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This poster reports the isolation of a new, complete sample of 24 faint halo B stars. These B stars were selected as blue- and ultraviolet-excess objects in the US survey at high Galactic latitudes (Usher and Mitchell 1990), and were given preliminary classifications using low-resolution spectrophotometry. The new sample is complete over 206 square degrees of sky to faint magnitude completeness limits in the range B = 16.5 and B = 18.3.
Stromgren color indices for the US B stars have been derived from the spectrophotometry through numerically convolved filters (Howell 1986). The colors have been used to help define the red completeness limit of the sample at (b – y) = −0.01, at the B9.5/A0 classification boundary. In addition, surface gravity and temperature estimates useful for separating the hotter B stars from sdB stars have been provided by atmospheric model fitting to the existing spectra (cf. Saffer et al. 1994).
We have analysed observations of the interstellar extinction in the range 3400 Å–l 1000 Å. The observations have high photometric accuracy and wavelength resolution, and allow a detailed examination of broadband structure as well as the general shape of the wavelength dependence of the extinction curve. The broadband structure has a characteristic size of several hundred ångströms, and may be as important as the diffuse bands in indicating the physical nature of the grains.
We describe our preliminary theoretical interpretation of this broadband structure, and the new observation which it predicts.
A Christian state or mundus Christianus is not easy to define. It is perhaps one where the public, legal and constitutional institutions are “Christian”. (I shall leave to one side for a moment the problem of defining precisely what I mean by Christian.) T. S. Eliot believed that the Christian state was “the Christian Society under the aspect of legislation, public administration, legal tradition and form.” The “state” can refer to the country, nation, society or culture as a whole or, only to the set of governmental institutions within a country. The latter, narrower meaning is the one I wish to adopt here. I shall define the state as “the set of distinctive institutions whose authority is recognised as legally binding within the territory.”
A theocracy is undoubtedly a Christian state, indeed one par excellence. I shall refer to theocracy as a “type 1” Christian state, for here both form and substance coincide. By theocracy I mean the situation where there is ecclesiastical supremacy and the state machinery is used to further particular religious interests. The early Jewish nation, Geneva under Calvin and various Islamic states around to the world today are examples of type 1 states. In this monistic polity, membership of the church (using that as a generic term for a religious organisation) and membership of the state are coterminous. Full rights as a citizen turn upon whether one is member of the church; those outside the church are second-class citizens. But a Christian state need not necessarily be a theocracy.
Postpartum depression (PPD) affects approximately 13% of women and has a negative impact on mother and infant, hence reliable biological tests for early detection of PPD are essential. We aimed to identify robust predictive biomarkers for PPD using peripheral blood gene expression profiles in a hypothesis-free genome-wide study in a high-risk, longitudinal cohort.
We performed a genome-wide association study in a longitudinal discovery cohort comprising 62 women with psychopathology. Gene expression and hormones were measured in the first and third pregnancy trimesters and early postpartum (201 samples). The replication cohort comprised 24 women with third pregnancy trimester gene expression measures. Gene expression was measured on Illumina-Human HT12 v4 microarrays. Plasma estradiol and estriol were measured. Statistical analysis was performed in R.
We identified 116 transcripts differentially expressed between the PPD and euthymic women during the third trimester that allowed prediction of PPD with an accuracy of 88% in both discovery and replication cohorts. Within these transcripts, significant enrichment of transcripts implicated that estrogen signaling was observed and such enrichment was also evident when analysing published gene expression data predicting PPD from a non-risk cohort. While plasma estrogen levels were not different across groups, women with PPD displayed an increased sensitivity to estrogen signaling, confirming the previously proposed hypothesis of increased sex-steroid sensitivity as a susceptibility factor for PPD.
These results suggest that PPD can be robustly predicted in currently euthymic women as early as the third trimester and these findings have implications for predictive testing of high-risk women and prevention and treatment for PPD.
The Miocene Baltoro granite forms a massive plutonic unit within the Karakoram batholith, and is composed of comagmatic monzogranites and leucogranites with a mineralogy consisting of quartz-K-feldspar-plagioclase-biotite ± muscovite ± garnet, with accessory sphene, zircon, monazite and opaques. Geochemically the Baltoro granites are mildly peraluminous, and show a calc-alkaline trend on trace-element normalised diagrams with high LIL/HFS element ratios and negative Nb, P and Ti anomalies. REE are strongly fractionated with little or no Eu anomaly. Leucogranites are depleted in most elements compared to monzogranites with notable exceptions being Rb, K and the HREEs. Initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios are 0·7072-0·7128, considerably lower than High Himalayan leucogranites (0·74-0·79), and are indicative of a lower continental crust source. The probable petrogenesis of the Baltoro granite involves dehydration melting of a biotite-rich pelite to produce a voluminous, hot, water-undersaturated magma which could then separate from its source and intrude through an already thickened and still hot crust. Fractional crystallisation of the monzogranites produced the leucogranites and a pegmatite dyke swarm. A suite of lamprophyre dykes including amphibolerich vogesites and biotite-rich minettes intrude the country rock, dominantly to the north, around the Baltoro granite. These calc-alkaline shoshonitic lamprophyres are volatile-rich mantle-derived melts intruded around the same time as the granite, indicating simultaneous melting of the mantle and lower crust beneath the Karakoram during the Miocene, approximately 30 Ma after the India-Asia collision which initially caused the crustal thickening. Intrusion of mantle melts provided heat to promote crustal melting and may have selectively contaminated the granite magma.
The Baltoro granite intrudes sillimanite gneisses with melt pods along the southern margin indicating temperatures above 700°C at the time of intrusion. Locally, internal fabrics and numerous aligned xenoliths along the southern margin in the Biafo glacier region indicate steep, southward-directed thrusting during emplacement. Along the northern contact, the Baltoro granite intrudes anchimetamorphic to greenschist facies metasedimentary rocks with an andalusite-bearing contact aureole. Northward-directed culmination collapse normal faulting during Miocene emplacement is inferred, in order to explain the P-T differences either side of the pluton. This also provided an extensional stress regime in the upper crust to accommodate the rising magma.
Commercial silicone rubbers typically contain submicron particles dispersed within them, the particles being responsible for the mechanical properties required for commercial success. Fumed silica has long been used for the reinforcement of higher-perfomance silicone rubber compositions, but high-porosity aerogels can function as well. The object of the work here was to compare the state of dispersion of some high-porosity aerogels with that of a fumed silica.
Model silicone HCR (“heat-cured rubber”) compositions were prepared, and their mechanical properties characterized. Thin sections of the rubbers were then examined by TEM.
Much of the fumed silica had been dispersed to give sub-micron sized features, although a number of larger features were present. The hydrophobic aerogel, in contrast, had been dispersed to give even finer features in the rubber, with very few super-micron fragments. The state of dispersion of the hydrophilic aerogel was quite different, showing many poorly-broken down large fragments up to 5 µm or more in diameter. The visual appearance of the compound reflected this poorer state of dispersion.
Using high energy rare gas ion sputtering of metal targets, we are able to produce nanoamps of mass selected transition metal clusters. Mono-sized cluster ions are deposited at low kinetic energy upon substrates, e.g. silica or carbon, and are then characterized using UV and x-ray photoemission. In this paper we will discuss photoemission measurements of the 4f7/2 core level energies of Au (1–5,7 atom samples) clusters deposited on silica. From such studies we are beginning to understand how electronic structure, cluster stability and mobility depend on (deposited) cluster size, surface coverage, and substrate temperature.
Semiconductor technology has reached a point in its evolution where the package now plays an important role in the overall performance of the device. In MEMs devices, the package is often more than 75% of the cost and has a significant impact in the overall size. Through wafer interconnects allow for advanced 3-D packaging schemes. Additional miniaturization, increased interconnection density, and higher performance is possible by stacking die with through wafer interconnects. Key technologies for creating TWIs are the ability to create a via through the silicon wafer, dielectric isolation of the via metal from the substrate, and filling or coating the via with a conducting material. Through wafer interconnects have been demonstrated in silicon wafers. The process to create TWIs has been optimized. The TWI has been tested electrically and proven reliable. TWIs were incorporated into an active device wafer and a two die stack connected through solder bump technology. In current work, specific applications which take advantage of the benefits of TWI's are being explored including 3-D inductors, unique sensor packages and MEMs applications.
A method of radiation dosimetry based upon the radiophotoluminescence (RPL) of synthetic diamond crystals is presented. When the RPL is generated by a stimulation wavelength of 296 nm a linear response vs radiation dose of up to 20 kGy can be obtained with selected crystals. The response is very dependent on the chemistry of the synthesized specimen.
BPDA-PDA poly(amic acid) precursor was functionalized through its carboxylic acid groups being linked with a crosslinkable aminoalkyl methacrylate, 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEM), by acid/base complexation. BPDA-PDA polyimide films, which were thermally imidized from the precursors complexed with various amounts of DMAEM, were characterized by means of wide angle x-ray diffraction, stress-strain analysis, and residual stress analysis. The structure and properties of the BPDA-PDA polyimide film were dependent upon the history of the precursor, that is, the complexation of the poly(amic acid) precursor with DMAEM. The molecular packing order was enhanced with the history of DMAEM loading while the molecular order along the chain axis was disrupted. Overall, physical properties, such as mechanical properties and residual stress, were degraded with DMAEM loading. The moisture induced stress relaxation behavior was sensitive to the history of DMAEM loading, whereas the creep induced stress relaxation was varied little due to its high Tg. These properties are understood in terms of structure/property relationships, as well as microvoids, which were possibly generated by outgassing the bulky DMAEM pendent groups during thermal imidization.
Poly(p-xylylene) (also known as parylene N) has previously been used to pore seal ultralow k (≤ 2.2) (ULK) dielectrics. The parylene polymers may facilitate the integration of ULK dielectrics by: substantially improving their fracture toughness, hermetically sealing the pores, being able to use standard wet chemical cleans, and minimally impacting the observed dielectric constant, while minimally disrupting current process flow integrations. This paper introduces a new cross-linkable polymer that is deposited using thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on the same tool that is used for parylene N deposition. The polymer, poly(ethynyl-p-xylylene) (parylene X), was deposited at room temperature. A series of 30 min post-deposition anneals in helium shows that the deposited material cross-linked between 200°C and 300°C with full conversion at 380°C for a ~300 A film. After the low molecular weight species out-gassed during anneals at 200°C, there was less than a percent weight loss to 450°C with no change in the optical constants and no optical loss. Previous work with poly(ethyl-p-xylylene) suggests that the dielectric constant of parylene X will be significantly lower than parylene N.
The general topic of legal claims against any foreign nation for debts owed to other nations raises an exceptionally long and involved list of intricate and complex issues from susceptibility to lawsuits, to jurisdiction, to potential defenses, to enforcement of judgments, and numerous associated matters. Similarly, the topic cannot avoid the possible significance related to distinguishing between claimants that are governments and those that are private individuals or legal entities, as well as the practical ramifications that emerge from the existence and location of assets from which any successfully sought judgment may be satisfied. Similarly, there are the questions of whether the relief desired is to proceed from an adjudicative- or arbitral-type process and whether such a process is to (or must) take place before an international or national tribunal.
Broadly speaking, whenever one foreign sovereign owes a form of debt to another sovereign, the traditional mechanism of diplomacy is most often employed to secure payment. When not completely efficacious, the creditor nation may resort to alternatives to seek satisfaction, including various types of internationally mediated, arbitrated, or adjudicated claim-resolution processes. Clearly, a substantial portion of the debts claimed by one foreign sovereign against another involve debts with their fundamental origins in obligations owed by the creditor sovereign to private individuals or private legal entities considered nationals of the foreign sovereign advancing the claim. This is because most often, the rules of international law are viewed as speaking not to nationals but rather to the nation-states that protect and represent them.
As discussed in Chapter 6, oil and gas contractual arrangements can be categorized according to whether they were entered into before or after 1992, whether before or after the removal of Saddam Hussein from power in Spring 2003, or before or after the transfer of governmental power in June 2004 by the CPA to indigenous Iraqi elements. It is clear from the language of article 141 of the Iraqi Constitution and article 54 of the 2007 KRG oil and gas law (No. 22) that the timing of any such arrangements can be consequential. When it comes to the oil and gas assets that a prosecuting claimant may seek in order to secure satisfaction for debts considered to be owed by Iraq, they also may fall into several distinct categories. Generally speaking, although not based on date, those categories include specific oil and gas properties subject to negotiated contract rights, in-kind oil and gas actually lifted from Iraqi fields and in the hands of Iraqis or third parties, and revenues generated by the sale of Iraqi oil and gas and held by Iraqi or third-party entities or institutions.
It will be recalled that article 54 of the KRG oil and gas law (No. 22) has two paragraphs, which provide that: (1) PSC-related agreements entered into by the KRG prior to the law's adoption must undergo review by the Regional Council to ensure consistency with the provisions of the new law; and (2) similarly dated authorizations and MOUs related to oil and gas are to be regarded as null and void. The first paragraph of the article also provides that Regional Council decisions about consistency of reviewed agreements are considered final. It was discussed previously that article 141 of the Iraqi Constitution declares that the KRG is vested with the authority to amend or annul contracts that it had entered into since 1992, as long as it is done consistently with other provisions of the Constitution. That article also declares all such KRG contracts not amended or annulled to be valid and fully in force.
Imagine an enterprise that had negotiated and successfully concluded sometime after 1992 – and most probably after Saddam Hussein's ouster in 2003, when the KRG was at much greater liberty to assert a more extensive form of civic autonomy – a contractual arrangement with the KRG concerning oil and gas situated in the Kurdistan Region.
When determining the lessons learned from the experience of insulating Iraqi oil and gas assets from claims by creditors – and the extent to which those lessons are transferable to other instances of debt owed by resource-rich nations – it is imperative to be aware of the enormous diversity of situations and circumstances that may exist. There are basic lessons from the Iraqi case that are generally applicable to a host of other comparable cases. Comment will be made on many of these in the pages that follow in this chapter. At the same time, however, recall that the Iraqi situation is somewhat unique.
For starters, the resource with which Iraq is rich is essential to the functioning of the fundamental elements of modern society. At some point in the near future, there is likely to be a shift toward greater dependence on renewable sources of energy to power the wheels of commerce and transportation. At present, the world remains largely dependent on fossil fuels and, when it comes to assuring rapid personal mobility, the dependence on such is total. Additionally, Iraq is situated in one of the world's principal international political hotbeds. The Arab–Israeli crisis has confounded and bedeviled the world community for the past half-century.
In the preceding parts of this study, attention is focused on two distinct matters. First, describing the current factual situation regarding the $50 billion to $70 billion of potential outstanding claims against Iraq (as modified by the late 2009 Chinese debt-for-oil agreement, and any possible others not receiving extensive coverage by the new media) and assessing the argument that such claims remain beyond recovery under the theory of “odious debt.” And second, summarizing the controlling legal principles affirmed and extended in Security Council resolution 1905 (December 21, 2009), and its immediate predecessors, resolutions 1859 and 1790 as well as those set forth in article 141 of the Iraqi Constitution and article 54 of the KRG oil and gas law (No. 22) – all of which aim to establish on the international and domestic Iraqi level a measure of legal insulation from claims associated with oil and gas activity in that country. Part Three builds on the preceding chapters by mining more deeply and offering an examination and analysis of several specific legal issues that will certainly emerge and prove especially nettlesome in the context of pursuing claims for debt recovery related to oil and gas activities. The previous discussion about resolutions 1905, 1859, and 1790, and articles 141 and 54 illuminates the background concerning relevant legal considerations. However, only in sedulously critiquing what those relevant legal provisions decree in the context of specific factual situations can a more complete understanding of the precise dimensions and implications of the law be approached.
This volume presents the first comprehensive examination of the legal issues surrounding international debt recovery on claims against Iraqi oil and gas. In addition to presenting a snapshot view of Iraq's outstanding debt obligations and an analysis of the significance of the theory of odious debt in the context of the Iraqi situation, the list of legal issues examined includes relevant provisions of the Iraqi Constitution of 2005, controlling Security Council resolutions, pertinent articles of the KRG oil and gas law (No. 22) of 2007 and the many nuanced and technical questions raised thereby, legal pronouncements aimed at protecting Iraqi oil and gas and those adopted in selected other nations, and general problems associated with recognition and enforcement of awards or judgments that may involve such oil and gas or revenues from the sale thereof. Also discussed are the lessons learned by the handling of the Iraq debt experience and the transferability of those lessons to future situations.