To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA) can reduce the production efficiency and impair the welfare of cattle, potentially in all production systems. The aim of this study was to characterise measurable postmortem observations from divergently managed intensive beef finishing farms with high rates of concentrate feeding. At the time of slaughter, we obtained samples from 19 to 20 animals on each of 6 beef finishing units (119 animals in total) with diverse feeding practices, which had been subjectively classified as being high risk (three farms) or low risk (three farms) for SARA on the basis of the proportions of barley, silage and straw in the ration. We measured the concentrations of histamine, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lactate and other short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in ruminal fluid, LPS and SCFA in caecal fluid. We also took samples of the ventral blind sac of the rumen for histopathology, immunohistopathology and gene expression. Subjective assessments were made of the presence of lesions on the ruminal wall, the colour of the lining of the ruminal wall and the shape of the ruminal papillae. Almost all variables differed significantly and substantially among farms. Very few pathological changes were detected in any of the rumens examined. The animals on the high-risk diets had lower concentrations of SCFA and higher concentrations of lactate and LPS in the ruminal fluid. Higher LPS concentrations were found in the caecum than the rumen but were not related to the risk status of the farm. The diameters of the stratum granulosum, stratum corneum and of the vasculature of the papillae, and the expression of the gene TLR4 in the ruminal epithelium were all increased on the high-risk farms. The expression of IFN-γ and IL-1β and the counts of cluster of differentiation 3 positive and major histocompatibility complex class two positive cells were lower on the high-risk farms. High among-farm variation and the unbalanced design inherent in this type of study in the field prevented confident assignment of variation in the dependent variables to individual dietary components; however, the CP percentage of the total mixed ration DM was the factor that was most consistently associated with the variables of interest. Despite the strong effect of farm on the measured variables, there was wide inter-animal variation.
To describe relationships among baseline characteristics, engagement indicators and outcomes for rural participants enrolled in SIPsmartER, a behavioural intervention targeting sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake.
A secondary data analysis. Bivariate analyses determined relationships among baseline characteristics (e.g. age, gender, race, education, income), engagement indicators (completion of 6-month health screening, class attendance, call completion) and SSB outcomes (SSB ounce reduction (i.e. US fluid ounces; 1 US fl. oz = 29·57 ml), reduced ≥12 ounces, achieved ≤8 ounce intake). Generalized linear models tested for significant effects of baseline characteristics on engagement indicators and of baseline characteristics and engagement indicators on SSB outcomes.
South-west Virginia, USA, a rural, medically underserved region.
Participants’ (n 155) mean age was 41 years; most were female (81 %), White (91 %) and earned ≤$US 20 000 per annum (61 %).
All final models were significant. Engagement models predicted 12–17 % of variance, with age being a significant predictor in all three models. SSB outcome models explained 5–70 % of variance. Number of classes attended was a significant predictor of SSB ounce reduction (β = −6·12, P < 0·01). Baseline SSB intake significantly predicted SSB ounce reduction (β = −0·90, P < 0·001) and achieved ≤8 ounce intake (β = 0·98, P < 0·05).
The study identifies several participant baseline characteristics that may impact engagement in and outcomes from a community-based intervention targeting SSB intake. Findings suggest greater attendance of SIPsmartER classes is associated with greater reduction in overall SSB intake; yet engagement variables did not predict other outcomes. Findings will inform the future implementation of SIPsmartER and research studies of similar design and intent.
The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
This chapter reviews the systematics of partial melting of mantle lithologies – like peridotite and eclogite – in the presence of carbon dioxide. It discusses the composition of mantle-derived magmas generated in the presence of carbon dioxide and whether magmas erupted on Earth’s surface resemble carbonated magmas from the mantle. It reviews how the production of carbon dioxide-rich magma in the mantle varies as a function of tectonic settings – beneath continents and oceans and in subduction zones – and time.
The Fontan procedure is the final stage of surgical palliation for a single-ventricle circulation. Significant complications are common including rhythm disturbance necessitating implantation of a permanent pacemaker. This has been widely considered a negative prognostic indicator.
This single-centre, retrospective case control study involved all patients who underwent the Fontan procedure at the Leeds Congenital Heart Unit between 1990 and 2015 and have had regular follow-up in Yorkshire and Humber, United Kingdom. 167 Fontan patients were identified of which 2 were excluded for having a pre-procedure pacemaker. Of the remainder, 23 patients required a pacemaker. Outcomes were survival, early and late complications, need for further intervention and oxygen saturation in long-term follow-up.
There was no difference in survival (30-day survival pacemaker 92.6%, sinus rhythm 90.5%, p = 0.66, 1-year pacemaker 11.1%, sinus rhythm 10.1%, p = 1). The pacemaker group was more likely to have cerebral or renal complications in the first-year post-procedure (acute kidney injury: sinus rhythm 0.8%, pacemaker 19.1%, p = 0.002). No difference was observed in longer term complications including protein losing enteropathy (sinus rhythm 3.5%, pacemaker 0% p = 1). There was no difference in saturations between the two groups at follow-up. Paced patients were more likely to have required further intervention, with a higher incidence of cardiopulmonary bypass procedures (sinus rhythm 6.3%, pacemaker 35%, p < 0.001).
Despite an increase in early complications and the need for further interventions, pacemaker requirement does not appear to affect long-term survival following the Fontan procedure.
Maternal mental health during pregnancy and postpartum predicts later emotional and behavioural problems in children. Even though most perinatal mental health problems begin before pregnancy, the consequences of preconception maternal mental health for children's early emotional development have not been prospectively studied.
We used data from two prospective Australian intergenerational cohorts, with 756 women assessed repeatedly for mental health problems before pregnancy between age 13 and 29 years, and during pregnancy and at 1 year postpartum for 1231 subsequent pregnancies. Offspring infant emotional reactivity, an early indicator of differential sensitivity denoting increased risk of emotional problems under adversity, was assessed at 1 year postpartum.
Thirty-seven percent of infants born to mothers with persistent preconception mental health problems were categorised as high in emotional reactivity, compared to 23% born to mothers without preconception history (adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4–3.1). Ante- and postnatal maternal depressive symptoms were similarly associated with infant emotional reactivity, but these perinatal associations reduced somewhat after adjustment for prior exposure. Causal mediation analysis further showed that 88% of the preconception risk was a direct effect, not mediated by perinatal exposure.
Maternal preconception mental health problems predict infant emotional reactivity, independently of maternal perinatal mental health; while associations between perinatal depressive symptoms and infant reactivity are partially explained by prior exposure. Findings suggest that processes shaping early vulnerability for later mental disorders arise well before conception. There is an emerging case for expanding developmental theories and trialling preventive interventions in the years before pregnancy.
We present an extension of Thomson’s (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 210, 1990, pp. 113–153) two-particle Lagrangian stochastic model that is constructed to be consistent with the
law of turbulence. The rate of separation in the new model is reduced relative to the original model with zero skewness in the Eulerian longitudinal relative velocity distribution and is close to recent measurements from direct numerical simulations of homogeneous isotropic turbulence. The rate of separation in the equivalent backwards dispersion model is approximately a factor of 2.9 larger than the forwards dispersion model, a result that is consistent with previous work.
This study examined the effectiveness of a formal postdoctoral education program designed to teach skills in clinical and translational science, using scholar publication rates as a measure of research productivity.
Participants included 70 clinical fellows who were admitted to a master’s or certificate training program in clinical and translational science from 1999 to 2015 and 70 matched control peers. The primary outcomes were the number of publications 5 years post-fellowship matriculation and time to publishing 15 peer-reviewed manuscripts post-matriculation.
Clinical and translational science program graduates published significantly more peer-reviewed manuscripts at 5 years post-matriculation (median 8 vs 5, p=0.041) and had a faster time to publication of 15 peer-reviewed manuscripts (matched hazard ratio = 2.91, p=0.002). Additionally, program graduates’ publications yielded a significantly higher average H-index (11 vs. 7, p=0.013).
These findings support the effectiveness of formal training programs in clinical and translational science by increasing academic productivity.
This study aimed to determine the prevalence and assemblages of Giardia duodenalis present in Scottish beef and dairy cattle at different ages, to try to ascertain if cattle could play a role in the spread of zoonotic assemblages of Giardia. A total of 388 fecal samples (128 beef and 253 dairy, seven of unknown breed) were collected from 19 farms in Scotland. Samples were sub-divided by host age, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, 7–24 and ⩾25 weeks. DNA was extracted and tested by PCR to detect G. duodenalis DNA. Of the 388 samples, 126 tested positive, giving an overall prevalence of 32.5%, with positive samples being observed in all age groups tested. The prevalence in dairy cattle was 44.7% (113/235), which was significantly higher (P < 0.001) than the prevalence in beef cattle 10.1% (13/128). Sequence analysis demonstrated the presence of assemblage E (77.2%, sequence types E-S1–E-S5), assemblage B (18.2%) and assemblage A (sub-assemblages AI-AII) (4.6%). These data demonstrate that G. duodenalis is found routinely in both dairy and beef cattle throughout Scotland; the presence of assemblages A and B also indicates that cattle may play a role in the spread of potentially zoonotic assemblages of Giardia.
VAUGHAN Williams's writings on music cover a period of over sixty years, from his 1897 article in The Musician, ‘The Romantic Movement and Its Results’, to the posthumously published ‘Introduction’ to Classic English Folk Songs in 1959. They include articles published in periodicals, encyclopaedia entries, programme notes, introductions to monographs and editions, and three collections of essays: National Music (based on lectures that Vaughan Williams had given at Bryn Mawr College, Pennsylvania, in 1932), Some Thoughts on Beethoven's Choral Symphony with Writings on Other Musical Subjects, and The Making of Music (based on lectures given at Cornell University in 1954). This substantial body of work reflects the wide range of the composer's musical interests: the art music of the past and present (including his own works), the folk song movement and the social function of music in Britain. As the leading British composer of his generation and a scholar in the field of hymnody and folk music, Vaughan Williams was both an artist and a public intellectual, and his opinions on music undoubtedly carried much weight.
Among the many influences on Vaughan Williams, four stand out in relation to his writings. First, his teachers, particularly Hubert Parry, Charles Villiers Stanford and Maurice Ravel, who, as Byron Adams has shown, refined Vaughan Williams's technique as a composer and did much to shape his views on compositional pedagogy. A second influence was the Folk-Song Society, of which Vaughan Williams was an active member from 1902. His many essays on folk song reflect not only his first-hand experience as a collector, but also his engagement with the views of other leading members of the society, especially Cecil Sharp. A third influence stems from the composer's student days at the Royal College of Music, where he was an active member of a debating society that met on Saturday afternoons. The society considered matters of both musical and wider cultural interest; among the papers Vaughan Williams contributed was ‘The Rise and Fall of the Romantic School’, which was probably the origin of ‘The Romantic Movement and Its Results’. The legacy of this was Vaughan Williams's willingness to discuss his music with close friends and contemporaries, above all Gustav Holst.
Although the pain caused by castration of calves is a significant animal welfare issue for the beef industry, analgesia is not always used for this procedure, largely because of practical limitations associated with injectable forms of pain relief. Novel analgesic formulations have now been developed for livestock to allow topical and buccal administration, offering practical options to improve cattle welfare if shown to be effective. To assess the effects of topical anaesthetic (TA) and buccal meloxicam (BM) on average daily gain (ADG), behaviour and inflammation following surgical castration of beef calves, a total of 50 unweaned bull calves were randomly allocated to: (1) sham castration (SHAM, n=10); (2) surgical castration (C, n=10); (3) surgical castration with pre-operative buccal meloxicam (CBM, n=10); (4) surgical castration with post-operative topical anaesthetic (CTA, n=10); and (5) surgical castration with pre-operative buccal meloxicam and post-operative topical anaesthetic (CBMTA, n=10). Calves were recorded on video for 5 h following treatment and the frequency and duration of specific behaviours displayed by each animal was later observed for 5 min every hour (total of 25 min). Average daily gain was calculated 1, 2 and 6 days following treatment. Scrotal diameter measurements and photographs of wounds were collected from all castrated calves 1, 2 and 6 days following treatment to evaluate inflammation and wound healing. Infrared photographs were used to identify maximum scrotal temperature. Digital photographs were used to visually score wounds on a numerical rating scale of 1 to 5, with signs of inflammation increasing and signs of healing decreasing with progressive scores. Sham castration calves displayed significantly less, and C calves displayed significantly more foot stamps than all other calves (P=0.005). Observations on the duration of time that calves displayed a hypometric ‘stiff gait’ locomotion, indicated that SHAM calves tended to spend no time, C calves tended to spend the greatest time and all other calves tended to spend an intermediate time displaying this behaviour (P=0.06). Maximum scrotal temperatures were lower in CBM and CBMTA calves than C and CTA calves 2 days following treatment (P=0.004). There was no significant effect of treatment on ADG (P=0.7), scrotal diameter (P=0.09) or wound morphology score (P=0.5). These results suggest that TA and BM, alone or in combination, reduced pain and BM reduced inflammation following surgical castration of calves.
The Index of Middle English Prose project was launched at a conference in Cambridge in 1978 on the initiative of A. S. G. Edwards and Derek Brewer. From its inception, the aim of those involved was a publication analogous to Carleton Brown and Rossell H. Robbins's Index of Middle English Verse. But when Brown and Robbins published their seminal volume, more than three decades of manuscript study and indexing lay behind it; the editors, whatever the limitations of their product, had a hands-on knowledge of the materials they presented. At the time when a comparable tool to present Middle English prose was conceived, such work had scarcely begun in this area.
Hence, a number of scholars, working independently, undertook to identify relevant materials on a collection basis. The results of these investigations, a listing of all Middle English prose items uncovered after careful searching, were to be presented in a sequence of stand-alone volumes (or ‘handlists’) published by Boydell & Brewer. The first appeared in 1984, and the present volume is the 23rd in the series. The main body of text in each volume identifies and contextualises, manuscript by manuscript, the Middle English prose material found in a given collection or collections. At the back of the volume are indexes derived from these descriptions, and it is those indexes which will form the basis of the final Index of Middle English Prose.
The IMEP is concerned with material composed between c. 1200 and c. 1500. For the terminus a quo this means as a general rule that if a manuscript is not included in N. R. Ker's Catalogue of MSS Containing Anglo-Saxon, it is considered to be Middle English. In addition we aim to include all later transcriptions of Middle English texts produced before 1750.
There have been adjustments in detail over the years, but the handlists now follow an established format. Each volume contains an introduction with a general account of the history, development and scale of the particular collection or collections described. This is followed by a summary list of the Middle English prose contents of the volume.
The relevant materials discovered in the manuscripts are presented in the order of the shelfmarks of the collection described. Each entry begins with references to published descriptions of the manuscript in question. The Middle English prose items in the manuscript are then numbered and presented in sequential order.