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We present a broad study of linear, clustered, noble gas puffs irradiated with the frequency doubled (527 nm) Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Pure Ar, Kr, and Xe clustered gas puffs, as well as two mixed-gas puffs consisting of KrAr and XeKrAr gases, make up the targets. Characterization experiments to determine gas-puff density show that varying the experimental parameter gas-delay timing (the delay between gas puff initialization and laser-gas-puff interaction) provides a simple control over the gas-puff density. X-ray emission (>1.4 keV) is studied as a function of gas composition, density, and delay timing. Xe gas puffs produce the strongest peak radiation in the several keV spectral region. The emitted radiation was found to be anisotropic, with smaller X-ray flux observed in the direction perpendicular to both laser beam propagation and polarization directions. The degree of anisotropy is independent of gas target type but increases with photon energy. X-ray spectroscopic measurements estimate plasma parameters and highlight their difference with previous studies. Electron beams with energy in excess of 72 keV are present in the noble gas-puff plasmas and results indicate that Ar plays a key role in their production. A drastic increase in harder X-ray emissions (X-ray flash effect) and multi-MeV electron-beam generation from Xe gas-puff plasma occurred when the laser beam was focused on the front edge of the linear gas puff.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
Mass Spectrometery of Recoiled Ions (MSRI) in combination with time of flight ion and neutral scattering spectrometery (INSS) have been used in a number of laboratories for monitoring and controlling surface elemental composition during thin film growth processing. Pulsed keV ion beams impinge a growing surface at grazing incidence and the recoiled elements and ions which are either scattered (INNS) or recoiled (MSRI) into a forward direction are measured by their time of flight between the surface and an ion detector positioned some tens of cm away. Surface compositions can be inferred by INSS from energy losses of the scattered neutrals or ions. MSRI enables qualitative mass spectrometry from the surface by time of flight reflectron mass spectrometry of the ionized directly recoiled elements.The limitations of these two techniques becomes apparent when trying to devise instrumentation which can provide even semi-quantitative surface analysis at time scales of a few seconds and precisions of a few ppm. The possibilities of alternative but related approaches to rapid surface analysis which may now be possible (given advances in laser and detection technology) will be suggested and discussed.
Background: SMA is a neurodegenerative disease caused by biallelic deletion/mutation of the survival motor neuron (SMN1) gene. In the phase 1 trial (NCT02122952), SMN GRT onasemnogene abeparvovec (AVXS-101) improved outcomes of 15 symptomatic SMA1 patients (3 at a lower dose [cohort 1] and 12 at the proposed therapeutic dose [cohort 2]). This report describes long-term follow-up study design and data from the phase 1 study. Methods: Patients in the phase 1 study could rollover into a long-term follow-up study (NCT03421977). The primary objective is to collect long-term safety data (serious adverse events, hospitalizations, and adverse events of special interest). Annual follow-up will occur for 15 years. Additionally, patient record transfers from local clinician(s) will be requested. Safety assessments include medical history and record review, physical examination, clinical laboratory evaluation, and pulmonary assessments. Efficacy assessments include physical examination to assess developmental milestones. Results: As of September 27, 2018, the oldest patients are 59.2 (cohort 1) and 52.1 (cohort 2) months old and free of permanent ventilation. Preliminary data, including survival and developmental milestones, will be presented. Conclusions: Patients treated with a one-time dose of AVXS-101 continue to gain strength, develop, and achieve new milestones, demonstrating a long-term, durable response.
Background: SMA1 is a neurodegenerative disease caused by bi-allelic survival motor neuron 1 gene (SMN1) deletion/mutation. In the phase 1 study, SMN GRT onasemnogene abeparvovec (AVXS-101) improved outcomes of symptomatic SMA1 patients. We report preliminary data of STR1VE, a pivotal study (NCT03306277) evaluating efficacy and safety of a one-time intravenous AVXS-101 infusion. Methods: STR1VE is a phase 3, multicenter, open-label, single-arm study in SMA1 patients aged <6 months (bi-allelic SMN1 loss, 2xSMN2). Primary outcomes: independent sitting for ≥30 seconds (18 months) and survival (14 months). Secondary outcomes: ability to thrive and ventilatory support (18 months). Exploratory outcomes: CHOP-INTEND and Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development scores. Results: Enrollment is complete with 22 patients dosed. Mean age at symptom onset, genetic diagnosis, and enrollment was 1.9 (0–4.0), 2.1 (0.5–4.0), and 3.7 (0.5–5.9) months. At baseline, no patient required ventilatory/nutritional support, and all exclusively fed by mouth. Mean baseline CHOP-INTEND score was 32.6 (17.0–52.0), which increased 6.9 (-4.0–16.0, n=20), 10.4 (2.0–18.0, n=12), and 11.6 (-3.0–23.0, n=9) points at 1, 2, and 3 months; updates provided at congress. Conclusions: Preliminary data from STR1VE show rapid motor function improvements in SMA1 patients, paralleling phase 1 findings.
Background: SMA is a neurodegenerative disease caused by biallelic deletion/mutation of SMN1. Copies of a similar gene (SMN2) modify disease severity. In a phase 1 study, SMN GRT onasemnogene abeparvovec (AVXS-101) improved outcomes of symptomatic SMA patients with two SMN2 copies (2xSMN2) dosed ≤6 months. Because motor neuron loss can be insidious and disease progression is rapid, early intervention is critical. This study evaluates AVXS-101 in presymptomatic SMA newborns. Methods: SPR1NT is a multicenter, open-label, phase 3 study enrolling ≥27 SMA patients with 2–3xSMN2. Asymptomatic infants ≤6 weeks receive a one-time intravenous AVXS-101 infusion (1.1x1014 vg/kg). Safety and efficacy are assessed through study end (18 [2xSMN2] or 24 months [3xSMN2]). Primary outcomes: independent sitting for ≥30 seconds (18 months [2xSMN2]) or assisted standing (24 months [3xSMN2]). Results: From April–September 2018, 7 infants received AVXS-101 (4 female; 6 with 2xSMN2) at ages 8–37 days. Mean baseline CHOP-INTEND score was 41.7 (n=6), which increased by 6.8, 11.0, 18.0, and 22.5 points at day 14 (n=4), month 1 (n=3), 2 (n=3), and 3 (n=2). Updated data available at the time of the congress will be presented. Conclusions: Preliminary data from SPR1NT show rapid motor function improvements in presymptomatic SMA patients.
The current study examined the pattern of neurocognitive impairments in a community-recruited sample of clinical high-risk (CHR) participants and established relationships with psychosocial functioning.
CHR-participants (n = 108), participants who did not fulfil CHR-criteria (CHR-negatives) (n = 42) as well as a group of healthy controls (HCs) (n = 55) were recruited. CHR-status was assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS) and the Schizophrenia Proneness Instrument, Adult Version (SPI-A). The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia Battery (BACS) as well as tests for emotion recognition, working memory and attention were administered. In addition, role and social functioning as well as premorbid adjustment were assessed.
CHR-participants were significantly impaired on the Symbol-Coding and Token-Motor task and showed a reduction in total BACS-scores. Moreover, CHR-participants were characterised by prolonged response times (RTs) in emotion recognition as well as by reductions in both social and role functioning, GAF and premorbid adjustments compared with HCs. Neurocognitive impairments in emotion recognition accuracy, emotion recognition RT, processing speed and motor speed were associated with several aspects of functioning explaining between 4% and 12% of the variance.
The current data obtained from a community sample of CHR-participants highlight the importance of dysfunctions in motor and processing speed and emotion recognition RT. Moreover, these deficits were found to be related to global, social and role functioning, suggesting that neurocognitive impairments are an important aspect of sub-threshold psychotic experiences and a possible target for therapeutic interventions.
A recent goal of the ANL Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) has been the fabrication of a new enriched uranium target with increased neutron flux (by a factor of 3) which is dimensionally stable under irradiation. Neutron diffraction, using several instruments both at IPNS and MURR, has been used as a probe to characterize the target material vith respect to grain size and preferred orientation. The samples studied were portions of the uranium discs (4" diameter X 1/2" thick) which, when stacked, form the target assembly at IPNS. The old target discs were fabricated as slices from a fast cooled casting (arc-melted, water cooled in a cylindrical mold) and possess small grain size and negligible orientation. The new enriched target discs, on the other hand, are being fabricated from a slow cooled material (graphite book-mold, natural cooling) and, prior to additional treatment, have a large grain size and a high degree of preferred orientation which could produce dimensional changes during fission as the target is used. Our conclusion from this investigation is that a β-phase heat treatment (quench from 730°C) is necessary to produce a finer grain and more nearly random texture in thg new enriched material. Based on our detailed texture measurements the anticipated target lifetime of several years appears feasible.
Multicriteria trajectory optimisation is expected to increase aviation safety, efficiency and environmental compatibility, although neither the theoretical calculation of such optimised trajectories nor their implementation into today’s already safe and efficient air traffic flow management reaches a satisfying level of fidelity. The calibration of the underlying objective functions leading to the virtually best available solution is complicated and hard to identify, since the participating stakeholders are very competitive. Furthermore, operational uncertainties hamper the robust identification of an optimised trajectory. These uncertainties may arise from severe weather conditions or operational changes in the airport management. In this study, the impact of multicriteria optimised free route trajectories on the air traffic flow management is analysed and compared with a validated reference scenario which consists of real flown trajectories during a peak hour of Europe’s complete air traffic in the upper airspace. Therefore, the TOolchain for Multicriteria Aircraft Trajectory Optimisation (TOMATO) is used for both the multicriteria optimisation of txrajectories and the calculation of the reference scenario. First, this paper gives evidence for the validity of the simulation environment TOMATO, by comparison of the integrated reference results with those of the commercial fast-time air traffic optimiser (AirTOp). Second, TOMATO is used for the multicriteria trajectory optimisation, the assessment of the trajectories and the calculation of their integrated impact on the air traffic flow management, which in turn is compared with the reference scenario. Thereby, significant differences between the reference scenario and the optimised scenario can be identified, especially considering the taskload due to frequent altitude changes and rescinded constraints given by waypoints in the reference scenario. The latter and the strong impact of wind direction and wind speed cause wide differences in the patterns of the lateral trajectories in the airspace with significant influence on the airspace capacity and controller’s taskload. With this study, the possibility of a successful 4D free route implementation into Europe’s upper airspace is proven even over central Europe during peak hours, when capacity constraints are already reaching their limits.
A fine-grained, up to 3-m-thick tephra bed in southwestern Saskatchewan, herein named Duncairn tephra (Dt), is derived from an early Pleistocene eruption in the Jemez Mountains volcanic field of New Mexico, requiring a trajectory of northward tephra dispersal of ~1500 km. An unusually low CaO content in its glass shards denies a source in the closer Yellowstone and Heise volcanic fields, whereas a Pleistocene tephra bed (LSMt) in the La Sal Mountains of Utah has a very similar glass chemistry to that of the Dt, supporting a more southerly source. Comprehensive characterization of these two distal tephra beds along with samples collected near the Valles caldera in New Mexico, including grain size, mineral assemblage, major- and trace-element composition of glass and minerals, paleomagnetism, and fission-track dating, justify this correlation. Two glass populations each exist in the Dt and LSMt. The proximal correlative of Dt1 is the plinian Tsankawi Pumice and co-ignimbritic ash of the first ignimbrite (Qbt1g) of the 1.24 Ma Tshirege Member of the Bandelier Tuff. The correlative of Dt2 and LSMt is the co-ignimbritic ash of Qbt2. Mixing of Dt1 and Dt2 probably occurred during northward transport in a jet stream.
When patients feel spiritually supported by staff, we find increased use of hospice and reduced use of aggressive treatments at end of life, yet substantial barriers to staff spiritual care provision still exist. We aimed to study these barriers in a new cultural context and analyzed a new subgroup with “unrealized potential” for improved spiritual care provision: those who are positively inclined toward spiritual care yet do not themselves provide it.
We distributed the Religion and Spirituality in Cancer Care Study via the Middle East Cancer Consortium to physicians and nurses caring for advanced cancer patients. Survey items included how often spiritual care should be provided, how often respondents themselves provide it, and perceived barriers to spiritual care provision.
We had 770 respondents (40% physicians, 60% nurses) from 14 Middle Eastern countries. The results showed that 82% of respondents think staff should provide spiritual care at least occasionally, but 44% provide spiritual care less often than they think they should. In multivariable analysis of respondents who valued spiritual care yet did not themselves provide it to their most recent patients, predictors included low personal sense of being spiritual (p < 0.001) and not having received training (p = 0.02; only 22% received training). How “developed” a country is negatively predicted spiritual care provision (p < 0.001). Self-perceived barriers were quite similar across cultures.
Significance of results
Despite relatively high levels of spiritual care provision, we see a gap between desirability and actual provision. Seeing oneself as not spiritual or only slightly spiritual is a key factor demonstrably associated with not providing spiritual care. Efforts to increase spiritual care provision should target those in favor of spiritual care provision, promoting training that helps participants consider their own spirituality and the role that it plays in their personal and professional lives.
A few Galactic Low Mass X-Ray Binaries (LMXBs) have shown drastically evolving X-ray and/or optical orbital light curves. In two short-period LMXBs, MS 1603+2600 (= UW CrB, Porb = 111 min) and 4U 1916-053 (see e.g. Homer et al. 2001), the variations in the light curve morphology seem to be repeating in a periodic manner. We present first results of a photometric monitoring campaign of MS 1603+2600, showing evidence of a 5-day superorbital period in this yet unclassified source. The observations also unraveled optical flares, reminiscent of type I bursts, suggesting a neutron star primary.
Biofilm has been implicated in bacterial persistence and survival after endoscope reprocessing. In this study, we assessed the impact of different methods of reprocessing on organic residues and viable bacteria after repeated rounds of biofilm formation when each was followed by full reprocessing.
ATS-2015, an artificial test soil containing 5–8 Log10 colony-forming units (CFU) of Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, was used to form biofilm in polytetrafluroethylene channels overnight on 5 successive days. Each successive day, full pump-assisted cleaning using bristle brushes or pull-through devices in combination with enzymatic or nonenzymatic detergents followed by fully automated endoscope reprocessor disinfection using peracetic acid was performed. Residuals were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Destructive testing was used to assess expected cutoffs for adenosine triphosphate (ATP; <200 relative light units), protein (<2 µg/cm2), and viable bacteria count (0 CFU).
Protein residuals were above 2 µg/cm2, but ATP residuals were <200 relative light units for all methods tested. Only when enzymatic cleaner was used for cleaning were there no viable bacteria detected after disinfection irrespective of whether bristle brushes or pull-through devices were used. SEM revealed that some residual debris remained after all reprocessing methods, but more residuals were detected when a nonenzymatic detergent was used.
Surviving E. faecalis and P. aeruginosa were only detected when the non-enzymatic detergent was used, emphasizing the importance of the detergent used for endoscope channel reprocessing. Preventing biofilm formation is critical because not all current reprocessing methods can reliably eliminate viable bacteria within the biofilm matrix.
We present preliminary analysis of new HST observations of the transiting extrasolar planet HD 209458b. Photometric observations were obtained with the Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), providing milli-mag precision and high time resolution (40 Hz). The FGS photometry allows us to derive precise stellar/orbital parameters (ephemeris, inclination, limb darkening) and planetary radius, and also allows a search for the presence of planetary rings and satellites. We discuss preliminary results and two approaches to modelling the observations.
The spatial structure of smooth- and rough-wall boundary layers is examined spectrally at approximately matched friction Reynolds number (
). For each wall condition, temporal and true spatial descriptions of the same flow are available from hot-wire anemometry and high-spatial-range particle image velocimetry, respectively. The results show that over the resolved flow domain, which is limited to a streamwise length of twice the boundary layer thickness, true spatial spectra of smooth-wall streamwise and wall-normal velocity fluctuations agree, to within experimental uncertainty, with those obtained from time series using Taylor’s frozen turbulence hypothesis (Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, vol. 164, 1938, pp. 476–490). The same applies for the streamwise velocity spectra on rough walls. For the wall-normal velocity spectra, however, clear differences are observed between the true spatial and temporally convected spectra. For the rough-wall spectra, a correction is derived to enable accurate prediction of wall-normal velocity length scales from measurements of their time scales, and the implications of this correction are considered. Potential violations to Taylor’s hypothesis in flows above perturbed walls may help to explain conflicting conclusions in the literature regarding the effect of near-wall modifications on outer-region flow. In this regard, all true spatial and corrected spectra presented here indicate structural similarity in the outer region of smooth- and rough-wall flows, providing evidence for Townsend’s wall-similarity hypothesis (The Structure of Turbulent Shear Flow, vol. 1, 1956).
We present a Newtonian, one-dimensional, differential analysis for capillary breakup rheometry (CBR) to determine the surface tension to viscosity ratio
. Our local differential analysis does not require specific assumptions for the axial force to preclude its measurement. Our analysis indicates that measuring gradients in filament curvature is necessary to accurately determine
when axial force is not measured. CBR experiments were performed on five silicone oils (
), three sample volumes, and three strains to evaluate the operating range of the differential analysis and compare its performance to that of a standard integral method from literature. We investigate the role of filament asymmetry, caused mainly by gravity, on the performance of the differential method for the range of conditions studied. Experimental and analytical details for resolving gradients of curvature are also given.