baylisi, Ma. yamagutii and Ma. lasiorhini. Further morphological and molecular studies are required to assess the species complex of Ma. baylisi.
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy has been exploited to investigate the laser-produced lead plasma with and without external magnetic field. Plasma on the lead surface was generated by focusing a beam of a Nd:YAG laser (532 nm). An external magnetic field was applied across the laser-produced plasma; its value was varied from 0.3 to 0.7 T and the time-integrated spectra were captured at different time delays. Maximum enhancement in the neutral and ionic line intensities have been observed at 130 mJ laser energy. The neutral line of Pb at 368.34 nm reveals an enhancement factor of nearly 1.3, 1.6, and 2.3 at 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 T, whereas the Pb ionic line at 424.49 nm shows enhancement factor of approximately 2.8 and 4.2 at 0.3 and 0.7 T. The magnetic field effects on various plasma parameters such as plasma temperature, electron number density, and emission line intensities have also been investigated. The plasma parameter “β” is found to be <1 in all the experimental conditions which signifies that the enhancement in the signal intensity is due to the plasma confinement. The increase in the emission signal intensity, number density as well as plasma temperature is observed with increasing laser energy and magnetic field. The spatial and temporal behavior reveals that the plasma temperature and electron number density decrease slowly in the applied magnetic field due to the deceleration of the plasma plume. The optimized conditions for the maximum plasma confinement and the emission intensity enhancement are observed at 130 mJ laser energy at 0.7 T magnetic field.
G4 alloys (Ti51Al47Re1W1Si0.2) are developed by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) with the aim to improve the creep resistance of SPS materials. The microstructure is analyzed by Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopies (SEM and TEM). The mechanical properties at low and high temperatures are measured. The addition of heavy elements does not lead to an improvement of the mechanical strength.
Sarcocystis spp. are intracellular coccidian parasites which infect domestic and wild animals and birds, resulting in considerable economic losses in production animals, and public health concerns worldwide. Sarcocystis spp. have an indirect life cycle where wild and/or domestic canine species primarily serve as definitive hosts and several domestic and wild animals (such as camels) act as intermediate hosts. In Northern Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia and China, camel meat is preferred due to cultural and religious traditions as well as its lower cholesterol/fat content than other red meat. However, camel meat quality could be downgraded by the presence of sarcocysts. To date, two Sarcocystis spp. have been reported from camels, including Sarcocystis ippeni (forms microscopic sarcocysts) and Sarcocystis cameli (forms both macroscopic and microscopic sarcocysts). Sarcocystosis is usually asymptomatic, though significant pathogenic effects have also been reported in camels. Despite the high occurrence of sarcocystosis in camels, little is known about various aspects of the disease in these animals. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the existing knowledge on the taxonomy, pathogenesis, epidemiology and diagnosis of Sarcocystis spp. infecting camels and it also highlights areas for further research that could enhance our understanding about sarcocystosis in camels.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the 10-year impact of Hurricane Katrina on the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) along with contributing risk factors and any alteration in chronobiology of AMI.
A single-center, retrospective, comparison study of AMI incidence was performed at Tulane University Health Sciences Center from 2 years before Hurricane Katrina to 10 years after Hurricane Katrina. A 6-year, pre-Katrina and 10-year, post-Katrina cohort were also compared according to pre-specified demographic, clinical, and chronobiological data.
AMI incidence increased from 0.7% (150/21,079) to 2.8% (2,341/84,751) post-Katrina (P<0.001). The post-Katrina cohort had higher rates of coronary artery disease (36.4% vs. 47.9%, P=0.01), diabetes mellitus (31.3% vs. 39.9%, P=0.04), hyperlipidemia (45.4% vs. 59.3%, P=0.005), smoking (34.4% vs. 53.8%, P<0.001), drug abuse (10.2% vs. 15.4%, P=0.02), psychiatric illness (6.7% vs. 14.9%, P<0.001), medication non-adherence (7.3% vs. 15.3%, P<0.001), and lack of employment (7.2% vs. 16.4%, P<0.001). The post-Katrina group had increased rates of AMI during nights (29.8% vs. 47.8%, P<0.001) and weekends (16.1% vs. 29.1%, P<0.001).
Even 10 years after the storm, Hurricane Katrina continues to be associated with increased incidence of AMI, higher prevalence of traditional cardiovascular and psychosocial risk factors, and an altered chronobiology of AMI toward nights and weekends. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:217–222)
This study challenges present-day dualisms and divisions, which are reflected in socio-political and intercultural dialogue. The aim of this study is to connect the philosophical discourse of the ninth-century House of Wisdom to modern conceptions of Islam by extending the dialogical rhetoric of that discourse. This study revisits the House of Wisdom, first, to invoke an inclusive, intercultural Islamic tradition that negates the circumscription of Islam by radical views. Second, it reintroduces the liberal arts as pedagogical tools that are central to the Islamic wisdom tradition. Third, it explores the notions of Aql and Fitrah and how they prescribe Hikmah.
Sequences of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 + ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA were employed to determine whether the congeneric assemblages of species of the strongyloid nematode genus Cloacina, found in the forestomachs of individual species of kangaroos and wallabies (Marsupialia: Macropodidae), considered to represent species flocks, were monophyletic. Nematode assemblages examined in the black-striped wallaby, Macropus (Notamacropus) dorsalis, the wallaroos, Macropus (Osphranter) antilopinus/robustus, rock wallabies, Petrogale spp., the quokka, Setonix brachyurus, and the swamp wallaby, Wallabia bicolor, were not monophyletic and appeared to have arisen by host colonization. However, a number of instances of within-host speciation were detected, suggesting that a variety of methods of speciation have contributed to the evolution of the complex assemblages of species present in this genus.
This study reports an outbreak of oriental theileriosis in dairy cattle imported to Vietnam from Australia. Following clinical and pathological diagnoses, a total of 112 cattle blood samples were divided into three groups and tested using multiplexed tandem PCR. Group 1 were from aborted heifers in Vietnam; group 2 were from cattle before shipment from group 1 cattle and group 3 were from the same batch of cattle but transported to Taiwan. Theileria orientalis DNA was detected in 72·3% cattle. The prevalences of T. orientalis in groups 1, 2 and 3 were 77·6, 86·9 and 57·5%, respectively, and the difference in prevalence was significant between groups 1 and 3 (P < 0·0001). The infection intensities of genotypes chitose and ikeda of T. orientalis were higher in groups 1 (57 721 and 33 709, respectively) and 3 (5897 and 61 766, respectively) than those in group 2 (2071 and 6331, respectively). Phylogenetic analyses of the major piroplasm surface protein sequences revealed that genotypes chitose and ikeda determined herein were closely related to those previously reported from Australia. This first report of an outbreak of oriental theileriosis in imported cattle emphasizes improved measures for the export and import of cattle infected with T. orientalis.
New drug-delivery systems have remained a challenge for pharmaceutical scientists due to the use of expensive polymers and the low loading capacity of prepared nanoparticles. There is pressure to develop formulations that contain not only cheaper materials but also have controlled-release properties. Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) are a naturally occurring clay mineral similar to kaolin, possessing a special particle shape in the form of an ultramicroscopic multilayered hollow cylinder. Its uses encompass a wide range in anticancer therapy, sustained- and controlled-release drug-delivery systems, cosmetics, delivery of proteins, vaccines and genes. These advantages are due to its biocompatibility, significant mechanical strength and natural availability. The surfaces of the tubules can be modified by coating different polymers for application in the drug-delivery system. This review is focused on the various aspects of HNTs such as structure, properties, loading methods, applications and characterizations.
Mental disorder is common among individuals with neurological illness. We aimed to characterise the patient population referred for psychiatry assessment at a tertiary neurology service in terms of neurological and psychiatric diagnoses and interventions provided.
We studied all individuals referred for psychiatry assessment at a tertiary neurology service over a 2-year period (n= 82).
The most common neurological diagnoses among those referred were epilepsy (16%), Parkinson’s disease (15%) and multiple sclerosis (8%). The most common reasons for psychiatric assessment were low mood or anxiety (48%) and medically unexplained symptoms or apparent functional or psychogenic disease (21%). The most common diagnoses among those with mental disorder were mood disorders (62%), and neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders, including dissociative (conversion) disorders (28%). Psychiatric diagnosis was not related to gender, neurological diagnosis or psychiatric history.
Individuals with neurological illness demonstrate significant symptoms of a range of mental disorders. There is a need for further research into the characteristics and distribution of mental disorder in individuals with neurological illness, and for the enhancement of integrated psychiatric and neurological services to address the comorbidities demonstrated in this population.
The main objectives were to assess medical students’ opinions about e-learning in psychiatry undergraduate medical education, and to investigate a possible relationship between learning styles and preferences for learning modalities.
During the academic year 2009/2010, all 231 senior Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) medical students in their penultimate year of study were invited to answer a questionnaire that was posted online on Moodle, the RCSI virtual learning environment.
In all, 186 students responded to the questionnaire, a response rate of 80%. Significantly more students stated a preference for live psychiatry tutorials over e-learning lectures. Students considered flexible learning, having the option of viewing material again and the ability to learn at one’s own pace with e-learning lectures, to be more valuable than having faster and easier information retrieval.
Students prefer traditional in-class studying, even when they are offered a rich e-learning environment. Understanding students’ learning styles has been identified as an important element for e-learning development, delivery and instruction, which can lead to improved student performance.
The Mental Health Act 2001 was implemented in 2006 to bring Ireland into line with international practice and United Nations Conventions on Human Rights. Previous studies have reported some practical difficulties for the professionals involved. We wished to examine the experiences of nursing staff and the impact of the Act on clinical nursing practice since its implementation.
This cross-sectional survey was conducted by questionnaire. It contained questions examining training in and attitudes to the Act, and any resultant changes in nursing practise.
A total of 317 questionnaires were returned. Of the nurses, 92% reported having received training in the Act, and 56% of nursing staff believed that their workload had increased as a result of the change in legislation. Of those who made a comment, 76.5% were negative, with increased paper work, lack of clarity and an excessive focus on legalities being the most common difficulties reported.
Nursing staff have shown mixed attitudes to the Mental Health Act 2001, but many of the difficulties encountered are similar to those experienced by other professionals.
Delirium is a common neuropsychiatric syndrome with considerable heterogeneity in clinical profile. Identification of clinical subtypes can allow for more targeted clinical and research efforts. We sought to develop a brief method for clinical subtyping in clinical and research settings.
A multi-site database, including motor symptom assessments conducted in 487 patients from palliative care, adult and old age consultation-liaison psychiatry services was used to document motor activity disturbances as per the Delirium Motor Checklist (DMC). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify the class structure underpinning DMC data and also items for a brief subtyping scale. The concordance of the abbreviated scale was then compared with the original Delirium Motor Subtype Scale (DMSS) in 375 patients having delirium as per the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (4th edition) criteria.
Latent class analysis identified four classes that corresponded closely with the four recognized motor subtypes of delirium. Further, LCA of items (n = 15) that loaded >60% to the model identified four features that reliably identified the classes/subtypes, and these were combined as a brief motor subtyping scale (DMSS-4). There was good concordance for subtype attribution between the original DMSS and the DMSS-4 (κ = 0.63).
The DMSS-4 allows for rapid assessment of clinical subtypes in delirium and has high concordance with the longer and well-validated DMSS. More consistent clinical subtyping in delirium can facilitate better delirium management and more focused research effort.
The Mental Health Act 2001 introduced important reforms of Irish mental health law and services. This paper aims to provide an evidence-based exploration of general practitioners’ views on the implementation of the Mental Health Act 2001.
We posted questionnaires to 1200 general practitioners in Ireland seeking their views on their experiences with the Mental Health Act 2001.
Eight hundred and twenty general practitioners (68.3%) responded. Among those who provided comments, a majority (75.2%) provided negative comments. The most commonly occurring themes related to difficulties with transport of patients to inpatient facilities, form filling, time requirements and administrative matters. Other negative comments related to general practitioner recommendations for involuntary admission, training, mental health tribunals, applications for involuntary admission and the position of children. Minorities provided neutral (18.0%) or positive comments (6.8%), chiefly related to user-friendliness, transparency and improved communication.
General practitioners highlight a need for greater training and clear guidelines in relation to the Mental Health Act 2001. Their forthright responses demonstrate deep engagement with the new legislation and eagerness to see the Mental Health Act 2001 realise its full potential to improve the involuntary admission process and protect human rights, in the best interests of patients.
Experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of weaning age on growth performance, feed intake, feed efficiency (FE) and blood metabolites in Nili-Ravi male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves. Twenty-four male buffalo calves were assigned to one of the three treatment groups: continuous milk feeding (CMF), limited milk feeding (LMF) and early weaning (EW), and weaned off milk at 12, 10 and 8 weeks of age, respectively. For the first 3 days after birth, calves in all three treatments were fed colostrum, and were then moved to individual milk feeding at 10% of BW for the next 6 weeks. Thereafter, the provision of milk to the CMF group was gradually tapered to zero through week 12, using week 6 intakes as a base. The LMF calves were fed milk at 7.5%, 5.0%, 3.5%, and 1.5% of BW during weeks 7 to 10, respectively. Lastly, calves in the EW group were fed milk at 5.0% and 2.5% of BW at weeks 7 and 8, respectively. Calf starter (CS) feed was also provided ad libitum from weeks 2 to 12 and individual intakes were recorded on a daily basis. Blood samples were taken from weeks 6 to 12, on a weekly basis; whereas, the BW, heart girth, withers height and hip width were measured at the start of experiment and later on a weekly basis. Weight gain, average daily gain, and body measurements were the same across all three groups. Milk intake was lower (P < 0.05), whereas CS intake was greater (P < 0.05) in the EW calves compared with the other treatment groups. Dry matter intake was greater (P < 0.05) in the EW and LMF calves compared with the CMF calves. The FE was greater (P < 0.05) in the CMF calves compared with the LMF and EW treatment groups. Blood glucose concentration was similar among the treatments; however, blood urea nitrogen was greater (P < 0.05) in the EW calves compared with the CMF and LMF groups. Plasma concentration of non-esterified fatty acids was higher (P < 0.05) in the EW calves compared with the CMF calves. In light of these results, it is evident that buffalo calves can be successfully weaned as early as 8 weeks of age without negatively affecting their growth performance.
Adjustment disorder has been included in psychiatric classifications for over 40 years but has received little attention from the research community. It is particularly common in consultation liaison psychiatry. Evaluation is problematic since it may be mistaken for major depression, generalised anxiety or non-pathological reactions to stress. Its measurement by structured interview is difficult since it is not included in many instruments and, in others, cannot be diagnosed once the threshold for another disorder is reached. There are few evidence-based treatments and it is possible that these transient reactions may not require any formal intervention. Adjustment disorder generally carries an excellent prognosis but in some individuals is associated with self-harm and suicide.
In this study, we present the implementation of invasive weed optimization (IWO) in the maximization of main-lobe to side-lobe level for the non-uniform planar antenna array. The antenna arrays investigated in this study are generated using the chaos game algorithm (CGA) and shaped into selected fractal geometries chosen on the basis of their interesting performance. This CGA is picked out in order to overcome the limitations found in the fractal arrays. All the attained results are compared with the results produced by a well-known optimization algorithm that is the particle swarm optimization (PSO). In all the optimized arrays, IWO shows superior optimization results compared with PSO.
Sexual dysfunction (SD) is widely recognised as a potential side-effect of antidepressant therapy. SD has been reported with all classes of antidepressants (MAOIs, TCAs, SSRIs, SNRIs and newer antidepressants) in patients with depression and anxiety disorders. Increased attention has been directed at the SD produced by antidepressants; not only because its initial prevalence was underestimated but also because of the adverse impact that these side-effects can have on treatment compliance. Although SD is an important adverse effect of antidepressant medication, patients tend to be reluctant to report them if not directly questioned. This suggests that consideration of the doctor-patient relationship is needed when deciding on an appropriate treatment plan.