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By analysing Anglosphere foreign policy debates during the Syrian Civil War from 2011 to 2019, this book is a significant contribution to the literature in three fields. First, the book analyses the entirety of the Syrian Civil War in an innovative four-phase chronology, as the conflict evolved from calls for democracy, through chemical weapons concerns, to the rise of ISIL and the onset of Great Power proxy war. Second, the book maps and theorises Anglosphere foreign policy, charting the history and future of the US-UK-Australian military alliance during a key period of political uncertainty, defined by Donald Trump's presidency and the UK's Brexit negotiations. Third, the book develops a post-constructivist framework for the analysis of transnational political debates which determine war and peace in Syria and beyond. This framework emphasises the hard nature of soft power and the coercion of political opponents through forceful words.
The eighty-five Federalist essays written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison as 'Publius' to support the ratification of the Constitution in 1787–88 are regarded as the preeminent American contribution to Western political theory. Recently, there have been major developments in scholarship on the Revolutionary and Founding era as well as increased public interest in constitutional matters that make this a propitious moment to reflect on the contributions and complexity of The Federalist. This volume of specially commissioned essays covers the broad scope of 'Publius' work, including historical, political, philosophical, juridical, and moral dimensions. In so doing, they bring the design and arguments of the text into focus for twenty-first century scholars, students, and citizens and show how these diverse treatments of The Federalist are associated with an array of substantive political and constitutional perspectives in our own time.
Responding to the latest developments in rock physics research, this popular reference book has been thoroughly updated while retaining its comprehensive coverage of the fundamental theory, concepts, and laboratory results. It brings together the vast literature from the field to address the relationships between geophysical observations and the underlying physical properties of Earth materials - including water, hydrocarbons, gases, minerals, rocks, ice, magma and methane hydrates. This third edition includes expanded coverage of topics such as effective medium models, viscoelasticity, attenuation, anisotropy, electrical-elastic cross relations, and highlights applications in unconventional reservoirs. Appendices have been enhanced with new materials and properties, while worked examples (supplemented by online datasets and MATLAB® codes) enable readers to implement the workflows and models in practice. This significantly revised edition will continue to be the go-to reference for students and researchers interested in rock physics, near-surface geophysics, seismology, and professionals in the oil and gas industries.
Rapid growth of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) poses a challenge for timely management of this weed. Dose response studies were conducted in 2017 and 2018 under field and greenhouse conditions near Garden City and Manhattan, KS, respectively, to evaluate the efficacy of dicamba to control ≤10 cm, 15 cm, and 30 cm tall-Palmer amaranth that mimics three herbicide application timing: on time application (Day 0), and 1 (Day 1) and 4 days (Day 4) delay. Visual injury rating and reduction in shoot biomass (% of non-treated), and mortality were assessed at four weeks after treatment using a three- and four-parameter log-logistic model, in R software program. Increasing dicamba doses increased A. palmeri control regardless of plant height both in the field and greenhouse studies. The results suggest that delaying application one (15 cm) and four days (30 cm), resulted in a two- and 27-fold increase in the effective dose of dicamba on A. palmeri, respectively, under field conditions. However, in the greenhouse, for the same level of A. palmeri control, more than one- and two-fold increase in dicamba dose, respectively was required. Similarly, the effective dose of dicamba required for 50% reduction in A. palmeri shoot biomass (GR50) increased more than four- and eight-fold or more than one- and two-fold when dicamba application was delayed by one (15 cm) and four days (30 cm), in the field or in the greenhouse, respectively. To understand the basis of increased efficacy of dicamba in controlling early growth stage of A. palmeri, dicamba absorption and translocation studies were conducted. Results indicate a significant reduction in dicamba absorption (7%) and translocation (15%) with increase in A. palmeri height. Therefore, increased absorption and translocation of dicamba results in increased efficacy in improving A. palmeri control at early growth stage.
This chapter presents reflections on next-generation ethical issues by four deans at the University of Southern California: Public Policy, Medicine, Business, and Engineering. Each of the deans was asked to reflect on some of the important ethical issues that they believe we face today or that we will face in the near future. Their responses follow.
In the Retrospective, we turn our methods back on our own book and ask, ‘what are the dilemmas of using the approach we advocate?’ It is an exercise in professional reflexivity as we reflect on the personal dilemmas that we navigated in writing this book. We ask, ‘what are the dilemmas of using our comparative approach?' Also, we impress upon the reader the merits of our approach by summarising the key terms of both the interpretive approach and our comparative interpretive approach. It is a short cut for those who like to skim books before reading them.
We look at how to design a comparative interpretive project and tackle the perennial case selection question. The problem here is one of justifying unorthodox comparison: a lot has been written on comparative case selection from a naturalist perspective, but this language is often an uncomfortable fit for interpretive projects. We argue that case selection is not something that is designed into a project from inception. For interpretive research, it changes as we go. We therefore suggest different strategies of case selection for different phases of a comparative interpretive project. We identify rules of thumb to guide design choices as the project or programme evolves.
We look at the craft of writing. Although we discuss the challenges of writing that confront all social scientists, we focus on the dilemmas of writing up comparative interpretive research – dilemmas which we confront because we speak to a broader range of audiences. In doing so, we highlight the importance of seeing writing as integral to the research process, not something that starts once the research is done. We identify the rules of thumb for writing both linear and evocative narratives and discuss the dilemmas encountered in both approaches.
We explain, and illustrate with examples drawn from our own work, how interpretive researchers analyse comparative data. We argue that a comparative project compounds the uncertainty, confusion and paralysis that can set in when confronted with a 'mountain' of qualitative data. We argue it is not possible to 'somehow capture' this full complexity. We outline and defend the need for a consciously impressionistic orientation to data analysis. Rather than searching for a ‘Eureka!’ moment that confirms or refutes a narrow theory (in naturalist mode) or makes sense of the whole picture (in idiographic mode), a comparative focus on dilemmas enables the use of a kaleidoscope of different analytical lenses and tools to explore complex specificness in context. We outline rules of thumb for helping along the way.
We outline the place of fieldwork in comparative interpretive research. Detailed qualitative fieldwork is central to most interpretive research, but practical guidance on how to navigate the field remains rooted to the idiographic tradition. The presumption is one of sustained immersion in a discrete setting. Interpretive comparison, however, necessarily requires partial immersion across multiple sites in shorter, more interrupted bursts. We call this yo-yoing. Crucially, the researcher must be alert to the surprises and moments of epiphany that can challenge initial assumptions and open new possibilities. We seek here to develop and illustrate key ‘rules of thumb’ that will enable researchers to manage the challenges and maximise the opportunities.
We explain the concept of dilemmas and how they underpin the logic of interpretive comparison. Existing work in interpretive theory refers mainly to ‘Big-D’ dilemmas that focus on ideational conflicts between traditions such as the clash between neoliberalism and state ownership. We add the notion of ‘small-d’ dilemmas that focus on the everyday, the routine and the mundane, choices, ‘court’ politics and realpolitik. We suggest that empirical, comparative, interpretive social science research revolves around the process of identifying the dilemmas that actors experience and the ways they respond to them, and puzzling about whether they vary according to the traditions in which they are situated. We suggest rules of thumb for identifying dilemmas.
We outline briefly the difference between naturalism and humanism before providing a summary of our key concepts of decentring, situated agency and plausible conjectures. In effect, we set the theoretical scene for the rest of the book and the underpinnings for comparative analysis based on dilemmas. We challenge the naturalist mantra of ‘different tools, shared standards’ and provide an alternative account of what constitutes valuable and rigorous interpretive research. We set out a new set of criteria by which interpretive comparative work should be assessed and towards which interpretive comparative researchers ought to strive. We focus on accuracy, openness and aesthetics. We show that not anything goes in comparative interpretive research.
The chapter introduces the idea of creative intuition and interpretation before summarising the book's contents. At the heart of this book is the idea of comparative intuition. People in general, and social scientists in particular, are engaged in ‘constant comparison’. Comparison is what enables us to make sense of events as they unfold across time and space. Interpretive research offers a distinctive approach to the comparative intuition because it consciously offers interpretations of interpretations. This chapter has five substantive sections. First, we outline our basic argument for a consciously and explicitly comparative interpretive approach. Second, we provide a brief summary of the interpretive approach. Third, we seek to justify the rigour and sensitivity of a comparative interpretive orientation. Fourth, we foreshadow in greater depth the structure of the book and detail of its component chapters. Finally, we provide guidance for readers on how to use the book, and in particular on how to combine its insights with those stemming from canonical texts in the field.
Liquid phase analysis dominates the field of blood diagnostics and requires drawing blood volumes of several ml for each test. To achieve acceptable accuracy, each single liquid blood test requires ∼7 mL per blood sample, and repeated blood tests are often needed. Frequent testing ca result in Hospital Acquired Anemia for infants, chronically ill, and critically ill patients. Blood testing methods that can be utilized with small amounts of blood are a critical need to save lives. Theranos claimed to have developed novel methods requiring only a few nL of blood. However, Theranos’ techniques led to errors that exceeded beyond the medically acceptable threshold of 10%. This work investigates solid state blood analysis using low volumes of several µL. The most common blood tests used as first line for diagnostics and monitoring patients’ status, always include blood electrolytes, iron, and in some cases, heavy metals.
The present work investigates the formation of rapidly solidified Homogeneous Thin Solid Films (HTSFs) formed from blood drops, in order to make them suitable for solid state analysis in vacuo and in air. The solidification of ∼5 micro-liter (µL)-sized blood droplets into HTSFs is studied with two goals: achieve reproducible HTSFs optimized for producing accurate analysis, and successfully measure the potential accuracy of measurements made on HTSFs for blood electrolytes Na, K, Mg, Ca, and Cl and heavy metals such as Fe.
The blood volumes selected for this work are in the µL range, one thousandth volumes drawn for current liquid phase analysis. Balanced Saline Solution (BSS) is used as an initial liquid for testing solidification uniformity and a potential calibration material. Next, canine and human blood are studied on two types of HemaDropTM coatings for solidification: super-hydrophilic and hyper-hydrophilic. HTSF formation from BSS and blood drops are compared on both coated and uncoated surfaces.
Three solid state analytical methods are investigated in parallel to probe composition at different depths and test each for reproducibility and accuracy: Ion Beam Analysis (IBA), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The results show that using solid films of blood yields composition, which can be reproducibly measured by IBA, XPS and XRF to varying degrees. XPS’s depth of analysis, limited to ∼5 nm, probes a small fraction of the HTSF, but provides insights into the range of thickness for homogeneous compositions in HTSFs. Statistical and error analysis help establish whether measurements taken in sets of three typically used in lab fall below the medically accepted error threshold (<10%) for each technique and element detected. Measurements are repeated and taken at various locations and on different HTSFs to establish reproducibility. XRF is of particular interest, because it is fast, accurate, portable and can be conducted in air, making it ideal for areas with limited resources.