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The morphology and growth habits of Evactinopora species of the Evactinoporidae (new family) are documented. This distinctive family of free-living bryozoans has a radial colony form at all growth stages. During a brief attachment phase on a hard substrate, the colony morphology grew as an expanding cone with vertical folds. Following detachment of the nascent colony from this hard substrate, it settled on soft sediment and the free-living expanding colony acquired a star-like form by producing slender outrigger rays. Continued growth produced a radial array of vertical vanes containing feeding autozooecia. The colony maintained a vertical orientation on soft sediment by means of outrigger rays and secretion of solid skeleton on the colony base that provided ballast. The radial growth pattern, outrigger rays, and vertical vanes developed as adaptive characters suitable for free-living life on soft sediment. North American species of Evactinopora are redefined and described taxonomically on the basis of zoarial and zooecial characters and a new species, Evactinopora mangeri, erected. The new family Evactinoporidae is established on the basis of the novel characters of early colony detachment from a hard surface, radial growth pattern through life, generation of outrigger rays, and growth of vertical vanes from the top of rays.
X-ray microscopy is a field that has developed rapidly in recent years. Two different approaches have been used. Zone plates have been employed to produce focussed beams with sizes as low as 0.07 pm for x-ray energies below 1 keV. Images of biological materials and elemental maps for major and minor low Z have been produced using above and below absorption edge differences. At higher energies collimators and focussing mirrors have been used to make small diameter beams for excitation of characteristic K— or L-x rays of all elements in the periodic
We are engaged in a study of the ash produced by combustion of lignite in a 750-MW power station. The aim is to follow the transport of elements with Z> 16 from the mine, through: a) the combustion process, b) emissionto the atmosphere or c) deposition in a land fill, d) transport in the environment and e) subsequent uptake by animals and humans. The resulting data will be used to estimate potential adverse impact on human health caused by operation of the power station.
We evaluated whether a diagnostic stewardship initiative consisting of ASP preauthorization paired with education could reduce false-positive hospital-onset (HO) Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI).
Single center, quasi-experimental study.
Tertiary academic medical center in Chicago, Illinois.
Adult inpatients were included in the intervention if they were admitted between October 1, 2016, and April 30, 2018, and were eligible for C. difficile preauthorization review. Patients admitted to the stem cell transplant (SCT) unit were not included in the intervention and were therefore considered a contemporaneous noninterventional control group.
The intervention consisted of requiring prescriber attestation that diarrhea has met CDI clinical criteria, ASP preauthorization, and verbal clinician feedback. Data were compared 33 months before and 19 months after implementation. Facility-wide HO-CDI incidence rates (IR) per 10,000 patient days (PD) and standardized infection ratios (SIR) were extracted from hospital infection prevention reports.
During the entire 52 month period, the mean facility-wide HO-CDI-IR was 7.8 per 10,000 PD and the SIR was 0.9 overall. The mean ± SD HO-CDI-IR (8.5 ± 2.0 vs 6.5 ± 2.3; P < .001) and SIR (0.97 ± 0.23 vs 0.78 ± 0.26; P = .015) decreased from baseline during the intervention. Segmented regression models identified significant decreases in HO-CDI-IR (Pstep = .06; Ptrend = .008) and SIR (Pstep = .1; Ptrend = .017) trends concurrent with decreases in oral vancomycin (Pstep < .001; Ptrend < .001). HO-CDI-IR within a noninterventional control unit did not change (Pstep = .125; Ptrend = .115).
A multidisciplinary, multifaceted intervention leveraging clinician education and feedback reduced the HO-CDI-IR and the SIR in select populations. Institutions may consider interventions like ours to reduce false-positive C. difficile NAAT tests.
Melt electrospinning is a facile fabrication technique that can be utilized in the creation of microfibers without the use of solvent and with good control over feature placement. The available thermal energy of the melt electrospinning technique is often only utilized in the formation of the polymer melt but can also be used to thermodynamically drive chemical reactions. In this study, hybrid perovskite microcrystallites are synthesized in the polymer melt and electrospun to form composite microfibers. Unique hybrid perovskite microstructures were studied, elucidating mechanisms of formation at work in the polymer melt.
Bacterial cultures exposed to iron-doped apatite nanoparticles (IDANPs) prior to the introduction of antagonistic viruses experience up to 2.3 times the bacterial destruction observed in control cultures. Maximum antibacterial activity of these bacteria-specific viruses, or phage, occurs after bacterial cultures have been exposed to IDANPs for 1 hr prior to phage introduction, demonstrating that IDANP-assisted phage therapy would not be straight forward, but would instead require controlled time release of IDANPs and phage. These findings motivated the design of an electrospun nanofiber mesh treatment delivery system that allows burst release of IDANPs, followed by slow, consistent release of phage for treatment of topical bacterial infections. IDANPs resemble hydroxyapatite, a biocompatible mineral analogous to the inorganic constituent of mammalian bone, which has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for many biomedical purposes. The composite nanofiber mesh was designed for IDANP-assisted phage therapy treatment of topical wounds and consists of a superficial, rapid release layer of polyethylene oxide (PEO) fibers doped with IDANPs, followed by inner, coaxial polycaprolactone / polyethylene glycol (PCL/PEG) blended polymer fiber layer for slower phage delivery. Our investigations have established that IDANP-doped PEO fibers are effective vehicles for dissemination of IDANPs for bacterial exposure and resultant increased bacterial death by phage. In this work, slower delivery of the phage behind IDANPs was accomplished using coaxial, electrospun fibers composed of PCL/PEG polymer blend.
High-density regions within the spiral arms are expected to have profound effects on passing stars. Understanding of the potential effects on the Earth and our Solar System is dependent on a robust model of arm passage dynamics. Using a novel combination of data, we derive a model of the timings of the Solar System through the spiral arms and the relationship to arm tracers such as methanol masers. This reveals that asteroid/comet impacts are significantly clustered near the spiral arms and within specific locations of an average arm structure. The end-Permian and end-Cretaceous extinctions emerge as being located within a small star-formation region in two different arms. The start of the Solar System, greater than 4.5 Ga, occurs in the same region in a third arm. The model complements geo-chemical data in determining the relative importance of extra-Solar events in the diversification and extinction of life on Earth.
Decreasing the proportion of long forage in mixed diets from 400 to 100 g/kg at constant digestible energy intakes reduces milk fat content by approximately 5 g/kg for every 100 g/kg decrease in hay. This response varies widely and a safe minimum diet composition to maintain approximately 40 g fat/kg milk from Friesian cows in mid-lactation is approximately 450 g long forage/kg or 220 g acid-detergent fibre/kg dry matter. This, however, would reduce milk yields. With barley-based concentrates, milk yield increases as the proportion of hay in the diet is reduced, with the result that the reduction in the yield of fat is less than the fall in its concentration. Milk fat content is higher when ground maize, which is a slowly fermented starch source, or fodder beet or fibrous by-products replace rapidly fermented starch sources such as barley in low-roughage diets. Milk yield, however, is lower. Supplementary fats and oils generally increase milk yield but their effects on milk fat content and yield vary widely.
Increasing the intake of high-concentrate diets of fixed composition increases the yield of milk but reduces its fat content. Increasing the number of meals per 24 h reduces this milk fat depression without affecting milk yield. Thus, advice on milk fat production must take account of the level of intake, the pattern of feeding and the diet composition.
In most situations, the avoidance of low milk fat content requires control of rumen fermentation to prevent high proportions of propionic acid. However, with frequent feeding during the 24 h, high propionic acid in the rumen has less effect on milk fat. It appears that high plasma insulin concentration is the main factor reducing milk fat production.
The release of insulin is stimulated by the peaks of propionate, which are produced after large meals of concentrates but not by the steady supply of propionate associated with frequent feeding.
Available knowledge can permit wide variation in milk fat production by dietary manipulation with reasonable accuracy but the future aim should be for more direct intervention at metabolic control points.
The abundances of Ni, Fe, Cr, Mn, P, Cu, K, Na, Ga, Ge, Se, Zn, S, Br, and C were measured in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected from the Earth's stratosphere. All elements with nebular condensation temperatures lower than Mn, except S, were enriched relative to the most volatile-rich type of meteorite while the refractory elements Cr and Ni were present at chondritic abundances. This element abundance pattern is consistent with nebular condensation, suggesting the IDPs condensed at either a different location or time in the evolving solar nebula than do the meteorites. The enrichments of the major elements C, Na, P, and K exclude the possibility that the volatile enrichment in IDPs results from a minor amount of contamination.
At maintenance at least, the whole tract digestibility of several foods in sheep and cattle is similar, consequently much of the information on the nutritive value of dairy cow foods in food composition tables is derived from studies conducted in sheep. However, Adesogan (1996) reported that in whole-crop wheat (WCW), starch digestibility is higher in sheep than in dairy cows. This study examined the validity of using sheep to model the ruminal degradation of WCW in cows by comparing the degradability of dry matter (DM) and nitrogen (N) of urea-treated WCW in both species.
Winter wheat (cv. Hussar) was harvested at 540 g DM per kg and conserved following urea application at target rates of 20 or 40g/kg DM (WCW2 and WCW4 respectively). The degradability of the forages was examined in dairy cows given 6 kg dairy concentrate and grass silage ad libitum and in wethers given 2.4 kg/day of grass silage supplemented with 0.36kg/day of rolled, mineralized barley.
The Supposed emergence of a New World Order has quickly become one of the cliches of the 1990s. First enunciated by President Bush in the context of US attempts to mobilize international support for the Gulf War, the phrase has already been defined and redefined in countless journalistic analyses of recent events in Eastern Europe, the Gulf itself and lately of course the Soviet Union. This is not the place to add directly to that debate. It is obvious that the world order of the 1990s is very different from the post-1945 order. Briefly expressed, it is constituted by the interplay between, on the one hand, a new but still unequal diffusion of power between the core states of the world (the United States, the European Community [EC], and Japan) and, on the other, a new concentration of power in the hands of international capital.
Ruminant feeding standards in Brazil are generally based on systems developed for temperate regions and there is a serious lack of information on grazed tropical pasture which is the main feedstuff. Signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens) represents half of the total cultivated pastures in Brazil (Miles et al., 1996). This study investigated the intake and digestibility by sheep of signal grass hay cut after re-growths of 28 and 56 days to represent the range used in practice in the Brazilian savanna. Lucerne hay was included as a positive control. The hays were offered at two levels of intake to Santa Ines wether sheep.
The last 4 decades has seen considerable research effort directed towards quantifying the energy requirements of dairy cows. The partitioning of food energy and the efficiencies with which it is used for maintenance (km) and milk production (kl) have been subjected to scrutiny through either individual animal studies or mathematical treatment of data pools, and in consequence several rationing systems have been proposed. Since 1992, CEDAR has undertaken research involving a series of rations fed to lactating Holstein-Friesian cows where energy and nitrogen balances have been conducted simultaneous with gaseous exchange. The purpose of this study was to consider this data in order to establish if either the cows or diets currently being used in the UK have any effect on maintenance metabolizable energy [ME] requirements or the efficiency with which ME is utilised to support milk synthesis.
Whole oil seeds represent an alternative to many commercial rumen-protected fat sources as energy supplements in rations for lactating dairy cows. Rumen protection reduces the potential for negative effects of unsaturated fatty acids on fibre digestion, but the structure of many whole oil seeds are thought to reduce the reactivity of their fat in the rumen. Cotton seed is often imported for inclusion in UK dairy rations, but rape seed represents a home grown oil seed which has potential as an economical fat and protein source in UK dairy rations. However, the seed must be crushed or chemically treated to be digested effectively and crushing may liberate oil to the extent that rumen digestion is altered. In a 20 week lactation study, supplemental fat from rumen-protected fat, cotton seed and rape seed fed at 25 g/kg dry matter (DM) in a grass-silage based total mixed ration (TMR) increased milk yield to a similar extent. However, DM intake was reduced by cotton seed and milk protein was reduced by rumen-protected fat (Reynolds et al., 1998). These responses may reflect alterations in digestive function, thus the objective of the present study, conducted simultaneously to the lactation study, was to evaluate the effects of the same diets on rumen, postrumen and total digestion in lactating dairy cows.
Crushed rapeseed and other oil seeds offer an economical source of fat and protein in diets for lactating dairy cows, but the potential inhibitory effects of their unsaturated fatty acids on fibre digestion in the rumen are a concern. Feeding crushed rapeseed in a grass silage-based ration increased milk yield without affecting intake (Reynolds et al., 1998), and had no measurable effects on rumen or total tract digestion (Reynolds et al., 2000). In a companion study, feeding increasing amounts of ground rapeseed in a maize silage-based ration decreased DM intake at higher levels of inclusion (Reynolds et al., 2002). This effect may reflect metabolic effects of rapeseed fatty acid absorption, or negative effects of rapeseed oil on rumen fermentation and fibre digestion. The present study was conducted simultaneously to the production study to determine the incremental effects of ground rapeseed on rumen, post-rumen and total tract digestion in lactating dairy cows fed maize silage-based rations.
Cellulose and hemicellulose are the major structural carbohydrates present in forages and form between 30 and 60% of the forage component of ruminant diets. The complex network of structural carbohydrates and lignin generally leads to low digestibility and limits the efficient utilisation of forages by ruminants. This situation occurs in both developed and developing countries, and in the latter it is particularly pronounced as much of the forage component is based around the use of crop residues (Owen and Jayasuria, 1989). Because forage costs are significantly lower than those of other dietary ingredients, improving forage quality has been a major objective for many research programmes in both the developed and developing world. Improvements in forage quality have been sort through a number of different strategies. These have included conventional breeding techniques, which have included the integration of mutant genes, leading to the development of Brown Midrib varieties of maize and the use of chemical and biological additives. Enzyme supplements are commonly used to improve the nutritive value of feeds for non ruminants and as silage additives where they have been shown to improve silage fermentation, feed intake and performance. Recent work with ruminants has however focused on the use of enzyme supplements to improve feed efficiency by the use of “direct-fed” fibrolytic enzymes. This strategy involves the application of enzymes to feed at or only hours before feeding. These studies have yielded very variable production responses. For any new technology to be implemented widely, the responses achieved must provide an acceptable level of consistency and predictability. The current paper reviews developments in enzymology, production responses achieved and the effects on nutrient digestion.
A significant proportion of the grass silage fed to lactating dairy cows may be of only modest quality due either to delayed harvesting and/or poor ensiling conditions. In such situations, both total feed intake and milk production are likely to be compromised with the consequent need to feed more concentrates. Part of this effect is considered to be due to the development of a solid mass of digesta in the rumen, with loss of the normal layered or biphasic stratification of rumen contents. Under such conditions, rumen motility, rate of forage digestion and hence voluntary feed intake will be compromised. Mertens (1997) stressed that chemical definition of dietary fibre such as neutral- (NDF) or acid-detergent (ADF) fibre content was an inadequate description of the fibre content of a diet as it affects rumen function and animal performance. Consequently he proposed both effective NDF (eNDF; ability of a feed to replace a roughage with no negative effect on milk fat content) and physically effective NDF (peNDF; a measure of the physical properties of fibre as it stimulates chewing activity and development of the biphasic stratification of rumen contents) as additional descriptors of the physical characteristics of dietary fibre but to date these concepts have attracted limited attention in the UK. This study examined the effect of replacing increasing amounts of grass silage (GS) on a dry matter (DM) basis in a silage:concentrate ration with pressed sugar beet pulp (PP) on various processes of digestion in the rumen of lactating dairy cows, specifically in relation to chewing activity and rumen mat density.
Maize distillers grains (MDG) is a high quality by-product feed containing 317 g crude protein (CP)/kg DM and 13.5 MJ metabolisable energy/kg DM, and as such is a valuable traceable feed resource. An earlier study conducted at the Centre for Dairy Research (Sutton et al. 2000) with cows in late lactation using a total mixed ration (TMR) based on maize silage, compared the protein value of MDG with that of soyabean meal (SB). The study showed that MDG could be used to replace SB on a total nitrogen (TN) basis without effecting feed intake or nutrient digestion in the rumen, or flow of non-ammonia nitrogen to the duodenum. The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of replacing SB with MDG on a TN basis, on DM intake and milk production in high yielding lactating dairy cows.