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Studies suggest that alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders have distinct genetic backgrounds.
We examined whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for consumption and problem subscales of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C, AUDIT-P) in the UK Biobank (UKB; N = 121 630) correlate with alcohol outcomes in four independent samples: an ascertained cohort, the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA; N = 6850), and population-based cohorts: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 5911), Generation Scotland (GS; N = 17 461), and an independent subset of UKB (N = 245 947). Regression models and survival analyses tested whether the PRS were associated with the alcohol-related outcomes.
In COGA, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with alcohol dependence, AUD symptom count, maximum drinks (R2 = 0.47–0.68%, p = 2.0 × 10−8–1.0 × 10−10), and increased likelihood of onset of alcohol dependence (hazard ratio = 1.15, p = 4.7 × 10−8); AUDIT-C PRS was not an independent predictor of any phenotype. In ALSPAC, the AUDIT-C PRS was associated with alcohol dependence (R2 = 0.96%, p = 4.8 × 10−6). In GS, AUDIT-C PRS was a better predictor of weekly alcohol use (R2 = 0.27%, p = 5.5 × 10−11), while AUDIT-P PRS was more associated with problem drinking (R2 = 0.40%, p = 9.0 × 10−7). Lastly, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with ICD-based alcohol-related disorders in the UKB subset (R2 = 0.18%, p < 2.0 × 10−16).
AUDIT-P PRS was associated with a range of alcohol-related phenotypes across population-based and ascertained cohorts, while AUDIT-C PRS showed less utility in the ascertained cohort. We show that AUDIT-P is genetically correlated with both use and misuse and demonstrate the influence of ascertainment schemes on PRS analyses.
This chapter reviews the performance-based techniques most commonly used by clinical psychologists. These include the Rorschach inkblot task, two picture story tasks (the Thematic Apperception Test and Adult Attachment Projective), two sentence stem tasks (the Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank and Washington University Sentence Completion Test), and two types of prompted drawing tasks (variations of human figure drawings and the Wartegg Drawing Completion Test). We review how each measure is used as well as evidence for their reliability, validity, and normative standards. In order to facilitate optimal use of these measures in multimethod clinical assessment, we also contextualize them as typical performance methods that help illustrate what a person is prone to do in standardized contexts when given wide latitude to perform and differentiate them from maximum performance methods of ability that illustrate what a person can do when performing their best at a task with clear guidelines for success, or self- and informant-reported methods that indicate what a person is like based on linguistically mediated introspective recall.
The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is an open access telescope dedicated to studying the low-frequency (80–300 MHz) southern sky. Since beginning operations in mid-2013, the MWA has opened a new observational window in the southern hemisphere enabling many science areas. The driving science objectives of the original design were to observe 21 cm radiation from the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR), explore the radio time domain, perform Galactic and extragalactic surveys, and monitor solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric phenomena. All together
programs recorded 20 000 h producing 146 papers to date. In 2016, the telescope underwent a major upgrade resulting in alternating compact and extended configurations. Other upgrades, including digital back-ends and a rapid-response triggering system, have been developed since the original array was commissioned. In this paper, we review the major results from the prior operation of the MWA and then discuss the new science paths enabled by the improved capabilities. We group these science opportunities by the four original science themes but also include ideas for directions outside these categories.
Experiments were carried out in high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers over rough surfaces of diverse geometries. Roughness configurations varied in element height, distribution (random versus ordered), shape and spacing. Rough surfaces comprising of two superposed element geometries were also tested. All flows were free of transitional effects with
upwards of 40 000 and
ratios above 73. The wall-pressure spectrum and turbulent velocity profiles revealed that the roughness element spacing has the greatest impact on the turbulent structures in the boundary layer. The high-frequency scaling on shear friction velocity,
, (Meyers et al.J. Fluid Mech., vol. 768, 2015, pp. 261–293) was validated and
was shown to be the viscous contribution to the overall surface drag. An empirical formula for the pressure drag on roughness elements was developed to reflect the finding that the pressure drag is a function of only two variables: sparseness ratio
and roughness Reynolds number
. Results also suggest that the viscous contribution to drag approaches a constant non-zero value at high Reynolds numbers, and ‘fully rough-wall flow’ may occur at higher
than previously thought.
The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is an electronically steered low-frequency (<300 MHz) radio interferometer, with a ‘slew’ time less than 8 s. Low-frequency (∼100 MHz) radio telescopes are ideally suited for rapid response follow-up of transients due to their large field of view, the inverted spectrum of coherent emission, and the fact that the dispersion delay between a 1 GHz and 100 MHz pulse is on the order of 1–10 min for dispersion measures of 100–2000 pc/cm3. The MWA has previously been used to provide fast follow-up for transient events including gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), fast radio bursts (FRBs), and gravitational waves, using systems that respond to gamma-ray coordinates network packet-based notifications. We describe a system for automatically triggering MWA observations of such events, based on Virtual Observatory Event standard triggers, which is more flexible, capable, and accurate than previous systems. The system can respond to external multi-messenger triggers, which makes it well-suited to searching for prompt coherent radio emission from GRBs, the study of FRBs and gravitational waves, single pulse studies of pulsars, and rapid follow-up of high-energy superflares from flare stars. The new triggering system has the capability to trigger observations in both the regular correlator mode (limited to ≥0.5 s integrations) and using the Voltage Capture System (VCS, 0.1 ms integration) of the MWA and represents a new mode of operation for the MWA. The upgraded standard correlator triggering capability has been in use since MWA observing semester 2018B (July–Dec 2018), and the VCS and buffered mode triggers will become available for observing in a future semester.
Chapter 4 argues that the Franklin’s performance serves as the dialectical synthesis of the views on value of the preceding performances, encompassing the wondrous renewal of the Squire, the amoral instrumentalism of the Merchant, and the meta-value of the Clerk. In this way, the Franklin’s performance presents a sober, disenchanted, but nonetheless ultimately affirmative meditation on the creative power of fiction - one that recognizes fiction’s instrumental value but insists that a paradoxically knowing mystification of this instrumentality can be the basis for a practicable ethics for living in a fallen world. To pursue this argument, the chapter performs a close reading of the Squire-Franklin link (taking into account the bearing of manuscript evidence), examines key aspects of the tale’s prologue and narrative, and considers the Franklin’s portrait in respect to the social status of franklins in Chaucer’s day. It concludes that the performance formulates a commitment to literary value that not only transcends the vulnerabilities of the preceding tales, but is also precisely the literary value that someone socially situated like Chaucer is best positioned to create.
Chapter 1 argues that the Clerk’s performance, like Chaucer’s earlier House of Fame, presents an array of different and even contradictory conceptions of literary value in order to give Chaucer’s fiction the distinctive meta-value of standing above any one commitment to literary value, playfully and provocatively assessing competing options, and thereby positioning the implied author as a master of the literary game. For the House of Fame this sort of meta-value serves the purpose of imagining the social identity of customs controller as a legitimate and distinctive locus for poetic composition. In the Clerk’s performance Chaucer imagines the university student as a normative masculine occupation for which meta-axiology is an end in itself, and thereby gives his earlier position a more authoritative and traditional institutional home. To pursue this argument, the chapter considers the House of Fame; select features of the Clerk’s prologue, tale, and epilogue, for the tale focusing on specific wording in light of its Petrarchan source; and the Clerk’s portrait, placing it against the backdrop of what we know about the normative function of the university in Chaucer’s day.
After presenting book’s justification, the introduction articulates its central argument: that the four-tale sequence of Clerk, Merchant, Squire, and Franklin enacts a dynamically unfolding, conflicted meditation on how literary value may be construed in a way that justifies the time, energy, and expense devoted to the writing of fiction - a justification made in respect to other activities pertaining to other values, especially to economic value in the sense of making a living. The introduction then considers the metacritical stakes and implications of this argument along the methodological dimension of the bearing of manuscript evidence on the principles of Chaucer interpretation and the conceptual dimension of the problem literary value. The former consideration reviews the manuscript basis for the book’s claim about the four-tale sequence; the latter consideration indicates theoretical debts (to, e.g., Bruno Latour and Georg Simmel) and introduces several key terms used throughout the book (the most important: literary axiology, axiological person, and axiological logic), explaining the relation of these terms to more traditional ones of Chaucer criticism.
Chapter 2 argues that the positioning of the Merchant’s performance as an answer to the Clerk’s stages a stern critique of the naïve escapism of the poet-student occupation as the Clerk’s performance imagines it. In this view, the Clerk’s meta-value is an attempt to avoid confronting the true nature of value in the sublunary realm: the material desires of flesh-and-blood individuals. According to the Merchant’s performance, all discourse is a self-interested instrument of these desires. Yet the chapter also argues that this grim position is not one voiced by a bitter man far removed from Chaucer, but rather that the tale is told with the very narratorial wit and playfulness most characteristic of Chaucer’s fiction, whether in his first-person voice or otherwise. For this reason, the Merchant’s dialectical negation of the Clerk’s notion of literary value represents at once Chaucer’s skepticism about the value of his own craft and his reveling in his mastery over it. To pursue this argument, the chapter performs a close reading of the Merchant’s Prologue, examines key moments in the Merchant’s Tale, and considers the Merchant’s portrait in its historical context.
Chapter 3 argues that the division of the four-tale sequence into two fragments has obscured the pivotal function of the Squire’s performance, and especially of the linking passage that accomplishes the positioning of this performance as the dialectical answer to the Merchant’s response to the Clerk. Negating the Merchant’s negation of the Clerk, the Squire’s performance reinstates literary value as the power of the distinctive discourse of romance fiction: the power to provide a restorative vision of a world governed by exactly the kind of ideals that the Merchant’s view understands as mere smokescreens for material desire. Moreover, by associating this kind of literary value with the normative sociocultural practice of a young aristocrat, the Squire’s performance understands literary discourse as also possessing the concrete value of the cultural capital that helps distinguish the elite from the common. The chapter concludes that the Squire’s response to the Merchant nonetheless collapses, not for dramatic reasons (as one trend in criticism has held), but because of a contradiction at the heart of its view of literary value that Chaucer could not overcome.
Literary authors, especially those with other occupations, must come to grips with the question of why they should write at all, when the world urges them to devote their time and energy to other pursuits. They must reach, at the very least, a provisional conclusion regarding the relation between the uncertain value of their literary efforts and the more immediate values of their non-authorial social identities. Geoffrey Chaucer, with his several middle-strata identities, grappled with this question in a remarkably searching, complex manner. In this book, Robert J. Meyer-Lee examines the multiform, dynamic meditation on the relation between literary value and social identity that Chaucer stitched into the heart of The Canterbury Tales. He traces the unfolding of this meditation through what he shows to be the tightly linked performances of Clerk, Merchant, Franklin and Squire, offering the first full-scale reading of this sequence.
The identity as a person with disabilities is a prerequisite for claiming disability rights. In Nicaragua, however, the disability identity is particularly nuanced for persons wounded in the Sandinista Revolution or the subsequent civil war. The members of the Organization of Disabled Revolutionaries (ORD) are all ex-Sandinista soldiers who are proud of their service. For them, their disability symbolizes their sacrifice as protectors of the community in the name of solidaridad. They adamantly identify as “war wounded” rather than as “persons with disabilities.” As a result, they increasingly see the disability-rights movement as a threat to their war-hero status. The members of the Nicaraguan Association of the Disabled Resistance (ADRN), however, see disability rights and the disability identity as an important opportunity. As wounded ex-combatants who fought, and lost, on the opposing side of the civil war, they are stigmatized within Segovia for having fought as Contras. Their disabilities acquired from war remind community members of their past as “traitors,” and thus not deserving of rights. But, by using disability rights as a new identity frame, the ADRN is able to gain access to opportunities that in the past had been denied.
The organizational model for Disabled Persons' Organizations as rights advocates, which is embedded in the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, reflects a larger global trend within the international community promoting rights advocacy as the only legitimate form of civic participation, regardless of the people represented, the issue being addressed, or local history or tradition. This singular script for civil society has its origins in Cold War politics in the West, where the promotion of a free civil society throughout the Global South was used as a tool for defeating authoritarian regimes in the non-West. This history can best be understood using new institutional theory from organizational sociology, which shows how fields are governed by specific norms. What new institutional theory often ignores, however, is that organizations often belong to two or more fields at once. Disabled Persons' Organizations in Nicaragua are part of the international disability-rights movement, but they are also part of local norms civil society. Nicaraguan solidaridad has structured local civil society since the Nicaraguan Revolution (1979), when the population mobilized through “mass” organizations to promote the “common good.” This legacy leaves local disability associations caught between two institutional fields.