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In 2013, New York State mandated that, during influenza season, unvaccinated healthcare personnel (HCP) wear a surgical mask in areas where patients are typically present. We found that this mandate was associated with increased HCP vaccination and decreased HCP visits to the hospital Workforce Health and Safety Department with respiratory illnesses and laboratory-confirmed influenza.
The creation or restoration of habitat to mitigate biodiversity loss is a common conservation strategy. Evidence-based research via an extensively monitored trial study should be undertaken prior to large-scale implementation to predict success and identify potential limiting factors. We constructed an experimental trial habitat for the threatened green and golden bell frog Litoria aurea, in Australia, to inform a broader programme of compensatory habitat creation. Individuals were released into the trial plot and a nearby natural wetland for comparison to determine if the created habitat would support their growth, survival and persistence. Half of the trial waterbodies were enclosed within an exclusion fence to separate the effects of habitat suitability from ecological processes. We found the habitat provided L. aurea with sufficient resources to grow, survive and persist for 3 years. However, no breeding occurred, and further investigations need to focus on understanding the drivers of reproduction. Although a disease outbreak occurred during the study, persistence continued for the next 2 years. This was attributed to the large number of individuals released, a strategy we recommend for future mitigation strategies to account for low survival and high turnover rates. Dispersal probably affected abundance in the unfenced areas, and landscape-level initiatives are suggested for this species. This study demonstrates that experimental trials are valuable, as they can inform future habitat management by identifying limitations that could hinder success prior to the implementation of large-scale initiatives.
Like so many features of the British Empire, policy for colonial higher education was transformed during the Second World War. In 1945 the Asquith Commission established principles for its development, and in 1948 the Carr–Saunders report recommended the immediate establishment of a university in Malaya to prepare for self-government. This institution grew at a rate that surpassed expectations, but the aspirations of its founders were challenged by lack of resources, the mixed reactions of the Malayan people and the politics of decolonisation. The role of the University of Malaya in engineering a united Malayan nation was hampered by lingering colonial attitudes and ultimately frustrated by differences between Singapore and the Federation. These differences culminated in the university's partition in January 1962. In the end it was the politics of nation-building which moulded the university rather than the other way round.
“Fifty years ago, the name of Chin Peng was feared almost as much as Osama bin Laden is today”. So wrote the Hong Kong-based journalist, Philip Bowring, in 2003. Fifty years ago the British empire, in the view of Field Marshal Montgomery, was locked in a struggle “between the East and West, between Communism and Democracy, between evil and Christianity”. It was a time when Chin Peng was Britain's enemy number one in Southeast Asia. A measure of his importance is the size of the reward offered in May 1952 for his capture: M$250,000 was equivalent to first prize in the Social Welfare Lottery and a huge sum compared with the wage rates of Malayan workers. Chin Peng is Malaya's Ho Chi Minh, but a Ho Chih Minh manqué. Like Ho Chi Minh, Chin Peng was a communist who, having played a key part in local resistance to the Japanese occupation, led the struggle against the post-war restoration of European colonialism. Yet, whereas Ho Chi Minh established the independent Democratic Republic of Vietnam, Chin Peng was thwarted in his attempt to create a socialist state in Malaya. Consequently, while the one became a national hero, the other has been cast out from the land of his birth and until recently has been without a voice in its history. The publication of his memoirs in 2003, however, enables us to reappraise Chin Peng's part in the achievement of Malayan independence.
Rearing pre-weaned calves is one of the most challenging tasks on a dairy farm. Intensively reared calves are typically separated from dams within 24 hours of birth and fed restricted quantities of either whole milk or milk replacer until weaning. In contrast, a calf left with its dam will consume significantly more milk which leads to increased weight gain and improved health (Albright and Arave, 1997). Milk can be provided through ad libitum feeding systems with artificial teats allowing calves to consume more milk than with the traditional, bucket fed system. Milk replacer is a commonly used substitute feedstuff for whole milk on many calf rearing units in the UK. Milk replacers are formulated to meet the nutritional requirements of the pre-weaned calf but typically contain significantly less fat, on a DM basis, than whole milk. The aim of this trial was to investigate the effects of feeding whole milk versus a milk replacer to calves on a cold ad libitum basis on the milk and concentrate feed intakes and liveweights between the groups.
Cornwall (UK) has suffered extensive arsenic contamination due to the historic mining and processing of mineral ores. Standard procedures for contaminated land risk assessment (DEFRA and Environment Agency, 2002a) are probably unworkable in Cornwall, with a very large number of sites classified as contaminated by arsenic. Methods of measuring the speciation and mobility of arsenic are essential for effective and rapid risk assessments of arsenic contamination.
Three clusters of lysimeters were installed in three different areas of an arsenic-contaminated Cornish site. A novel phosphoric acid microwave extraction technique was applied to the soils removed from the lysimeter holes; HPLC-HG-AFS analysis showed the majority of solid-phase arsenic to be arsenate (AsV). Pore waters obtained from the lysimeters showed variable, relatively low levels of arsenite (AsIII) and arsenate (AsV) to be present (<1–129 μg l–1). Less toxic arsenate predominated in most pore waters, with the presence of minor amounts of arsenite suggesting heterogeneous redox conditions. Pore-water arsenic concentrations were strongly positively related to solid-phase arsenate concentrations.
The use of techniques that assess the speciation of arsenic both in the solid and aqueous phases of a soil provides important information about the mobility of arsenic. The methodology presented in this paper may offer a novel basis for risk assessments of other contaminated sites.
Scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) and belongs to a category of incurable diseases that include BSE in cattle. An association exists between the Prion-Protein (PrP) genotype of an animal and the risk of developing disease after exposure (Tongue et al., 2004). This PrP genetic information is the basis of the National Scrapie Plan (NSP) which aims, through genotyping, to eradicate those individuals which have the susceptible alleles. Studies into scrapie risk (Jeffrey et al., 2002) have highlighted several alleles which confer scrapie susceptibility. The NSP have used these alleles to categorise individuals according to risk with group one being most scrapie resistant to group five being least resistant. VRQ alleles are synonymous with infection however the ARQ affords susceptibility but not the disease itself. Genotype may however not be the sole indicator of scrapie risk. There is an inference of a relationship between phenotypic characteristics (hornedness, coat colour) and scrapie risk. These alternative indicators of scrapie risk may affect the final choice of susceptible individuals. Scrapie risk studies carried out on the Shetland Isles (Jeffrey et al., 2002) investigated the alleles concerned with scrapie infection. Results confirmed that VRQ alleles are synonymous with scrapie infection however the ARQ alleles, even though they afford susceptibility, do not necessarily confer disease, the animal still has to be exposed to the scrapie agent. Using survey-type questionnaires, the study investigated any potential relationship between the PrP gene, coat colour and hornedness.
Digital dermatitis is one of the main causes of lameness in dairy cattle, possibly accounting for 25% of the reported cases of lameness (Watson, 1999). With lameness being attributed to reduced milk yields and increased calving intervals there are considerable economic implications and effective treatment and prevention regimes are essential. Topical antibiotic treatment is the most common method of treating digital dermatitis in the UK although there is currently only one product licensed for use (Terramycin spray, Pfizer Animal Health) which contains oxytetracycline. Although effective, there can be various problems (e.g. antibiotic resistance) associated with using antibiotics for the management of digital dermatitis meaning that a suitable prevention regime that uses a non-antibiotic solution instead would be desirable. One possible alternative is sodium chloride solution (salt water) which is hypertonic and would therefore cause the bacterial cells to dehydrate, inhibiting cell growth and multiplication. This trial aimed to investigate the effect of topical application of either oxytetracycline or sodium chloride solution on the pre-washed rear feet of cows for the prevention/treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cattle.
An organizing principle of Britain's pre-war empire was collaboration with indigenous monarchies. Secure on their thrones, they legitimated British rule as well as assisting it in practical ways. While friendly princes were assets, however, uncooperative ones could be liabilities; they might obstruct attempts to exploit their resources or to modernize their governments. After the Second World War, British priorities and strategies changed. With their backs to the wall they switched from supporting princes to accommodating politicians. There was no obvious role for them in new nation-states and in many dependencies indigenous monarchies were swept aside by the onrush of nationalism. Yet in Malaya and Brunei they survived: the rulers of the peninsular Malay states did so by adjusting to political change, whereas the Sultan of Brunei flourished by preventing it.
I should like to start by thanking the Honorary Treasurer for presenting his report for 2002. This time last year he likened 2001 to an annus horribilis and this year has been no better for the financial markets. Notwithstanding world crisis and depression, however, the Society's performance, as the Honorary Treasurer has pointed out, has borne comparison with appropriate benchmarks. I congratulate the Honorary Treasurer on his judicious management of the Society's finances. We have also benefited immensely from the wisdom and experience of the other members of the Finance Committee and Investment Sub-Committee.
At the start of the millennium Council reviewed medals
and prizes and decided to discontinue the Gold Medal
(which had not in any case been awarded for some
time) and establish in its place the Society's
Award. This Award will be made every two or three
years in recognition of outstanding scholarship in
Asian studies. Having considered a number of
tenders, Council commissioned Ms Danuta
Solowiej-Wedderburn to design and cast a medal
bearing versions of two of the original Daniell
images: the elephant and howdah on one side and the
banyan-tree on the other (see John Hansman, “The
Emblems, Medals and Medallists of the Royal Asiatic
Society”, JRAS [1984 Part 1], pp.
99–119. Council approved the nomination of Mr John
M. Gullick, who was recommended by a search
committee (chaired by the Director) to be the first
recipient of the RAS Award. On 10 January 2002 the
President presented the RAS Award for 2001 to Mr
Gullick who replied with a lecture, “An Indian
official in Singapore: Governor Cavanagh
It is a commonplace that European rule contributed both to the consolidation of the nation-states of Southeast Asia and to the aggravation of disputes within them. Since their independence, Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Vietnam have all faced the upheavals of secessionism or irredentism or communalism. Governments have responded to threats of fragmentation by appeals to national ideologies like Sukarno's pancasila (five principles) or Ne Win's ‘Burmese way to socialism’. In attempting to realise unity in diversity, they have paraded a common experience of the struggle for independence from colonial rule as well as a shared commitment to post-colonial modernisation. They have also ruthlessly repressed internal opposition or blamed their problems upon the foreign forces of neocolonialism, world communism, western materialism, and other threats to Asian values. Yet, because its effects were uneven and inconsistent while the reactions to it were varied and frequently equivocal, the part played by colonialism in shaping the affiliations and identities of Southeast Asian peoples was by no means clear-cut.
Writing a history of Southeast Asia as a region presents many challenges: the diversity the region displays in so many fields of human endeavour makes its history exciting but intractable. But if this is true throughout, the period since World War II presents the historian with special problems. By contrast to much of the earlier history, the period is copiously covered in written and printed documents. But they tell only part of the story. The period is, too, relatively recent, so that, in assimilating and analysing the material, it is hard to be sure that the right themes have been chosen. Even determining the date at which to stop is fraught with difficulty. The authors of this part have accepted that their approach must be tentative. At times they must content themselves more with narrative than interpretation.
The period indeed opens with an event the impact of which is still clearly being felt, the Japanese invasion and the collapse of the European empires. This is the subject of Chapter 6. Once more the fortunes of Southeast Asia were profoundly affected by forces outside the region. Once more its peoples reacted in a variety of ways. The colonial regimes were destroyed. In the Japanese phase new social and political opportunities were opened up for some, new constraints placed on others. The economy of the region, damaged in the Great Depression, was profoundly dislocated. Parts of it were fought over, parts not. The attempts of the colonial powers to return were again variously successful. Nationalist movements contended for power. They faced not only returning colonial rulers, but new local rivals. Their success was also partly dependent on the impact of changes outside the region, the decline of British and the rise of US power, the Cold War, the triumph of Chinese communism, the independence of India.
The macromolecular matrix present in the composite shell of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, accounts for less than 1% of the shell by weight but is theorized to play a significant role in controlling the growth, morphology, and orientation of the CaCO3 that makes up the shell. The presence of several proteins in this matrix, only some of which have affinity for calcium, suggests a hierarchical structural model for the shell. Proteins were isolated under denaturing, reducing conditions and separated by centrifugation, gel electrophoresis, and high performance liquid chromatography. The major matrix proteins, both soluble and insoluble, were evaluated for amino acid composition, calcium binding, and glycosylation. Some N-terminal sequence data was collected. Non-proteinaceous components of the matrix were also analyzed. Comparison of the mussel shell matrix with the protein matrix of other molluscan systems suggests that this complexity is not unique to the mussel and may provide a key to the understanding of more generic biomineralization processes necessary for such applications as biomimetic ceramics.