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The evolutionary paradox of animals helping others in their social group, rather than living independently, has fascinated researchers for many decades. Ultimately, this cooperation is hypothesized to have evolved because the benefits of cooperation outweigh the costs (Hamilton, 1964), and considerable empirical evidence supports this hypothesis (see Koenig and Dickinson, 2016). However, one major cost of cooperation, particularly for territorial cooperative breeders, is conflict (Shen et al., 2017; Nelson-Flower et al., 2018a). This conflict may occur both within and between groups; such conflict includes access to reproductive opportunities, social status, territory, water, or food. We suggest that a consideration of the influence of both intergroup and intragroup levels of conflict in individual decisions to cooperate is essential, since intragroup conflict may lead to decisions to disperse if intergroup opportunities to mate are high, whereas high levels of intergroup conflict may promote intragroup cooperation in order to defend existing resources (see Chapter 10 for review of inter- vs. intragroup aggression in social insects). Conflict is therefore a natural outcome of cooperation, and the level of conflict may define the point at which cooperation is no longer a beneficial strategy for individuals. This possibility, that conflict at both inter- and intragroup levels define the stability of cooperation over time, remains relatively under-explored despite its potential importance in understanding the evolution of cooperation.
Inflammation may contribute to the high prevalence of depressive symptoms seen in lung cancer. “Sickness behavior” is a cluster of symptoms induced by inflammation that are similar but distinct from depressive symptoms. The Sickness Behavior Inventory-Revised (SBI-R) was developed to measure sickness behavior. We hypothesized that the SBI-R would demonstrate adequate psychometric properties in association with inflammation.
Participants with stage IV lung cancer (n = 92) were evaluated for sickness behavior using the SBI-R. Concomitant assessments were made of depression (Patient Hospital Questionniare-9, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and inflammation [C-reactive protein (CRP)]. Classical test theory (CTT) was applied and multivariate models were created to explain SBI-R associations with depression and inflammation. Factor Analysis was also used to identify the underlying factor structure of the hypothesized construct of sickness behavior. A longitudinal analysis was conducted for a subset of participants.
The sample mean for the 12-item SBI-R was 8.3 (6.7) with a range from 0 to 33. The SBI-R demonstrated adequate internal consistency with a Cronbach's coefficient of 0.85, which did not increase by more than 0.01 with any single-item removal. This analysis examined factor loadings onto a single factor extracted using the principle components method. Eleven items had factor loadings that exceeded 0.40. SBI-R total scores were significantly correlated with depressive symptoms (r = 0.78, p < 0.001) and CRP (r = 0.47, p < 0.001). Multivariate analyses revealed that inflammation and depressive symptoms explained 67% of SBI-R variance.
Significance of results
The SBI-R demonstrated adequate reliability and construct validity in this patient population with metastatic lung cancer. The observed findings suggest that the SBI-R can meaningfully capture the presence of sickness behavior and may facilitate a greater understanding of inflammatory depression.
In this paper, I explore the literary aesthetics of Attalid Pergamon, one of the Ptolemies’ fiercest cultural rivals in the Hellenistic period. Traditionally, scholars have reconstructed Pergamene poetry from the city’s grand and monumental sculptural programme, hypothesizing an underlying aesthetic dichotomy between the two kingdoms: Alexandrian ‘refinement’ versus the Pergamene ‘baroque’. In this paper, I critically reassess this view by exploring surviving scraps of Pergamene poetry: an inscribed encomiastic epigram celebrating the Olympic victory of a certain Attalus (IvP I.10) and an inscribed dedicatory epigram featuring a speaking Satyr (SGO I.06/02/05). By examining these poems’ sophisticated engagements with the literary past and contemporary scholarship, I challenge the idea of a simple opposition between the two kingdoms. In reality, the art and literature of both political centres display a similar capacity to embrace both the refined and the baroque. In conclusion, I ask how this analysis affects our interpretation of the broader aesthetic landscape of the Hellenistic era and suggest that the literature of both capitals belongs to a larger system of elite poetry which stretched far and wide across the Hellenistic world.
Psychosis is associated with a reasoning bias, which manifests as a tendency to ‘jump to conclusions’. We examined this bias in people at clinical high-risk for psychosis (CHR) and investigated its relationship with their clinical outcomes.
In total, 303 CHR subjects and 57 healthy controls (HC) were included. Both groups were assessed at baseline, and after 1 and 2 years. A ‘beads’ task was used to assess reasoning bias. Symptoms and level of functioning were assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States scale (CAARMS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), respectively. During follow up, 58 (16.1%) of the CHR group developed psychosis (CHR-T), and 245 did not (CHR-NT). Logistic regressions, multilevel mixed models, and Cox regression were used to analyse the relationship between reasoning bias and transition to psychosis and level of functioning, at each time point.
There was no association between reasoning bias at baseline and the subsequent onset of psychosis. However, when assessed after the transition to psychosis, CHR-T participants showed a greater tendency to jump to conclusions than CHR-NT and HC participants (55, 17, 17%; χ2 = 8.13, p = 0.012). There was a significant association between jumping to conclusions (JTC) at baseline and a reduced level of functioning at 2-year follow-up in the CHR group after adjusting for transition, gender, ethnicity, age, and IQ.
In CHR participants, JTC at baseline was associated with adverse functioning at the follow-up. Interventions designed to improve JTC could be beneficial in the CHR population.
MRSA continues to spread in hospitals, despite modest recent success. Gaps exist regarding how hospital policies impact MRSA transmission in hospitals. Characterization of the policy environment has been useful in approaching other public health issues including control of alcohol, firearms, tobacco, and traffic safety. Objective: Our goal was to describe measurable and modifiable policy components designed to prevent MRSA in hospital settings. Methods: We examined 4 types of hospital policies from 5 metropolitan hospitals in Minnesota: hand hygiene, multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) and isolation, healthcare personnel influenza vaccination, and whistleblower (corporate compliance). We developed a tool to systematically evaluate policies for each topic that included 19–23 instructional and implementation elements guided by regulatory and clinical practice guidelines: purpose, expectations, education and training, monitoring, enforcement, corrective actions, responsibilities, and corrective actions. Each policy element was evaluated for its presence (yes or no) and thoroughness (nonexistent = 0, cursory = 1, thorough = 2). Results: All hospitals had hand hygiene and MDRO and isolation policies; 3 of 5 had influenza and whistleblower policies. The policies varied in comprehensiveness and thoroughness across hospitals and topics. Most policies included purpose and policy statements with a statement of organizational rules (14 of 16 and 16 of 16, respectively) with mean thoroughness scores of 1.04 and 1.20, respectively. Most policies lacked consequences for noncompliance (6 of 16), accountability (6 of 16), and monitoring and enforcement of policy expectations (5 of 16). When included, the policy components scored low for thoroughness, and 50% of policies (8 of 16; range, 20% for hand hygiene and 100% for influenza vaccination) specified expectations for educating staff about the policy topic, with a mean thoroughness score of 0.75. Responsibilities for policy expectations were lacking: responsibilities for product needs and availability (3 of 13), training and education (1 of 16); and monitoring compliance with skills and techniques (4 of 16). Of the 4 policy types, influenza vaccination was the most complete. All influenza policies had 50% of categories completed versus hand hygiene (26%), MDRO (17%), and whistleblower (26%). The hand hygiene policies scored highest for thoroughness; 48% of policy elements scored >1.0 versus MDRO (22%), influenza (25%), and whistleblower (11%). Conclusions: We developed a systematic method to quantitatively evaluate hospital policies. Our review of hospital policies most commonly contained thorough instructional elements such as organizational requirements and protocols and procedures. Policies often lacked implementation elements such as expectations for monitoring, enforcement, responsibilities, accountabilities, and staff training and education. As we begin to characterize policy, endogenous in nature, as a potential exposure, it is important that we develop rigorous measurement. We have provided a first step in developing such an approach.
Elective surgical patients routinely bathe with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) at home days prior to their procedures. However, the impact of home CHG bathing on surgical site CHG concentration is unclear. We examined 3 different methods of applying CHG and hypothesized that different application methods would impact resulting CHG skin concentration.
Advanced cancer patients who are parents of minor children experience heightened psychosocial distress. Oncology social workers (OSWs) are essential providers of psychosocial support to parents with advanced cancer. Yet, little is known about the experiences and approaches of OSWs in addressing these patients’ unique needs. The purpose of this study was to characterize the attitudes, practice behaviors, and training experiences of OSWs who provide psychosocial care for advanced cancer patients with minor children.
Forty-one OSWs participated in a cross-sectional survey addressing multiple facets of their psychosocial care for parents with advanced cancer. The five assessed domains of psychosocial support were communication support, emotional support, household support, illness and treatment decision-making support, and end-of-life planning.
Participants reported greatest confidence in counseling patients on communication with children about illness and providing support to co-parents about parenting concerns. OSWs reported less confidence in counseling parents on end-of-life issues and assisting families with non-traditional household structures. The majority of participants reported needing more time in their clinical practice to sufficiently address parents’ psychosocial needs. Nearly 90% of participants were interested in receiving further training on the care of parents with advanced cancer.
Significance of results
To improve the care of parents with advanced cancer, it is critical to understand how the psychosocial oncology workforce perceives its clinical practice needs. Study findings suggest an opportunity for enhanced training, particularly with respect to end-of-life needs and in response to the changing household structure of American families.
Associations have been observed between socioeconomic status (SES) and language outcomes from early childhood, but individual variability is high. Exposure to high levels of stress, often associated with low-SES status, might influence how parents and infants interact within the early language environment. Differences in these early language behaviors, and in early neurodevelopment, might underlie SES-based differences in language that emerge later on. Analysis of natural language samples from a predominantly low-/mid-income sample of mother-infant dyads, obtained using the Language Environment Analysis (LENA) system, found that maternal reports of exposure to stressful life events, and perceived stress, were negatively correlated with child vocalizations and conversational turns when infants were 6 and 12 months of age. Greater numbers of vocalizations and conversational turns were also associated with lower relative theta power and higher relative gamma power in 6- and 12-month baseline EEG – a pattern that might support subsequent language development.
Modified Blalock–Taussig shunt thrombosis is a life-threatening event. We describe an extremely rare catheter-induced shunt thrombosis in an infant with complex CHD and its successful treatment utilising a single low dose of local recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in conjunction with balloon angioplasty.
To evaluate the impact of a pharmacist-driven Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) safety bundle supported by leadership and to compare compliance before and after implementation.
Retrospective cohort study with descriptive and before-and-after analyses.
Tertiary-care academic medical center.
All patients with documented SAB, regardless of the source of infection, were included. Patients transitioned to palliative care were excluded from before-and-after analysis.
A pharmacist-driven safety bundle including documented clearance of bacteremia, echocardiography, removal of central venous catheters, and targeted intravenous therapy of at least 2 weeks duration was implemented in November 2015 and was supported by leadership with stepwise escalation for nonresponse. A descriptive analysis of all patients with SAB during the study period included pharmacy interventions, acceptance rates, and escalation rates. A pre–post implementation analysis of 100 sequential patients compared bundle compliance and descriptive parameters.
Overall, 391 interventions were made in the 20-month period following implementation, including 20 “good saves” avoiding potentially major adverse events. No statistically significant differences in complete bundle compliance were detected between the periods (74% vs 84%; P = .08). However, we detected a significant increase in echocardiography after the bundle was implemented (83% vs 94%; P = .02) and fewer patients received suboptimal definitive therapy after the bundle was implemented (10% vs 3%; P = .045).
This pharmacist-driven SAB safety bundle with leadership support showed improvement in process measures, which may have prevented major adverse events, even with available infectious diseases (ID) consultation. It provides a critical safety net for institutions without mandatory ID consultation or with limited antimicrobial stewardship resources.
Effective communication is an essential part of patient-centered care. The complexity of cancer care in older adults makes communication challenging, particularly when older patients have cognitive deficits and lose their autonomy. This paper describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a communication skills training module for health care providers (HCPs) who work with older adults with cancer, with or at risk of developing cognitive deficits.
Using a pre-post single arm study design, 99 HCPs from a comprehensive cancer center in North-East USA, who worked primarily with geriatric patients, participated in the study. Participants included Advance Practice Providers (including Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants; n = 24, 24.2%); nurses (n = 23, 23.2%), social workers (n = 14, 14.1%), physicians (n = 13, 13.1%), and “other” HCPs (including occupational therapists, physical therapists, and psychologists; n = 20, 20.2%). The HCPs participated in a one-day geriatric communication skills training program in groups of 12–15 over a 2-year period. Participants complete pre-post surveys on module evaluation and perception of self-efficacy as well as pre-post video-recorded Standardized Patient Assessment (SPA) to evaluate communication skill uptake.
Most participants evaluated the module positively; over 90% indicated that they agreed or strongly agreed with five of the six module evaluation items. HCPs’ self-efficacy in communicating with cancer patients with cognitive deficits significantly increased from pre- to post-module training. There was a significant increase in the following communication skill use from pre- to post-training: checking patient preferences, declaring agenda, and inviting agenda.
Significance of results
Results demonstrated a successful implementation of the program as evidenced through favorable program evaluation, significant gains in self-efficacy, as well as significant improvement in several communication skills.
Two randomized, controlled trials of L-methylfolate augmentation of SSRIs for major depressive disorder (MDD) were conducted using a novel study design (sequential parallel comparison design- SPCD).
To evaluate the efficacy of L-methylfolate augmentation using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale.
In study one (TRD-1), 148 outpatients with SSRI-resistant MDD were enrolled in a 60-day, SPCD study, divided into two 30-day periods (phases 1 and 2). Patients were randomized 2:3:3 to receive L-methylfolate (7.5mg/d in phase 1, 15mg/d in phase 2), placebo in phase 1 followed by L-methylfolate 7.5mg/d in phase 2, or placebo for both phases. Study two (TRD-2) involved 75 patients and was identical in design to TRD-1 except for the dose of L-methylfolate (15mg only).
In the TRD-1 Study, L-methylfolate 7.5 mg/d was not found to be more effective than placebo. In phase 1 of the TRD-2 Study, 37% of patients on L-methylfolate 15mg/d responded and 18% of placebo patients responded, while in phase 2 among placebo non-responders, the response rates were 28% on L-methylfolate 15mg/d and 9.5% on placebo. When phases 1 and 2 were pooled according to the SPCD model, the difference in response rates was statistically significant in favor of L-methylfolate (p = 0.0399). The rates of spontaneously reported AEs and rates of study discontinuation appear r comparable between L-methylfolate and placebo in both studies. Rates of study discontinuation were also comparable
These studies suggest that L-methylfolate 15 mg/d may be a safe and effective augmentation strategy for inadequate response to SSRIs.
Constitutional drafters often look to foreign constitutional models, ideas, and texts for inspiration; many are explicit about their foreign borrowing. However, when implemented domestically, the meaning of borrowed elements often changes. Political scientists and scholars of comparative constitutional law have analyzed the transnational movement of constitutional ideas and norms, but the political processes through which the meaning of foreign provisions might be refashioned remain understudied. Sociolegal scholars have examined the “transplantation” and “translation” of laws and legal institutions, but they rarely scrutinize this process in the context of constitutions. Drawing on an examination of borrowed constitutional elements in four cases (Pakistan, Morocco, Egypt, Israel), this article builds on research in comparative politics, comparative constitutional law, and sociolegal studies to provide a nuanced picture of deliberate efforts to import “inclusive” constitutional provisions regarding religion-state relations while, at the same time, refashioning the meaning of those provisions in ways that “exclude” specific forms of religious, sectarian, doctrinal, or ideological diversity. Building on sociolegal studies regarding the translation of law, we argue that foreign constitutional elements embraced by politically embedded actors are often treated as “empty signifiers” with meanings that are deliberately transformed. Tracing the processes that lead political actors to engage foreign constitutional elements, even if they have no intention of transplanting their prior meaning, we highlight the need for detailed case studies to reveal both the international and the national dynamics that shape and reshape the meaning of constitutions today.
Sex differences in cognitive functioning have long been recognized in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls (HC). However, few studies have focused on patients with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate sex differences in neurocognitive performance in ARMS patients compared with HC.
The data analyzed in this study were collected within the multicenter European Gene–Environment Interactions study (11 centers). A total of 343 ARMS patients (158 women) and 67 HC subjects (33 women) were included. All participants completed a comprehensive neurocognitive battery. Linear mixed effects models were used to explore whether sex differences in cognitive functioning were present in the total group (main effect of sex) and whether sex differences were different for HC and ARMS (interaction between sex and group).
Women performed better in social cognition, speed of processing, and verbal learning than men regardless of whether they were ARMS or HC. However, only differences in speed of processing and verbal learning remained significant after correction for multiple testing. Additionally, ARMS patients displayed alterations in attention, current IQ, speed of processing, verbal learning, and working memory compared with HC.
Findings indicate that sex differences in cognitive functioning in ARMS are similar to those seen between healthy men and women. Thus, it appears that sex differences in cognitive performance may not be specific for ARMS, a finding resembling that in patients with schizophrenic psychoses.
Gender differences in symptomatology in chronic schizophrenia and first episode psychosis patients have often been reported. However, little is known about gender differences in those at risk of psychotic disorders. This study investigated gender differences in symptomatology, drug use, comorbidity (i.e. substance use, affective and anxiety disorders) and global functioning in patients with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis.
The sample consisted of 336 ARMS patients (159 women) from the prodromal work package of the EUropean network of national schizophrenia networks studying Gene-Environment Interactions (EU-GEI; 11 centers). Clinical symptoms, drug use, comorbidity and functioning were assessed at first presentation to an early detection center using structured interviews.
In unadjusted analyses, men were found to have significantly higher rates of negative symptoms and current cannabis use while women showed higher rates of general psychopathology and more often displayed comorbid affective and anxiety disorders. No gender differences were found for global functioning. The results generally did not change when corrected for possible cofounders (e.g. cannabis use). However, most differences did not withstand correction for multiple testing.
Findings indicate that gender differences in symptomatology and comorbidity in ARMS are similar to those seen in overt psychosis and in healthy controls. However, observed differences are small and would only be reliably detected in studies with high statistical power. Moreover, such small effects would likely not be clinically meaningful.
Many clinical psychologists either work with children who may be eligible for educational accommodations and special education or else work with adults who have received such services. This chapter provides an overview of assessment issues in educational settings, with a focus on K-12 schooling. We review the legal framework for special education assessment, before considering two controversial issues that interact with that framework: multitiered systems of support that delay comprehensive assessments and the question of whether students with ethnic minority backgrounds are overidentified as having disabilities. We then turn to the assessment of learning disabilities, the largest special education category; we review and evaluate major approaches to learning disability identification. Our next topic is the use of assessment data to determine which students need accommodations on classroom and high-stakes tests. Finally, we discuss an emerging issue: the measurement of effort and motivation that students exhibit during testing in educational settings.
American Indians experience substantial health disparities relative to the US population, including vascular brain aging. Poorer cognitive test performance has been associated with cranial magnetic resonance imaging findings in aging community populations, but no study has investigated these associations in elderly American Indians.
We examined 786 American Indians aged 64 years and older from the Cerebrovascular Disease and its Consequences in American Indians study (2010–2013). Cranial magnetic resonance images were scored for cortical and subcortical infarcts, hemorrhages, severity of white matter disease, sulcal widening, ventricle enlargement, and volumetric estimates for white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), hippocampus, and brain. Participants completed demographic, medical history, and neuropsychological assessments including testing for general cognitive functioning, verbal learning and memory, processing speed, phonemic fluency, and executive function.
Processing speed was independently associated with the presence of any infarcts, white matter disease, and hippocampal and brain volumes, independent of socioeconomic, language, education, and clinical factors. Other significant associations included general cognitive functioning with hippocampal volume. Nonsignificant, marginal associations included general cognition with WMH and brain volume; verbal memory with hippocampal volume; verbal fluency and executive function with brain volume; and processing speed with ventricle enlargement.
Brain-cognition associations found in this study of elderly American Indians are similar to those found in other racial/ethnic populations, with processing speed comprising an especially strong correlate of cerebrovascular disease. These findings may assist future efforts to define opportunities for disease prevention, to conduct research on diagnostic and normative standards, and to guide clinical evaluation of this underserved and overburdened population.
Antimicrobial stewardship improves patient care and reduces antimicrobial resistance, inappropriate use, and adverse outcomes. Despite high-profile mandates for antimicrobial stewardship programs across the healthcare continuum, descriptive data, and recommendations for dedicated resources, including appropriate physician, pharmacist, data analytics, and administrative staffing support, are not robust. This review summarizes the current literature on antimicrobial stewardship staffing and calls for the development of minimum staffing recommendations.
This paper looks beyond Ptolemaic Alexandria to consider the literary dynamics of another Hellenistic kingdom, Attalid Pergamon. I offer a detailed study of the fragmentary opening of Nicander's Hymn to Attalus (fr. 104 Gow–Schofield) in three sections. First, I consider its generic status and compare its encomiastic strategies with those of Theocritus’ Encomium of Ptolemy Philadelphus (Idyll 17). Second, I analyse its learned reuse of the literary past and allusive engagement with scholarly debate. And finally, I explore how Nicander polemically strives against the precedent of the Ptolemaic Callimachus. The fragment offers us a rare glimpse into the post-Callimachean, international and agonistic world of Hellenistic poetics.