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Central to the conception of this article is the architectural theorist Bernard Tschumi's dictum, ‘There is no architecture without action, no architecture without events, no architecture without program … no architecture without violence.’ Shaped as well by Eyal Weizman's conception of ‘forensic architecture’, the focus of the investigation is on Israel's architecture of security and on the corresponding Palestinian architecture of resistance. Emphasising an encounter of cartographies that reveals the way Palestinians make life livable in response to the architectural violence they face, the analysis is continues with reference to Yari Sharif's analysis of architectures of resistance and with a reading of a feature film, Hany Abu-Assad's Omar (2013) in which the Separation Wall between Israel and Palestine is one of the film's primary agent/protagonists. The article surveys popular culture texts, focused on crime and espionage to analyse a range of security practices and breaches that amplify the analysis with attention to security issues in individual households, multiple-person dwelling arrangements, architectural locations throughout cities, and buildings housing governmental security agencies. That trajectory of architectural sites lends a micropolitical analysis to the macropolitical level of governmental policy and modes of resistance to it.
Introduction: Sepsis remains a major cause of mortality. In the Emergency Department (ED), rapid identification and management of sepsis have been associated with improved outcomes. Following ED assessment, patients with infection may be directly admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), or alternatively admitted to hospital wards or sent home, with risk of future deterioration necessitating ICU admission. Little is known regarding outcomes and costs of ICU sepsis patients who are initially admitted to a ward or discharged home (delayed ICU admission), as compared to those with direct ICU admission from the ED. Methods: We analyzed a prospectively collected registry (2011-2014) of patients admitted to the ICU with a diagnosis of sepsis at two academic hospitals. We included all adult patients with an index ED visit within 72 hours of ICU admission. Patients were categorized into 3 groups: 1) Admitted directly to ICU; 2) Admitted to wards, with ICU admission within 72 hours; and 3) Sent home, with ICU admission within 72 hours. ICU length of stay (LOS) and total costs (both direct and indirect) were recorded. The primary outcome, in-hospital mortality, was analyzed using a multivariable logistic regression model, controlling for confounding variables (including patient sex, comorbidities, and illness severity). Results: 657 ICU patients were included. Of these, 338 (51.4%) were admitted directly from ED to ICU, 246 (37.4%) were initially admitted to the wards, and 73 (11.1%) were initially sent home. In-hospital mortality was lowest amongst patients admitted directly to the ICU (29.5%), as compared to patients admitted to ICU from wards (42.7%), or home (61.6%). Delayed ICU admission was associated with increased odds of mortality (adjusted odds ratio 1.85 [1.24-2.76], P<0.01) and increased median ICU LOS (11 days vs. 4 days, P<0.001). Median total costs were lowest among patients directly admitted to the ICU ($19,924, [Interquartile range [IQR], 10,333-32,387]), as compared to those admitted from wards ($72,155 [IQR, $42,771-122,749]) and those initially sent home ($45,121 [IQR, $19,930-86,843]). Conclusion: Only half of ED sepsis patients ultimately requiring ICU admission within 72 hours of ED arrival are directly admitted to the ICU. Delayed ICU admission is associated with higher mortality, LOS, and costs.
In studies of extragalactic radio sources with multiple compact components the determination of which components, if any, are stationary and which moving is of importance. In order to learn about the radio properties of the individual components it is also relevant to be able to register maps made at several wavelengths. Both tasks are usually not possible with VLBI because of the irrecoverable corruption of the fringe phase introduced by the propagation medium and the instrumentation. However, when two or more compact radio sources are separated by only a small angle from each other difference techniques can be used to help tackle both questions.
Mark III VLBI observations of the pulsars PSR 0329+54 and PSR 1133+16 were made at 2.3 GHz using antennas with diameters and locations as follows: 100m, Effelsberg, West Germany (but only for SPR 0329+54); 43m Green Bank, WV, USA; and 40m, Big Pine, CA, USA. The Mark III processor at the Haystack Observatory was “gated” to compute visibility amplitudes and phases as a function of pulsar longitude. This method allowed a) an improvement of the signal to noise ration, by as much as a factor of ten in the case of PSR 1133+16, and b) an interferometric investigation of the pulse structure.
We have conducted a series of VLBI observations of the gravitational-lens images of the quasar Q0957+561 (Walsh et al., 1979), utilizing the Mark III VLBI data acquisition system (Rogers et al., 1983). The goals of our observations are to (1) map the milliarcsecond structure of the A and B images, (2) detect the predicted third image of the quasar, and (3) determine the time delay between the images. We will use these results to constrain the mass distribution of the lens and, possibly, cosmological constants.
On 1981 March 17–18 we undertook MkIII VLBI observations of the quasars 1038+528 A, B (Owen et al. 1979; Owen et al. 1980) with an array of 7 telescopes operating simultaneously at λ3.6 and λ13 cm with right circular polarization reception at each wavelength. Because the sources are ~33″ apart they could be observed simultaneously at every telescope. Thus the corrupting contributions of the propagation medium and the instrumentation were approximately the same for each of the quasars, hence allowing us to calibrate the structure phase of B with respect to a reference point chosen in the map of A using the expression
where φB and φA are the observed fringe phases, φGB and φGA are the geometric contribution with respect to the reference points chosen in each map and φSA is the structure phase contribution with respect to the reference point chosen in the A map.
A series of VLBI observations of the gravitational lens system 0957+561 at λ13 cm has yielded the positions of the A and B images, the relative magnification of their largest discernible radio structures, and the time variability of their smallest discernible radio structures. These observations have also allowed upper limits to be placed on the flux density of an expected third image. The positions and relative magnification of the A and B images provide new information with which to constrain models of the lens that forms the images. The detection of variations in the flux densities of the cores of A and B suggests that observations at shorter wavelengths may reveal superluminal motion, which may in turn provide a means to measure the relative time delay.
On 1983 May 10–11 we undertook simultaneous λ3.6 and λ13 cm Mark III VLBI observations of the quasars 1038+528 A,B. Our experimental conditions (i.e., synthesized band, uv-coverage, etc.) were almost identical to those we used on 1981 March 17–18. Thus, we could make a direct comparison of the results from both epochs.
VLBI observations at 2.3 GHz of SN1987A on 28 February 1987 yielded no fringes, implying, for an optically thin shell, a lower bound on the (outer) diameter of 1.9 mas. From the comparison of the VLBI and optical results, we infer that the radiosphere of SN1987A was either about equal to, or larger than, the photosphere of the supernova five days after the explosion.
We have used very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) to make twenty-two independent measurements, between September 1984 and December 1986, of the length of the 3900-km baseline between the Mojave site in California and the Haystack/Westford site in Massachusetts. These experiments differ from the typical geodetic VLBI experiments in that a large fraction of observations are obtained at elevation angles between 4° and 10°. Data from these low elevation angles allows the vertical coordinate of site position, and hence the baseline length, to be estimated with greater precision. For the sixteen experiments processed thus far, the weighted root-mean-square scatter of the estimates of the baseline length is 8 mm. We discuss these experiments, the processing of the data, and the resulting baseline length estimates.
The error in VLBI estimates of baseline length caused by unmodelled variations in the propagation path through the atmosphere is greater for longer baselines. We present and discuss series of estimates of baseline lengths obtained using different methods to correct for the propagation delay caused by atmospheric water vapor. The main methods are use of data from a water-vapor radiometer (WVR) and Kalman-filtering of the VLBI data themselves to estimate the propagation delay. Since the longest timespan of WVR data associated with geodetic VLBI experiments was obtained at the Onsala Space Observatory in Sweden, we present results for the following three baselines: (1) Onsala–Wettzell, FRG (920 km), (2) Onsala–Haystack/Westford, MA (5600 km), and (3) Onsala–Owens Valley (7914 km).
On June 1, 1984 we conducted a seven station 18-cm VLBI observation of the 2016+112 gravitational lens system. Preliminary brightness distributions for A and B have been obtained via model fitting. Weak correlated flux density was detected in the C component region.