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Alexithymia (difficulties in identifying and describing emotion) is a transdiagnostic trait implicated in social–emotional and mental health problems in the general population. Many autistic individuals experience significant social-communication difficulties and elevated anxiety/depression and alexithymia. Nevertheless, the role of alexithymia in explaining individual variability in the quality/severity of social-communication difficulties and/or anxiety and depression symptoms in autism remains poorly understood.
In total, 337 adolescents and adults (autism N = 179) were assessed for alexithymia on the Toronto Alexithymia Scale and for social-communication difficulties, anxiety and depression symptoms. A total of 135 individuals (autism N = 76) were followed up 12–24 months later. We used regression models to establish cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between alexithymia, social-communication difficulties, anxiety and depression symptoms.
Autistic individuals reported significantly higher alexithymia than comparison individuals (p < 0.001, r effect size = 0.48), with 47.3% of autistic females and 21.0% of autistic males meeting cut-off for clinically relevant alexithymia (score ⩾61). Difficulties in describing feelings were particularly associated with current self-reported social-communication difficulties [p < 0.001, β = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.44–0.67] and predicted later social-communication difficulties (p = 0.02, β = 0.43, 95% CI 0.07–0.82). Difficulties in identifying feelings were particularly associated with current anxiety symptom severity (p < 0.001, β = 0.54, 95% CI 0.41–0.77) and predicted later anxiety (p = 0.01; β = 0.31, 95% CI 0.08–0.62).
Our findings suggest that difficulties in identifying v. describing emotion are associated with differential clinical outcomes in autism. Psychological therapies targeting emotional awareness may improve social-communication and anxiety symptoms in autism, potentially conferring long-term benefits.
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are an important cause of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in human hospitals. The Philadelphia Department of Public Health (PDPH) made CRE reportable in April 2018. In May 2019, the Matthew J. Ryan Veterinary Hospital (MJRVH) reported an NDM-5 Escherichia coli cluster in companion animals to the PDPH. In total, 15 infected animals (14 dogs and 1 cat) were reported between July 2018 and June 2019, with no new infections after June 2019. Limited literature is available on the prevalence of CRE in companion animals, and recommendations for dealing with CRE infections currently target human healthcare settings. Methods: A collaborative containment response included assessing interspecies transmission to veterinary staff and a comprehensive evaluation of the infection control program at MJRVH. MJRVH notified all owners of affected animals verbally and via notification letters with PDPH recommendations for CRE colonization screening of high-risk individuals. CRE screening of exposed high-risk employees was conducted by the University of Pennsylvania Occupational Health service and PDPH. Human rectal swabs were analyzed at the Antibiotic Resistance Laboratory Network (ARLN) Maryland Laboratory. PDPH were invited to conduct an onsite infection control assessment and to suggest improvements. Results: No pet owners self-identified in high-risk groups to be screened. In total, 10 high-risk staff were screened, and no colonized individuals were detected. Recommendations made by the PDPH to MJRVH included improvement of infection prevention and control policies (eg, consolidation of the infection control manual and identification of lead staff member), improvement in hand hygiene (HH) compliance (eg, increasing amount of HH supplies), improvement of environment of care (eg, decluttering and evaluation of mulched animal relief area), and improvement of respiratory care processes (eg, standardization of care policies). MJRVH made substantial improvements across recommendation areas including revision of infection control manual, creation of a full-time infection preventionist position, individual alcohol hand sanitizers for patient cages, and environmental decluttering and decontamination. PDPH and MJRVH maintained frequent communication about infection control improvements. Conclusions: No positive transmission to high-risk staff members suggest that, like in human healthcare facilities, transmission of CRE to caretakers may not be a common event. Stronger communication and collaboration is required from Departments of Public Health (DPH) to the veterinary profession regarding the reporting requirements of emerging pathogens such as CRE. Veterinary facilities should view DPH as a valuable resource for recommendations to fill in gaps that exist in infection control “best practices,” particularly for novel pathogens in veterinary settings.
Disclosures: Jane M. Gould reports that her spouse receives salary from Incyte.
The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has necessitated rapid alterations to diagnostic pathways for head and neck cancer patients that aim to reduce risk to patients (exposure to the hospital environment) and staff (aerosol-generating procedures). Transoral fine needle aspiration cytology offers a low-risk means of rapidly diagnosing patients with oral cavity or oropharyngeal lesions. The technique was utilised in selected patients at our institution during the pandemic. The outcomes are considered in this study.
Diagnostic outcomes were retrospectively evaluated for a series of patients undergoing transoral fine needle aspiration cytology of oral cavity and oropharyngeal lesions during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Five patients underwent transoral fine needle aspiration cytology, yielding lesional material in 100 per cent, with cell blocks providing additional information. In one case, excision biopsy of a lymphoproliferative lesion was required for final diagnosis.
Transoral fine needle aspiration cytology can provide rapid diagnosis in patients with oral cavity and oropharyngeal lesions. Whilst limitations exist (including tolerability and lesion location), the technique offers significant advantages pertinent to the COVID-19 era, and could be employed in the future to obviate diagnostic surgery in selected patients.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The objective of this study was to determine if trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) alone could acutely alter cardiac contractile function on a beat-to-beat basis. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: CD1 adult mouse hearts were extracted, attached to a force transducer, oxygenated, and paced within an organ bath. Changes in contractility were measured after pipetting or reverse perfusing TMAO through the aorta via a modified Langendorff apparatus to facilitate TMAO delivery into the myocardium. To determine if our findings translated to the human heart, we performed contractility experiments using human right atrial appendage biopsy tissue retrieved during cardiopulmonary bypass procedures. To investigate whether TMAO alters contractile rate, in a separate series of experiments, the atria and sinoatrial node of isolated hearts were kept intact to allow for spontaneous beating without artificial pacing and were treated with TMAO or vehicle. In addition, intracellular calcium measurements were performed on spontaneously beating embryonic rat cardiomyocytes after TMAO or vehicle treatment. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We found acute exposure to TMAO, diluted into the organ bath, increased average contraction amplitude 20% and 41% at 300 µM and 3000 µM, respectively (p<0.05, n=6). Langendorff reverse perfusion of mouse hearts ex vivo with 300 µM TMAO generated an even greater response than nonperfusion peripheral exposure and increased isometric force 32% (p<0.05, n=3). Consistent with what we observed in mouse hearts, incubation of human atrial muscle tissue with TMAO at 3000 µM increased isometric tension 31% compared with vehicle (p<0.05, n=4). TMAO treatment (3000 µM) also increased average beating frequency of ex vivo mouse hearts by 27% compared with vehicle (p<0.05, n=3) and increased the spontaneous beating frequency of primary rat cardiomyocytes by 13% compared with vehicle treatment (p<0.05, n=4). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: TMAO, at pathological concentrations, directly increases the force and rate of cardiac contractility. Initially, these inotropic and chronotropic effects may be adaptive during CKD; however, chronic increases in isometric tension and beating frequency can promote cardiac remodeling and heart failure. Further translational studies are needed to understand the intricate relationship between the microbiome, kidneys, and heart and to examine if TMAO represents a therapeutic target for reducing cardiovascular mortality in CKD patients.
Multi-layer reconstruction has become standard in endoscopic skull base surgery. The inlay component used can vary among autografts, allografts, xenografts and synthetics, primarily based on surgeon preference. The short- and long-term outcomes of collagen matrix in skull base reconstruction are described.
A case series of patients who underwent endoscopic skull base reconstruction with collagen matrix inlay were assessed. Immediate peri-operative outcomes (cerebrospinal fluid leak, meningitis, ventriculitis, intracranial bleeding, epistaxis, seizures) and delayed complications (delayed healing, meningoencephalocele, prolapse of reconstruction, delayed cerebrospinal fluid leak, ascending meningitis) were examined.
Of 120 patients (51.0 ± 17.5 years, 41.7 per cent female), peri-operative complications totalled 12.7 per cent (cerebrospinal fluid leak, 3.3 per cent; meningitis, 3.3 per cent; other intracranial infections, 2.5 per cent; intracranial bleeding, 1.7 per cent; epistaxis, 1.7 per cent; and seizures, 0 per cent). Delayed complications did not occur in any patients.
Collagen matrix is an effective inlay material. It provides robust long-term separation between sinus and cranial cavities, and avoids donor site morbidity, but carries additional cost.
Although specific phobia is highly prevalent, associated with impairment, and an important risk factor for the development of other mental disorders, cross-national epidemiological data are scarce, especially from low- and middle-income countries. This paper presents epidemiological data from 22 low-, lower-middle-, upper-middle- and high-income countries.
Data came from 25 representative population-based surveys conducted in 22 countries (2001–2011) as part of the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys initiative (n = 124 902). The presence of specific phobia as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition was evaluated using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview.
The cross-national lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates of specific phobia were, respectively, 7.4% and 5.5%, being higher in females (9.8 and 7.7%) than in males (4.9% and 3.3%) and higher in high- and higher-middle-income countries than in low-/lower-middle-income countries. The median age of onset was young (8 years). Of the 12-month patients, 18.7% reported severe role impairment (13.3–21.9% across income groups) and 23.1% reported any treatment (9.6–30.1% across income groups). Lifetime co-morbidity was observed in 60.5% of those with lifetime specific phobia, with the onset of specific phobia preceding the other disorder in most cases (72.6%). Interestingly, rates of impairment, treatment use and co-morbidity increased with the number of fear subtypes.
Specific phobia is common and associated with impairment in a considerable percentage of cases. Importantly, specific phobia often precedes the onset of other mental disorders, making it a possible early-life indicator of psychopathology vulnerability.
Sarcoma of the head and neck is a rare condition that poses significant challenges in management and often requires radical multimodality treatment.
This study aimed to analyse current clinical presentation, evaluation, management dilemmas and oncological outcomes.
Computer records and case notes were analysed, and 39 patients were identified. Variables were compared using Pearson's chi-square test and the log-rank test, while survival outcomes were calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method.
The histopathological diagnosis was Kaposi sarcoma in 20.5 per cent of cases, chondrosarcoma in 15.3 per cent and osteosarcoma in 10.2 per cent. A range of other sarcomas were diagnosed in the remaining patients. The site of disease was most commonly sinonasal, followed by the oral cavity and larynx.
Wide local excision with clear resection margins is essential to achieve local control and long-term survival. There is a need for cross-specialty collaboration in order to accrue the evidence which will be necessary to improve long-term outcomes.
In late 2011 the New Zealand Ministry for Primary Industries reported an increase in confirmed laboratory diagnoses of salmonellosis in dairy herds. To identify risk factors for herd-level outbreaks of salmonellosis we conducted a case-control study of New Zealand dairy herds in 2011–2012. In a multivariable analysis, use of continuous feed troughs [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 6·2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·0–20], use of pelletized magnesium supplements (aOR 10, 95% CI 3·3–33) and use of palm kernel meal as a supplementary feed (aOR 8·7, 95% CI 2·5–30) were positively associated with a herd-level outbreak of salmonellosis between 1 July 2011 and 31 January 2012. We conclude that supplementary feeds used on dairy farms (regardless of type) need to be stored and handled appropriately to reduce the likelihood of bacterial contamination, particularly from birds and rodents. Magnesium supplementation in the pelletized form played a role in triggering outbreaks of acute salmonellosis in New Zealand dairy herds in 2011–2012.
To examine cross-national patterns and correlates of lifetime and 12-month comorbid DSM-IV anxiety disorders among people with lifetime and 12-month DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD).
Nationally or regionally representative epidemiological interviews were administered to 74 045 adults in 27 surveys across 24 countries in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. DSM-IV MDD, a wide range of comorbid DSM-IV anxiety disorders, and a number of correlates were assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI).
45.7% of respondents with lifetime MDD (32.0–46.5% inter-quartile range (IQR) across surveys) had one of more lifetime anxiety disorders. A slightly higher proportion of respondents with 12-month MDD had lifetime anxiety disorders (51.7%, 37.8–54.0% IQR) and only slightly lower proportions of respondents with 12-month MDD had 12-month anxiety disorders (41.6%, 29.9–47.2% IQR). Two-thirds (68%) of respondents with lifetime comorbid anxiety disorders and MDD reported an earlier age-of-onset (AOO) of their first anxiety disorder than their MDD, while 13.5% reported an earlier AOO of MDD and the remaining 18.5% reported the same AOO of both disorders. Women and previously married people had consistently elevated rates of lifetime and 12-month MDD as well as comorbid anxiety disorders. Consistently higher proportions of respondents with 12-month anxious than non-anxious MDD reported severe role impairment (64.4 v. 46.0%; χ21 = 187.0, p < 0.001) and suicide ideation (19.5 v. 8.9%; χ21 = 71.6, p < 0.001). Significantly more respondents with 12-month anxious than non-anxious MDD received treatment for their depression in the 12 months before interview, but this difference was more pronounced in high-income countries (68.8 v. 45.4%; χ21 = 108.8, p < 0.001) than low/middle-income countries (30.3 v. 20.6%; χ21 = 11.7, p < 0.001).
Patterns and correlates of comorbid DSM-IV anxiety disorders among people with DSM-IV MDD are similar across WMH countries. The narrow IQR of the proportion of respondents with temporally prior AOO of anxiety disorders than comorbid MDD (69.6–74.7%) is especially noteworthy. However, the fact that these proportions are not higher among respondents with 12-month than lifetime comorbidity means that temporal priority between lifetime anxiety disorders and MDD is not related to MDD persistence among people with anxious MDD. This, in turn, raises complex questions about the relative importance of temporally primary anxiety disorders as risk markers v. causal risk factors for subsequent MDD onset and persistence, including the possibility that anxiety disorders might primarily be risk markers for MDD onset and causal risk factors for MDD persistence.
Previous research suggests that many people receiving mental health
treatment do not meet criteria for a mental disorder but are rather ‘the
To examine the association of past-year mental health treatment with
The World Health Organization's World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys
interviewed community samples of adults in 23 countries
(n = 62 305) about DSM-IV disorders and treatment in
the past 12 months for problems with emotions, alcohol or drugs.
Roughly half (52%) of people who received treatment met criteria for a
past-year DSM-IV disorder, an additional 18% for a lifetime disorder and
an additional 13% for other indicators of need (multiple subthreshold
disorders, recent stressors or suicidal behaviours). Dose–response
associations were found between number of indicators of need and
The vast majority of treatment in the WMH countries goes to patients with
mental disorders or other problems expected to benefit from
With the increasing use of chemoradiotherapy protocols, total laryngectomy carries increasing risks such as pharyngocutaneous fistula. There is little reference to the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in salvage surgery. This study aimed to determine the current practice in antibiotic prophylaxis for total laryngectomy in the UK.
A questionnaire was designed using SurveyMonkey software, and distributed to all ENT-UK registered head and neck surgeons.
The survey revealed that 19 surgeons (51 per cent) follow a protocol for antibiotic prophylaxis in primary total laryngectomy and 17 (46 per cent) follow a protocol in salvage total laryngectomy. Only 11 (30 per cent) use anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus agents in their antibiotic prophylaxis. The duration of prophylaxis varies considerably. Nineteen surgeons (51 per cent) revealed that their choice of antibiotic prophylaxis reflected non-evidence-based practices.
There appears to be little evidence-based guidance on antibiotic prophylaxis in primary and salvage total laryngectomy. The survey highlights the need for more research in order to inform national guidance on antibiotic prophylaxis in primary and salvage total laryngectomy.
The Pleistocene Arc Theory (PAT) suggests that present-day disjunct fragments of dry forests in central tropical South America give evidence of a previously more continuous distribution during the Pleistocene that has been disrupted by dry-cold vs. humid-warm climatic cycles. This Arc extends from NE Brazil to NE Argentina and eastern Paraguay, through the Chiquitanía to NW Argentina and SW Bolivia and into the dry inter-Andean valleys in Peru and Ecuador, with intrusions into the Great Chaco. Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests (SDTFs) are floristically and physiognomically dominated by woody legumes, mostly deciduous in the dry season. In the last two decades field collection and research on legume taxa has greatly increased, with a significant number of taxonomic revisions and molecular phylogenetic studies, together with some paleoclimatic modelling studies. The evidence accumulated in the last 23 years has confirmed the integrity of the Chaco and Caatingas phytogeographical provinces, with an impressive and increasing level of botanical endemism discovered. The PAT pattern has also been supported, specifically through the mapping of five selected woody Leguminosae species (Anadenanthera colubrina, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Pterogyne nitens, Amburana cearensis and Piptadenia viridiflora). The pre-existing nuclei of South American SDTF (Caatingas, Misiones and Piedmont) are now increased to four with the postulation of the Chiquitanía Nucleus in south-eastern Bolivia and bordering Paraguay. Some new endemisms are compiled from recent literature and mapped for the Misiones and Chiquitanía nuclei. The need for more botanical collections and further taxonomic, phylogenetic and demographic studies of South American legumes is emphasised.
The prevalence of occult neck metastasis in patients undergoing salvage total laryngectomy remains unclear, and there is controversy regarding whether elective neck dissection should routinely be performed.
A retrospective case note review of 32 consecutive patients undergoing salvage total laryngectomy in a tertiary centre was performed, in order to correlate pre-operative radiological staging with histopathological staging.
The median patient age was 61 years (range, 43–84 years). With regard to lymph node metastasis, 28 patients were pre-operatively clinically staged (following primary radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy) as node-negative, 1 patient was staged as N1, two patients as N2c and one patient as N3. Fifty-two elective and seven therapeutic neck dissections were performed. Pathological analysis up-staged two patients from clinically node-negative (following primary radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy) to pathologically node-positive (post-surgery). No clinically node-positive patients were down-staged. More than half of the patients suffered a post-operative fistula.
Pre-operative neck staging had a negative predictive value of 96 per cent. Given the increased complications associated with neck dissection in the salvage setting, consideration should be given to conservative management of the neck in clinically node-negative patients (staged following primary radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy).
Previous community surveys of the drop out from mental health treatment have been carried out only in the USA and Canada.
To explore mental health treatment drop out in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys.
Representative face-to-face household surveys were conducted among adults in 24 countries. People who reported mental health treatment in the 12 months before interview (n = 8482) were asked about drop out, defined as stopping treatment before the provider wanted.
Overall, drop out was 31.7%: 26.3% in high-income countries, 45.1% in upper-middle-income countries, and 37.6% in low/ lower/middle-income countries. Drop out from psychiatrists was 21.3% overall and similar across country income groups (high 20.3%, upper-middle 23.6%, low/lower-middle 23.8%) but the pattern of drop out across other sectors differed by country income group. Drop out was more likely early in treatment, particularly after the second visit.
Drop out needs to be reduced to ensure effective treatment.
Background: The orbitofrontal cortex has been implicated as a key component in depression by several imaging studies. This study aims to examine morphometrically glial cell and neuronal density and neuronal volume in the orbitofrontal cortex of late-life major depression patients.
Methods: Post mortem tissue from 13 patients with major depression and 11 matched controls was obtained and analyzed using the optical disector and nucleator methods.
Results: No changes were found in glial cell, pyramidal or non-pyramidal neuron density, or in non-pyramidal and pyramidal neuron volume in the orbitofrontal cortex.
Conclusions: Based on previous findings, this study suggests variability in morphological changes within the orbitofrontal cortex, as well as the prefrontal cortex as a whole.
An outbreak of streptococcal pyoderma in a military institution into which fresh susceptible recruits were regularly introduced involved more than 1300 persons over an eighteen-month period. Two M types were responsible for the great majority of the cases and an attack by one conferred immunity to that strain but not to the other. Lesions varied from trivial to disabling. Epidemiological studies indicated that contact – direct or indirect – through such things as gymnasium equipment and room dust was the means of transmission. The outbreak was eventually controlled by vigorous case finding, thorough treatment of cases and the strict application of hygienic principles to prevent spread. There were no late complications and throat streptococci were not involved. It is possible to control such an outbreak without isolation or the making of any significant concessions in the training programme even when large numbers of persons are living and working at close quarters.
An experimental study is performed on the vortex induced vibrations of a rigid flexibly mounted circular cylinder placed in a crossflow. The cylinder is allowed to oscillate in combined crossflow and in-line motions, and the ratio of the nominal in-line and transverse natural frequencies is varied systematically. Experiments were conducted on a smooth cylinder at subcritical Reynolds numbers between 15 000 and 60 000 and on a roughened cylinder at supercritical Reynolds numbers between 320 000 and 710 000, with a surface roughness equal to 0.23 % of the cylinder diameter. Strong qualitative and quantitative similarities between the subcritical and supercritical experiments are found, especially when the in-line natural frequency is close to twice the value of the crossflow natural frequency. In both Reynolds number regimes, the test cylinder may exhibit a ‘dual-resonant’ response, resulting in resonant crossflow motion at a frequency fv, near the Strouhal frequency, and resonant in-line motion at 2 fv. This dual resonance is shown to occur over a relatively wide frequency region around the Strouhal frequency, accompanied by stable, highly repeatable figure-eight cylinder orbits, as well as large third-harmonic components of the lift force. Under dual-resonance conditions, both the subcritical and the supercritical response is shown to collapse into a narrow parametric region in which the effective natural-frequency ratio is near the value 2, regardless of the nominal natural-frequency ratio. Some differences are noted in the magnitudes of forces and the cylinder response between the two different Reynolds number regimes, but the dual-resonant response and the resulting force trends are preserved despite the large Reynolds number difference.