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Our study adds to the Quaternary history of eolian systems and deposits in western Wisconsin, USA, primarily within the lower Chippewa River valley. Thickness and textural patterns of loess deposits in the region indicate transport by west-northwesterly and westerly winds. Loess is thickest and coarsest on the southeastern flanks of large bedrock ridges and uplands, similar in some ways to shadow dunes. In many areas, sand was transported up and onto the western flanks of bedrock ridges as sand ramps, presumably as loess was deposited in their lee. Long, linear dunes, common on the sandy lowlands of the Chippewa valley, also trend to the east-southeast. Small depressional blowouts are widespread here as well and often lie immediately upwind of small parabolic dunes. Finally, in areas where sediment was being exposed by erosion along cutbanks of the Chippewa River, sand appears to have been transported up and onto the terrace treads, forming cliff-top dunes. Luminescence data indicate that this activity has continued throughout the latest Pleistocene and into the mid-Holocene. Together, these landforms and sediments paint a picture of a locally destabilized landscape with widespread eolian activity throughout much of the postglacial period.
The evolution of planetary nebula (PN) nuclei has been studied at masses of 0.60, 0.70 and 0.76 M⊙, and for the ejection of the PN at various phases of a helium shell flash cycle. The evolution at high luminosities takes longer for nuclei resulting from PN ejection at shell flash peak than it does for those resulting from ejection in the inter-flash phase. Comparison of our calculations with various observational results does not allow us to reach any definite conclusions regarding the phase of the shell flash cycle at which PN ejection occurs.
The Southern Hemisphere VLBI Experiment (or SHEVE) was a joint US-Australian-South African venture with both astronomy and geodesy goals. The principle astronomy goal was to make models or maps of the following sources: at 2.3 GHz (with six antennas and 9 usable baselines) – Centaurus A (the nearest active galaxy), Circinus X-1 (a flaring binary), the VELA pulsar, and 26 other active galactic nuclei and quasars; at 8.4 GHz (only one baseline) – Centaurus A and the galactic center.
Six radio telescopes were operated as the first southern hemisphere VLBI array in April and May 1982. Observations were made at 2.3 and 8.4 Ghz. This array produced VLBI images of 28 southern hemisphere radio sources, high accuracy VLBI geodesy between southern hemisphere sites, and subarcsecond radio astrometry of celestial sources south of declination −45 degrees. This paper discusses only the astrophysical aspects of the experiment.
Clusters of ammonoid embryonic shells have been discovered in several carbonate concretions from a dysoxic, relatively deep water shale (Heebner Shale-Oread Formation) of Virgilian (U. Carboniferous) age near the community of Pomona, Kansas. The concretions from a single outcrop display four distinct units. Unit 1 is the lowest unit and has an evenly laminated fabric with scattered embryonic and juvenile ammonoids, gastropods, and bivalves. The bedding fabric of this unit is interrupted and truncated by a series of pits that form the base of Unit 2, which is a sharply bounded discontinuity. Within the pits there are embryonic ammonoid clusters up to 2.5 cm thick containing as many as 250 individuals per cm3. Some juvenile ammonoids and shell fragments (mostly of ammonoids) are also present. These clusters are capped by Unit 3 which has a gradational boundary with Unit 2. Unit 3 consists in places of a packstone of fossil debris including ammonoid body chamber and phragmocone fragments, three genera of juvenile ammonoids, embryonic ammonoids, and more rarely brachiopods, bivalves, and orthoconic nautiloids. Elsewhere, fossils of Unit 3 are well separated by matrix, which lacks the bedding fabric characteristic of Unit 1. The ammonoids in Unit 3 include mature to sub-mature fragments of Aristoceras and sub-mature phragmocones of Glaphyrites and Shumardites. The brachiopods (articulate and inarticulate) and the bivalves are probably sub-mature or mature. Planktonic bivalves are extremely rare. The number of shell fragments of embryonic and postembryonic ammonoids and other shell fragments decreases upwards from the upper contact of Unit 2. The boundary of Units 3 and 4 is more-or-less gradational; Unit 4 has a sedimentary fabric and faunal content like that observed in Unit 1.
One set of hypotheses to explain the embryo clusters in Unit 2 emphasizes sedimentological processes such as selective transportation and accumulation by currents, turbidity transport and storm deposits. Another set of hypotheses favors biological activities such as reproductive activity and egg-laying. If this second set of hypotheses is correct, these clusters would provide the first documentation of ammonoid reproductive activity and would represent a find as significant in its way as that of the nests of embryo bearing dinosaur eggs.
This volume explores the diverse ways in which the Book of Psalms profoundly influenced medieval English literature and culture, through a series of connected overviews and special case studies. A number of recent studies have highlighted the Psalter's reception in Early Modern English (and wider European culture), while three monographs by contributors to this volume offer focused studies of the Psalter in individual periods of medieval English literature: Jane Toswell's The Anglo-Saxon Psalter, Annie Sutherland's English Psalms in the Middle Ages: 1300–1450and Michael P. Kuczynski's Prophetic Song: The Psalms as Moral Discourse in Late Medieval England. But as yet no single study has sought to offer a comprehensive survey of English responses to the Book of Psalms from the conversion of the Anglo-Saxons to the cusp of the Reformation. By bringing work by experts on both Old and Middle English literature into dialogue, this volume breaks down the traditional disciplinary binaries of pre- and post-Conquest English, late medieval and Early Modern, as well as emphasizing the complex and fascinating relationship between Latin and the vernacular languages of England. In order to encourage the reader to make connections both across and within these various periods and languages, the book is arranged thematically rather than chronologically, with three sections designed to offer a variety of perspectives on the Psalms and medieval English literature.
Section I (Translation) focuses on the development of English psalm translation from its beginnings in Old English interlinear glosses in Latin psalters through the multilingual psalters of the Anglo-Norman era to the stand-alone vernacular psalters of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Concentrating on the Psalter as a book, this section charts the emergence of English as a scriptural language in the medieval period.
Section II (Adaptation) considers how medieval English prose and verse writers draw on the Psalms as a source of literary inspiration. Demonstrating how the Psalter could be adapted and redeployed within the context of medieval worship and prayer, it begins with a discussion of the first adaptation of the entire Psalter into English verse, before turning to a consideration of the development of the abbreviated psalter tradition. This section also addresses the wider influence of psalmic language and imagery on Old English praise and lament poetry, and on Middle English alliterative verse.
The Book of Psalms had a profound impact on English literature from the Anglo-Saxon to the late medieval period. This collection examines the various ways in which they shaped medieval English thoughtand contributed to the emergence of an English literary canon. It brings into dialogue experts on both Old and Middle English literature, thus breaking down the traditional disciplinary binaries of both pre- and post-Conquest English and late medieval and Early Modern, as well as emphasizing the complex and fascinating relationship between Latin and the vernacular languages of England. Its three main themes, translation, adaptation and voice, enable a rich variety of perspectives on the Psalms and medieval English literature to emerge.
Tamara Atkin is Senior Lecturer in Late Medieval and Early Renaissance Literature at Queen Mary University of London; Francis Leneghan is Associate Professor of Old English at The University of Oxford and a Fellow of St Cross College, Oxford.
Contributors: Daniel Anlezark, Mark Faulkner, Vincent Gillespie, Michael P. Kuczynski, David Lawton, Francis Leneghan, Jane Roberts, Mike Rodman Jones, Elizabeth Solopova, Lynn Staley, AnnieSutherland, Jane Toswell, Katherine Zieman.
PSRs J1847–0130 and J1718–37184 have inferred surface dipole magnetic fields greater than those of any other known pulsars and well above the “quantum critical field” above which some models predict radio emission should not occur. These fields are similar to those of the anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs), which growing evidence suggests are “magnetars”. The lack of AXP-like X-ray emission from these radio pulsars (and the non-detection of radio emission from the AXPs) creates new challenges for understanding pulsar emission physics and the relationship between these classes of apparently young neutron stars.
Expansion velocities ([O III], [O II], and He II) have been measured for a sample of 64 Southern Planetary Nebulae (PN). The ratio of [O III] to [O II] expansion velocities is used to derive a typical ionized shell thickness of order ΔR/Rneb ≍ 0.12. Nebular electronic densities have been determined from the [O II]λλ3727, 3729 A doublet for 23 of these objects. These data are compared with previously published values. The Dopita et al. (1987) distance scale for Magellanic Cloud PN based on a correlation between observable nebular parameters is used to derive distances to 32 Galactic nebulae. These distances are compared with published values, and lead to the conclusion that the Dopita et al., Daub (1982) and Maciel (1984) distance scales agree well, but that the Shklovsky (1956) method yields distances that are too large. Nebular ionized masses are also calculated for a subset of 30 objects.