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To explore food perceptions among grandparents and understand the influence of these perceptions on food choice for the younger generations in their family.
Qualitative methodology, thematic analysis of the transcripts from fourteen focus groups.
Grandparents in the southern region of the United States.
Participants were fifty-eight Black, Hispanic, and White grandparents, predominantly women (72%), ranging in age from 44–86 years (mean age = 65·4 (sd 9·97) years).
Grandparents’ perceptions related to personal food choice were related to health issues and the media. Grandparents’ perceived influence on their children’s and grandchildren’s food choices was described through the themes of proximity and power (level of influence based on an interaction of geographic proximity to grandchildren and the power given to them by their children and grandchildren to make food decisions), healthy v. unhealthy spoiling, cultural food tradition, and reciprocal exchange of knowledge.
Our results highlight areas for future research including nutrition interventions for older adults as well as factors that may be helpful to consider when engaging grandparents concerning food decisions for younger generations to promote health. Specifically, power should be assessed as part of a holistic approach to addressing dietary influence, the term ‘healthy spoiling’ can be used to reframe notions of traditional spoiling, and the role of cultural food tradition should be adapted differently by race.
The article systematically assesses U.S.-Native relations today and their historical foundations in light of a narrow, empirical definition of colonial empire. Examining three core elements of colonial empire—the formal impairment of sovereignty, the intensive practical impairment of sovereignty through practices of governance and administration, and the continuing otherness of the dominated and dominant groups—we compare contemporary U.S.-Native political relations to canonical instances of formal colonial indirect rule empires. Based on this analysis, we argue that the United States today is a paradigmatic case of formal colonial empire in the narrow, traditional sense, one that should be better integrated into the comparative, historical, and sociological study of such formal empires. Furthermore, this prominent contemporary case stands against the idea that the era of formal colonial empire is over.
Techniques of determining spot size and sensitivity of the instrument will be developed. Spot sizes of the order of 5 microns have been obtained with the possibility remaining for improvement- Preliminary sensitivity measurements indicate that micro-microgram quantities of some elements are sufficient to be detected. Difficulties involved in finding desired target areas will be discussed. The inhomogeneities of standard samples used for conventional fluorescense X-ray quantitative analyses precludes their use for microemission techniques at least in some cases. Possible ways of determining homogeneity will be discussed. Analysis which can be performed to advantage may be classed into several categories.
1.The changes in composition occurring in grain boundaries can be detected and compared with the base material.
2.An inclusion, in a metallic material can be brought under the electron probe and analyzed independently of the base material.
3.Changes in composition across a boundary between solid phases can be measured.
4.Diffusion coefficients between solid phases may be determined.
5.Thickness of thin films and variations in film thickness can be measured.
Examples of the instrument's performance will be given in some of these categories.
Objectives: Prior research has identified numerous genetic (including sex), education, health, and lifestyle factors that predict cognitive decline. Traditional model selection approaches (e.g., backward or stepwise selection) attempt to find one model that best fits the observed data, risking interpretations that only the selected predictors are important. In reality, several predictor combinations may fit similarly well but result in different conclusions (e.g., about size and significance of parameter estimates). In this study, we describe an alternative method, Information-Theoretic (IT) model averaging, and apply it to characterize a set of complex interactions in a longitudinal study on cognitive decline. Methods: Here, we used longitudinal cognitive data from 1256 late–middle aged adults from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention study to examine the effects of sex, apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4 allele (non-modifiable factors), and literacy achievement (modifiable) on cognitive decline. For each outcome, we applied IT model averaging to a set of models with different combinations of interactions among sex, APOE, literacy, and age. Results: For a list-learning test, model-averaged results showed better performance for women versus men, with faster decline among men; increased literacy was associated with better performance, particularly among men. APOE had less of an association with cognitive performance in this age range (∼40–70 years). Conclusions: These results illustrate the utility of the IT approach and point to literacy as a potential modifier of cognitive decline. Whether the protective effect of literacy is due to educational attainment or intrinsic verbal intellectual ability is the topic of ongoing work. (JINS, 2019, 25, 119–133)
Background: Down Syndrome (DS) has a mosaicism of presentations, but a number of common features. Cerebral evoked potentials (somatosensory, visual and auditory) can be higher in amplitude in DS. The aim of this study is to explore the value of the neurophysiological amplitude of three different modalities in DS individuals undergoing spinal surgery, or epilepsy evaluation. Methods: Standard procedure of EEG evaluation was conducted. We routinely monitor somatosensory (SSEP) and motor evoked potentials (MEP), using peripheral nerves stimulation and transcranial electrical stimulation during surgery. We report findings from 14 DS individuals age-matched to 14 individuals with idiopathic scoliosis Results: The amplitude of the SSEP is significantly higher in DS individuals than in age-matched controls using the same parameters. SSEP;10.2±2.5µV vs 2.4±2.3µV (p<0.05, paired t-test). The threshold for eliciting MEPs was also significantly lower in DS in comparison to controls, 175±20V vs 629±100V, (p<0.05, paired t-test). Interictal EEG showed high amplitude spike and waves, and greater intracortical coherence in DS with epilepsy than non-DS patients Conclusions: Robust neurophysiological findings showed high amplitude sensory evoked potentials, low threshold motor evoked potentials, and high amplitude spikes and wave, all reflect a common process of increased neuronal synchronicity and oscillatory behaviour in Down Syndrome.
We present the results of simulations that explore the variety of accretion flows possible in magnetic cataclysmic variables (mCVs). Our simulations evolve to equilibrium periods spanning 0.01 < Рspin/Рorb < 0.6 and the resulting flows vary from disc-fed systems at Рspin/Рorb ~ 0.01 - 0.1, to stream fed systems at Рspin/Рorb ~ 0.1 - 0.5 and systems fed from a ring at the outer edge of the white dwarf's Roche lobe at Рspin/Рorb ~ 0.6.
The Open University is the UK's foremost distance teaching university. For over twenty five years we have been presenting courses to students spanning a wide range of degree level and vocational subjects. Since we have no pre-requisites for entry, a major component of our course profile is a selection of foundation courses comprising one each in the Arts, Social Science, Mathematics, Technology and Science faculties. The Science Faculty's foundation course is currently undergoing a substantial revision. The new course, entitled “S103: Discovering Science”, will be presented to students for the first time in 1998.
Berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) is an important forage legume and is the primary winter forage crop in Pakistan. There are significant gaps in yield potential among varieties of berseem clover, as well as yields obtained at research stations and on-farm. To address this problem a survey of farmers was undertaken in the districts of Kasur and Okara, Punjab, Pakistan to determine the level of knowledge and understanding of berseem forage cultivation and seed production. The study comprised 44% smallholder (<3 ha), 26% medium (3–5 ha) and 30% large farmers (>5 ha) with average age of 42 years. Most farmers had little or no knowledge of the role of seed quality, inoculation with rhizobium, pollination, fertiliser use, irrigation management and the importance of forage nutritional value in improving livestock productivity. Most farmers (56%) had received no input from the government or private sector to improve forage production, relying instead on traditional knowledge. Knowledge of the importance of land preparation (95%), sowing rate (98%) and insect and pest management (75%) was higher than seed selection and fertilisation. Adoption of improved varieties (3%) and production technologies (14%) was low due to various constraints including ignorance, high cost of inputs, lack of availability of inputs in the market and a perceived high level of financial risk. Almost 100% of the respondents agreed that seed of improved varieties was a pre-requisite for higher forage and seed production as well as essential to start village-based forage seed enterprises.
TAOS II is a next-generation occultation survey with the goal of measuring the size distribution of the small end of the Kuiper Belt (objects with diameters 0.5–30 km). Such objects have magnitudes r > 30, and are thus undetectable by direct imaging. The project will operate three telescopes at San Pedro Mártir Observatory in Baja California, México. Each telescope will be equipped with a custom-built camera comprised of a focal-plane array of CMOS imagers. The cameras will be capable of reading out image data from 10,000 stars at a cadence of 20 Hz. The telescopes will monitor the same set of stars simultaneously to search for coincident occultation detections, thus minimising the false-positive rate. This talk described the project, and reported on the progress of the development of the survey infrastructure.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterised by a marked and persistent fear of social/performance situations, and a number of key environmental factors have been implicated in the aetiology of the disorder. Hence, the current article reviews theoretical and empirical evidence linking the development of SAD with parenting factors, traumatic life events, and aversive social experiences. Specifically, research suggests that the risk of developing SAD is increased by over-controlling, critical and cold parenting, an insecure attachment style, aversive social/peer experiences, emotional maltreatment, and to a lesser extent other forms of childhood maltreatment and adversity. Moreover, these factors may lead to posttraumatic reactions, distorted negative self-imagery, and internalised shame-based schemas that subsequently maintain SAD symptomatology. However, further research is necessary to clarify the nature, interactions, and relative contributions of these factors. It is likely that SAD develops via a complex interplay of biological and environmental factors, and that multiple aetiological pathways underlie the development of the disorder.
The National Electrostatics Corporation has built and tested a prototype low energy, open-air, single stage carbon accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system (patent pending). The configuration tested has a standard 40-sample, multi-cathode SNICS source on a 300-kV deck. The beam is mass analyzed before acceleration to a gas stripper located at ground. The 14C+ ions are separated from 13C+ and 12C+ arising from the molecular breakup by a 90° analyzing magnet immediately after the gas stripper which acts as a molecular dissociator. The 14C+ beam passes through an electrostatic spherical analyzer before entering the particle detector. The observed 14C/12C precision is better than 5% with a sensitivity of better than 0.05 dpm/gmC. A first single stage AMS system has been ordered. The configuration of this system will be discussed.
Background: Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a neurological condition arising from a perinatal or intra-uterine stroke. In the past 25 years there has been a revolution in neonatal care. For over 40 years children with CP in and around Saskatoon have been treated through the Kinsman Childrens’ Centre (KCC). This is a unique population database covering all CP patients in the region. We analyzed the KCC database to determine if the recent changes in neonatal care were correlated with the incidence of CP co-morbidities. Methods: A retrospective study using a Saskatchewan database of cerebral palsy data from the last four decades. Results: Over the last 40 years the incidence of visual disturbance and diagnoses of epilepsy in children with CP have remained stable regardless of advances in neonatal care. However, incidences of spine and hip issues requiring orthopedic intervention have halved. Conclusions: We hypothesize that advances in neonatal care have been successful in decreasing the incidence of gross motor impairments however have yet to significantly impact impairments relating to cortical network function. Although improvements in care have resulted in a decreased burden of disability, there remains opportunity for further improvements, especially in the settings of epilepsy and long-term visual function.
We present infrared spectra of 4 Be/X-ray binaries in the K band, and 4 spectra in the J, H and K bands of 2 more sources. The HI IR emission lines are useful determinators of the conditions in the inner regions of the circumstellar disk about the Be star, due to optical depth effects. These are preliminary results, and hope to be followed up by high resolution echelle spectra, where we wish to estimate the velocity field, temperature and density structure of the circumstellar material.
The Be massive X-ray binary LSI+61°303 is a 26.5 days periodic radiosource (Taylor & Gregory, 1984), exhibiting radio outbursts maxima between phases 0.6–0.8. Evidence of a photometric period of similar value has also been reported (Paredes & Figueras, 1986; Mendelson & Mazeh, 1989). The previous spectroscopic radial velocity observations of Hutchings & Crampton (1981) are in agreement with the radio period, and give support to the presence of a companion. We present new optical and infrared photometric observations and high resolution Hα spectra of LSI+61°303.
Commission 46 is dedicated to Teaching of Astronomy. Commission 46 can be seen as an
extension of the IAU Executive Committee in the sense that each adhering country has
appointed a national representative to the Commission. National Representatives maintain
liaison between the Commission and the home country, and write national triennial reports
on development of astronomy on their nations. Other IAU astronomers, with special interest in education, can become regular individual members of the Commission. Non-IAU
members can be invited by the Commission to serve for one triennial term. Commission
46 considers that one of its major duties is to contribute to enhance astronomy education
in developing countries. The Newsletter, the International School for Young Astronomers,
the Visiting Lecturer Program and the Travelling Telescope are examples of such activities administered by the Commission. The strength of Commission 46 comes from the hard
work that its members do in order to promote astronomy education worldwide.
We have used a model of magnetic accretion to investigate the rotational equilibria of magnetic cataclysmic variables (MCVs). This has enabled us to derive a set of equilibrium spin periods as a function of orbital period and magnetic moment which we use to estimate the magnetic moments of all known intermediate polars. We further show how these equilibrium spin periods relate to the polar synchronisation condition and use these results to calculate the theoretical histogram describing the distribution of magnetic CVs as a function of Pspin/Porb. We demonstrate that this is in remarkable agreement with the observed distribution assuming that the number of systems as a function of white dwarf magnetic moment is distributed according to .
We analyze deep CCD images of nearby Blue Compact Dwarf (BCD) galaxies in an attempt to understand the nature of the progenitors which are hosting the current burst of star formation. In particular, we ask whether BCDs are hosted by normal or low-surface-brightness dI galaxies. We conclude that BCDs are in fact hosted by gas-rich galaxies which populate the extreme high-central-mass-density end of the dwarf galaxy distribution. Such galaxies are predisposed to having numerous strong bursts of star formation in their central regions. In this picture, BCDs can only occur in the minority of dwarf galaxies, rather than being a common phase experienced by all gas-rich dwarfs.
Research has shown that maternal mental illness can affect mother–infant interactions with implications for infant outcomes. Severe and chronic mental illness (SMI), particularly schizophrenia, is associated with the greatest risk. Schizophrenia is also associated with impairments in attribution of mental states, ‘theory of mind’ (ToM). Recent attachment research has suggested that maternal mentalizing skills are strongly associated with attachment outcome in infants. To date, no research has explored the relationship between ToM and maternal sensitivity in mothers with SMI using standard tests of ToM. The present study was designed as an exploratory study in order to investigate this.
A total of 40 women with SMI in the postpartum period were administered a battery of ToM tasks and general neuropsychological tasks. The women were also filmed in an unstructured play session with their infants, which was coded for maternal sensitivity using the Crittenden CARE-Index.
One ToM task, the Frith–Happé Animations, predicted maternal sensitivity across all diagnoses. There was also an effect of diagnosis, with lower sensitivity observed in women with schizophrenia. ToM impairments did not fully explain the effect of diagnosis on sensitivity. Mothers of girls were rated as being more sensitive than mothers of boys.
The results suggest that ToM is a significant predictor of maternal sensitivity across all mental health diagnoses, extending the results of studies focusing on healthy populations. Clinical interventions emphasizing the importance of understanding the perspective of the infant may enhance maternal sensitivity.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterised by a marked and persistent fear of social or performance situations. Cognitive models suggest that self-focused cognitive processes play a crucial role in generating and maintaining social anxiety, and that self-focused cognition occurs prior to, during, and following social situations (Clark & Wells, 1995; Rapee & Heimberg, 1997). There is a substantial body of empirical evidence demonstrating that socially anxious individuals engage in self-focused cognition during and following a social or performance situation. A smaller but growing body literature suggests that a similar process occurs prior to such situations, and that these three processes are interdependent. Furthermore, the vast majority of research to date indicates that self-focused cognitive processes are detrimental, and that they generate and maintain social anxiety in a variety of ways. However, there remains considerable scope for research to further explicate the role of these processes in the maintenance of SAD, and to enhance interventions designed to ameliorate their negative effects.
For over a century, liturgical manuscripts from the Augustinian priory at Klosterneuburg have tended toward a misleading androgyny. While scholars have long known that Klosterneuburg was a double house, with separate precincts for men and for women, many have been content to regard the liturgical manuscripts preserved there as reflecting the institution as a whole, or of the men in particular. To be sure, some manuscripts have always been recognized as women's books. For other manuscripts, though, such gendered associations have proven elusive. Nowhere is this more clearly evident than in discussions of Klosterneuburg's twelfth-century antiphoners (A-KN 1010, A-KN 1012, and A-KN 1013). Among the earliest musical manuscripts in German-speaking Europe to show pitches on a staff, these manuscripts have been seen by many scholars as reflecting the use of Klosterneuburg generally, if at all, while a few scholars have associated them with the women of Klosterneuburg specifically. Whether the result of an unusual placement for the feast of the Dedication of the Church or the conformance of the musical notation with that of manuscripts known to be associated with the women, the occasional assignments of the twelfth-century antiphoners to Klosterneuburg's women were more a consequence of what was not known about the women and their liturgical practice (the date for their church's dedication, for example) than of what was known. The very lack of information about the liturgical practice of Klosterneuburg's women, moreover, has cloaked an even larger obstacle to understanding the liturgical manuscripts used by the women and the liturgy that was expressed within them. For all the attention given these manuscripts, and for all the consideration given to the possible connection between these manuscripts and the canonesses, few scholars have considered the possibility that the liturgy celebrated by Klosterneuburg's women might have been independent from that of the men.