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This paper describes a model of electron energization and cyclotron-maser emission applicable to astrophysical magnetized collisionless shocks. It is motivated by the work of Begelman, Ergun and Rees [Astrophys. J. 625, 51 (2005)] who argued that the cyclotron-maser instability occurs in localized magnetized collisionless shocks such as those expected in blazar jets. We report on recent research carried out to investigate electron acceleration at collisionless shocks and maser radiation associated with the accelerated electrons. We describe how electrons accelerated by lower-hybrid waves at collisionless shocks generate cyclotron-maser radiation when the accelerated electrons move into regions of stronger magnetic fields. The electrons are accelerated along the magnetic field and magnetically compressed leading to the formation of an electron velocity distribution having a horseshoe shape due to conservation of the electron magnetic moment. Under certain conditions the horseshoe electron velocity distribution function is unstable to the cyclotron-maser instability [Bingham and Cairns, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3089 (2000); Melrose, Rev. Mod. Plasma Phys. 1, 5 (2017)].
This paper updates Living with Mortality published in 2006. It describes how the longevity risk transfer market has developed over the intervening period, and, in particular, how insurance-based solutions – buy-outs, buy-ins and longevity insurance – have triumphed over capital markets solutions that were expected to dominate at the time. Some capital markets solutions – longevity-spread bonds, longevity swaps, q-forwards and tail-risk protection – have come to market, but the volume of business has been disappointingly low. The reason for this is that when market participants compare the index-based solutions of the capital markets with the customised solutions of insurance companies in terms of basis risk, credit risk, regulatory capital, collateral and liquidity, the former perform on balance less favourably despite a lower potential cost. We discuss the importance of stochastic mortality models for forecasting future longevity and examine some applications of these models, e.g. determining the longevity risk premium and estimating regulatory capital relief. The longevity risk transfer market is now beginning to recognise that there is insufficient capacity in the insurance and reinsurance industries to deal fully with demand and new solutions for attracting capital markets investors are now being examined – such as longevity-linked securities and reinsurance sidecars.
We describe the motivation and design details of the ‘Phase II’ upgrade of the Murchison Widefield Array radio telescope. The expansion doubles to 256 the number of antenna tiles deployed in the array. The new antenna tiles enhance the capabilities of the Murchison Widefield Array in several key science areas. Seventy-two of the new tiles are deployed in a regular configuration near the existing array core. These new tiles enhance the surface brightness sensitivity of the array and will improve the ability of the Murchison Widefield Array to estimate the slope of the Epoch of Reionisation power spectrum by a factor of ∼3.5. The remaining 56 tiles are deployed on long baselines, doubling the maximum baseline of the array and improving the array u, v coverage. The improved imaging capabilities will provide an order of magnitude improvement in the noise floor of Murchison Widefield Array continuum images. The upgrade retains all of the features that have underpinned the Murchison Widefield Array’s success (large field of view, snapshot image quality, and pointing agility) and boosts the scientific potential with enhanced imaging capabilities and by enabling new calibration strategies.
We present techniques developed to calibrate and correct Murchison Widefield Array low-frequency (72–300 MHz) radio observations for polarimetry. The extremely wide field-of-view, excellent instantaneous (u, v)-coverage and sensitivity to degree-scale structure that the Murchison Widefield Array provides enable instrumental calibration, removal of instrumental artefacts, and correction for ionospheric Faraday rotation through imaging techniques. With the demonstrated polarimetric capabilities of the Murchison Widefield Array, we discuss future directions for polarimetric science at low frequencies to answer outstanding questions relating to polarised source counts, source depolarisation, pulsar science, low-mass stars, exoplanets, the nature of the interstellar and intergalactic media, and the solar environment.
Significant new opportunities for astrophysics and cosmology have been identified at low radio frequencies. The Murchison Widefield Array is the first telescope in the southern hemisphere designed specifically to explore the low-frequency astronomical sky between 80 and 300 MHz with arcminute angular resolution and high survey efficiency. The telescope will enable new advances along four key science themes, including searching for redshifted 21-cm emission from the EoR in the early Universe; Galactic and extragalactic all-sky southern hemisphere surveys; time-domain astrophysics; and solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric science and space weather. The Murchison Widefield Array is located in Western Australia at the site of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA) low-band telescope and is the only low-frequency SKA precursor facility. In this paper, we review the performance properties of the Murchison Widefield Array and describe its primary scientific objectives.
In this paper we review the Wilkie asset model for a variety of UK economic indices, including the Retail Prices Index, both without and with an ARCH model, the wages index, share dividend yields, share dividends and share prices, long term bond yields, short term bond yields and index-linked bond yields, in each case by updating the parameters to June 2009. We discuss how the model has performed from 1994 to 2009 and estimate the values of the parameters and their confidence intervals over various sub-periods to study their stability. Our analysis shows that the residuals of many of the series are much fatter-tailed than in a normal distribution. We observe also that besides the stochastic uncertainty built into the model by the random innovations there is also parameter uncertainty arising from the estimated values of the parameters.
Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) with argon actinometry has been used to study the influence of machine parameters on the composition of a BCl3 RF plasma discharge in the absence and presence of aluminium. Two steady state models are proposed to account for the appearance of the various species seen, and to explain their relative abundances in response to changes in power and pressure. The validity of the actinometric technique for measuring relative changes in ground state concentrations is discussed also.
The application of non-equilibrium transport techniques to Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) grown InSb/InAlSb heterostructure diodes has produced practical devices such as midinfrared LED's and negative luminescent sources that operate at room temperature. By extending the epitaxial growth to vicinal InSb substrates it has been demonstrated that the temperature window for high quality epitaxy can be lowered by ∼12°C, giving greatly improved epilayer morphology. The degree of misorientation needed for given growth temperatures is shown from Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) measurements to be only ∼2°. In addition, the lower growth temperature gives improved dopant activation, lower trap densities and lower reverse bias leakage currents, with consequent benefits to device performance.
The preparation a nd characterisationo f a novel organoplatinum fluoride is described. The physical vapour deposition (PVD) of the material was performed in the temperature range 160–170°C, and electron beam bombardment or uv irradiation, results in the degradation of the compound to give high quality metal features down to dimensions of ca 60 nm.
The synthesis and peirastic characterisation of two new organogold(III) complexes with a high molar ratio of gold content is described. The proposed formulae for the complexes in the present study are [C2H2Au4F8(PPh3)4]n and [C2H2Au4F8(NCCH3)4]n (Figure 1). These complexes were found to be stable to the atmosphere. The aim of this work was to demonstrate that such materials have a high metal to ligand ratio, suitable for physical vapour deposition process (PVD) and, hence, can be used as precursors for the deposition of pure metallic features. Physical and chemical characterisation methods were employed to obtain information about i) the structures, ii) the thermal and chemical stability, iii) the volatility and iv) the adhesion of these materials to specific substrates. These include n.m.r. (1H, 19F, 13C and 31P) IR spectroscopy, EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis), DSC ( Differential Scanning Calorimetry), TGA (Thermogravimetric Analysis), Powder X-ray Diffraction and Electron Microscopy (Scanning, Transmission and Atomic Force).
Postnatal depression has detrimental effects on the child's cognitive and emotional development.
To assess the benefits of treating postnatal depression for mother–infant interaction and child development.
A systematic search was made of 12 electronic bibliographic databases for randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials on treatment of mothers with postnatal depression, where outcomes were assessed in children; findings were assessed.
Only eighttrials met the inclusion criteria. Of those included, interventions varied widely but all involved therapies directed at the mother–infant relationship. One study with intensive and prolonged therapy showed cognitive improvement, whereas two others with briefer interventions improved maternal–infant relationships but did not affect the child's cognitive or behavioural development. All five studies assessing only mother–infant relationships showed improvements.
Cognitive development in children of depressed mothers, along with better mother–infant relationships, might be improved with sustained interventions. Trials assessing treatments for postnatal depression would benefit from looking more closely at benefits for children as well as mothers, using validated objective measures.
This paper addresses the problem of longevity risk — the risk of uncertain aggregate mortality — and discusses the ways in which life assurers, annuity providers and pension plans can manage their exposure to this risk. In particular, it focuses on how they can use mortality-linked securities and over-the-counter contracts — some existing and others still hypothetical — to manage their longevity risk exposures. It provides a detailed analysis of two such securities — the Swiss Re mortality bond issued in December 2003 and the EIB/BNP longevity bond announced in November 2004. It then looks at the universe of hypothetical mortality-linked securities — other forms of longevity bonds, swaps, futures and options — and investigates their potential uses. It also addresses implementation issues, and draws lessons from the experiences of other derivative contracts. Particular attention is paid to the issues involved with the construction and use of mortality indices, the management of the associated credit risks, and possible barriers to the development of markets for these securities. It suggests that these implementation difficulties are essentially teething problems that will be resolved over time, and so leave the way open to the development of flourishing markets in a brand new class of securities.
Photon kinetic theory provides a framework for the study of intense electromagnetic fields interacting with underdense plasmas. It is particularly useful when studying forward scattering four-wave modulational type instabilities. The most powerful features are its simplicity and its strong connection with particle beams, and the natural way in which broadband and angular spread effects can be included in the formalism. In this paper we derive the dispersion equations describing four-wave stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering and Langmuir wave modulational instability for induced spatially incoherent pump waves.
Objectives: The cost-effectiveness of
computed tomographic (CT) scanning after acute stroke was investigated
to assess the contribution of brain imaging to the diagnosis and
management of stroke and to estimate the costs, benefits, and risks of
different imaging strategies to provide data to inform national and
local policy on the use of brain imaging in stroke.
This paper considers the market or economic valuation and the hedging of Limited Price Indexed (LPI) liabilities. This involves finding optimal static and dynamic hedging strategies which minimise the riskiness of the investment portfolio relative to the liability.
In this paper we do not aim to find the perfect hedge in a perfect world. Instead, it is assumed that optimisation is restricted to three commonly used asset classes in pension funds: cash; long-term (or irredeemable) fixed-interest bonds; and long-dated index-linked bonds. The economic value of the liability is then defined as the value of the best matching portfolio using a mean/variance type of loss function. Specifically, we adopt the risk minimising approach of Föllmer & Sondermann (1986) and Schweizer & Föllmer (1988). Even with such a simple loss function, establishing the theoretically optimal solution can be difficult. We propose that a practical solution close to the theoretical optimum can be found using two approximations. First, we approximate the ‘true’ stochastic economic model by a vector autoregressive model of order one. Second, we use a sequence of linearisations to approximate non-linear by straightforward quadratic minimisation problems.
The proposed approach is illustrated with various numerical examples, and we compare the results of the approximately optimal hedging strategy with static strategies.
Women with epilepsy are at risk for reproductive health dysfunction. Sex-steroid hormone abnormalities have been reported in women with epilepsy, but it has been difficult to determine whether these abnormalities are due to epilepsy-related hypothalamic-pituitary axis dysfunction, or to pharmacokinetic actions of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Sex-steroid hormones were evaluated in 84 reproductive-aged women with epilepsy receiving an AED in monotherapy, and in 20 nonepileptic controls. Estrone, free testosterone, and androstenedione were significantly lower in subjects receiving enzyme-inducing AEDs than in nonepileptic controls. Free testosterone was significantly elevated in subjects receiving valproate compared to nonepileptic controls. Subjects with epilepsy receiving gabapentin or lamotrigine were no different from the nonepileptic controls in any of the endocrine variables. Subjects with epilepsy who are receiving AEDs that alter cytochrome P450 enzymes are at risk for significant abnormalities in sex-steroid hormones. In contrast, subjects receiving AEDs that do not alter cytochrome P450 enzymes show no differences in sex-steroid hormones compared with nonepileptic controls. With new AEDs available that do not alter cytochrome P450 enzymes, physician selection of therapy should consider not only seizure control, but also potential effects on reproductive physiology.