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This study provides a morphological and phylogenetic characterization of two novel species of the order Haplosporida (Haplosporidium carcini n. sp., and H. cranc n. sp.) infecting the common shore crab Carcinus maenas collected at one location in Swansea Bay, South Wales, UK. Both parasites were observed in the haemolymph, gills and hepatopancreas. The prevalence of clinical infections (i.e. parasites seen directly in fresh haemolymph preparations) was low, at ~1%, whereas subclinical levels, detected by polymerase chain reaction, were slightly higher at ~2%. Although no spores were found in any of the infected crabs examined histologically (n = 334), the morphology of monokaryotic and dikaryotic unicellular stages of the parasites enabled differentiation between the two new species. Phylogenetic analyses of the new species based on the small subunit (SSU) rDNA gene placed H. cranc in a clade of otherwise uncharacterized environmental sequences from marine samples, and H. carcini in a clade with other crustacean-associated lineages.
Novel neurointerventions present innovative therapeutic approaches to a range of treatment-refractory disorders. We sought to characterize factors that inform and define translational readiness for first-in-human (FIH) neuromodulatory trials.
We used a two-part methodology involving a scoping review of the biomedical literature on the readiness of FIH trials for both neurological and non-neurological applications, and semi-structured interviews with stakeholders about decision-making for neuromodulation using magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound as a case example.
One hundred and thirty factors relevant to FIH readiness were identified in the scoping review. Trial design, adequacy of preclinical evidence, and risk were ubiquitous across biotechnologies. Target organ, target function, and inadequacy of animal models were dominant in the neurointervention literature. Interview results on the relative importance of these factors reveal divergent values, priorities, and understandings both between patients and clinicians and between patients affected by different conditions.
Readiness of neurotechnology for FIH trials is defined by a multitude of interacting factors that pertain to clinical and nonclinical priorities, perceptions, and values.
The INSYTE study provides an understanding of the management of Parkinson disease psychosis (PDP) in actual practice settings, including use of antipsychotic (APs) and their impact on clinical, economic, and humanistic outcomes. Treatment paradigms or the benefits/consequences of various “real world” PDP treatment strategies have not been evaluated. Thus, providers may be using a wide range of AP treatment strategies that contrast with consensus recommendations.
The INSYTE study is enrolling up to 750 patients from up to 100 sites in the US. Data are compiled at the baseline (BL) visit and from standard-of-care follow up visits over 3 years. PDP treatment pathways are defined from 3 BL cohorts reflecting (1) no AP medication, (2) use of pimavanserin (PIM), or (3) other AP treatment. Information about APs used is collected at each follow-up visit: history, duration, dose, adjustment, and rationale for adjustment of treatment. Outcomes assessments (clinical, quality of life, disease burden) by the physician, patient, and caregiver are also collected. AP medication and outcomes data are analyzed for patients completing a BL and 1 follow up visit (FU1).
For 404 patients with BL and FU1 visits (mean 120.7 days from BL), 56.8% used no AP medications, 26.0% used PIM, and 13.6% used other APs at BL. The No Medication group was noted to be less severe in key BL disease parameters. Considering primary PDP treatments at BL and FU1 (including no treatment), 26 distinct pathways were being employed. 12.6% of patients had AP medication adjustments between BL and FU1 visits, most frequently from the non-PIM group. Adjustments of APs occurred in many forms: introduction of a single AP (64.7%%), introduction of multiple APs (5.9%), switching to another AP (3.9%), decreasing the number of APs (5.9%), and discontinuation (19.6%).
Multiple, divergent AP treatment strategies for PDP exist in actual practice. No identifiable BL characteristics correlated with the broad range of AP treatment pathways. The numerous distinct AP treatment pathways utilized (n=26) reflect discordance with the updated 2019 MDS evidence-based recommendations, which recognize only 2 APs as “efficacious” and “clinically useful”: pimavanserin and clozapine. Education of healthcare professionals remains a priority for PDP management.
Most reports on the outcome of children who present with heart failure, due to heart muscle disease, are from an era when ventricular assist devices were not available. This study provides outcome data for the current era where prolonged circulatory support can be considered for most children.
Methods & Results:
Data was retrieved on 100 consecutive children, who presented between 2010 – 2016, with a first diagnosis of unexplained heart failure. Hospital outcome was classified as either death, transplantation, recovery of function or persistent heart failure. Median age at presentation was 24 months and 58% were < 5 years old. Hospital mortality was 12% and 59% received a heart transplant. Most, 79%, of the transplants were carried out on patients with a device. Recovery of function was observed in 18% and 10% stabilised on oral therapy. Eighty-four percent of the deaths occurred in the <5 year old group. Shorter duration of support was associated with survival (34 days in survivors versus 106 in non-survivors, p = 0.01) and 72% were on an assist device at time of death.
Heart failure in children who require referral to a transplant unit is a serious illness with a high chance of either transplantation or death. Modifications in assist devices will be required to improve safety, especially for children < 5 years old where the donor wait may be prolonged. The identification of children who may recover function requires further study.
After ignoring its holdings in Africa for the first half of the nineteenth century, the European scramble for colonies in the 1880s forced the Portuguese state to adopt a new policy to cement its tenuous hold on its two largest African colonies: Angola and Mozambique. This challenge occurred just as the penal reform movement of the nineteenth century was arriving in Portugal, with a new penitentiary in Lisbon and new legal codes aimed at reforming convicts through their labour. This article examines the rationale and impact of the Depósito de Degredados (Depot for Transported Convicts) in Luanda, Angola, the larger of the two prisons established to supervise the work of convicts sent from Portugal and Portugal’s Atlantic colonies of Cape Verde, Portuguese Guinea, and São Tomé.
Rib bone biopsy samples are often used to estimate changes in skeletal mineral reserves in cattle but differences in sampling procedures and the bone measurements reported often make interpretation and comparisons among experiments difficult. ‘Full-core’ rib bone biopsy samples, which included the external cortical bone, internal cortical bone and trabecular bone (CBext, CBint and Trab, respectively), were obtained from cattle known to be in phosphorus (P) adequate (Padeq) or severely P-deficient (Pdefic) status. Experiments 1 and 2 examined growing steers and Experiment 3 mature breeder cows. The thickness of cortical bone, specific gravity (SG), and the amount and concentration of ash and P per unit fresh bone volume, differed among CBext, CBint and Trab bone. P concentration (mg/cc) was closely correlated with both SG and ash concentrations (pooled data, r=0.99). Thickness of external cortical bone (CBText) was correlated with full-core P concentration (FC-Pconc) (pooled data, r=0.87). However, an index, the amount of P in CBext per unit surface area of CBext (PSACB; mg P/mm2), was more closely correlated with the FC-Pconc (pooled data, FC-Pconc=37.0+146×PSACB; n=42, r=0.94, RSD=7.7). Results for measured or estimated FC-Pconc in 10 published studies with cattle in various physiological states and expected to be Padeq or in various degrees of Pdefic status were collated and the ranges of FC-Pconc indicative of P adequacy and P deficiency for various classes of cattle were evaluated. FC-Pconc was generally in the range 130 to 170 and 100 to 120 mg/cc fresh bone in Padeq mature cows and young growing cattle, respectively. In conclusion, the FC-Pconc could be estimated accurately from biopsy samples of CBext. This allows comparisons between studies where full-core or only CBext biopsy samples of rib bone have been obtained to estimate changes in the skeletal P status of cattle and facilitates evaluation of the P status of cattle.
Donald Trump dominated the 2016 Republican primary despite the fact that he was not, in any meaningful sense, a Republican. Bernie Sanders came just shy of winning the Democratic nomination despite the fact that he switched his party affiliation from Independent to Democrat only three months before the election. Why did two candidates with no formal ties to the political parties fare so well? One possibility is that primary voters are more ideologically extreme and that ideology drives support for these candidates. However, another possibility is that concerns about government process drives support for insurgent candidates. We test the proposition that distrust was the primary motivator of primary voting for these two insurgent candidates using two datasets: a poll of New Hampshire voters fielded a week before their primary and a national poll taken in June 2016. Results confirm the hypothesis that distrust drove intraparty vote choice in the 2016 presidential primaries.
Host–parasite dynamics can play a fundamental role in both the establishment success of invasive species and their impact on native wildlife. The net impact of parasites depends on their capacity to switch effectively between native and invasive hosts. Here we explore host-switching, spatial patterns and simple fitness measures in a slow-expanding invasion: the invasion of Asian house geckos (Hemidactylus frenatus) from urban areas into bushland in Northeast Australia. In bushland close to urban edges, H. frenatus co-occurs with, and at many sites now greatly out-numbers, native geckos. We measured prevalence and intensity of Geckobia mites (introduced with H. frenatus), and Waddycephalus (a native pentastome). We recorded a new invasive mite species, and several new host associations for native mites and geckos, but we found no evidence of mite transmission between native and invasive geckos. In contrast, native Waddycephalus nymphs were commonly present in H. frenatus, demonstrating this parasite's capacity to utilize H. frenatus as a novel host. Prevalence of mites on H. frenatus decreased with distance from the urban edge, suggesting parasite release towards the invasion front; however, we found no evidence that mites affect H. frenatus body condition or lifespan. Waddycephalus was present at low prevalence in bushland sites and, although its presence did not affect host body condition, our data suggest that it may reduce host survival. The high relative density of H. frenatus at our sites, and their capacity to harbour Waddycephalus, suggests that there may be impacts on native geckos and snakes through parasite spillback.
We present broadband photoelectric light curves for the RS CVn type star PZ Telescopium for 1980, 1982 and 1983. The photometric period is about 0.943 days. The V light curve shows radical changes in form and range over a few months, and may be continuously variable. B and V data were obtained in 1982 and 1983. In 1982 no (B-V) change with phase was detected. However, in the first part of the 1983 observing season, a (BV) change of around 0.02 magnitude was found. Also at this time, maximum light was some 0.05 magnitude above that measured previously. Our preliminary spectroscopic data obtained in 1983 indicate that PZ Tel is a double lined binary whose components are of approximately equal luminosities, but this is yet to be confirmed. We suggest that the photometric variations are due to the presence of large cooler starspots on the photosphere of one or both components, as seems to be the case for related systems. The rapid changes in the observed light curve imply equally rapid changes in the distribution of the starspots, and make this an interesting object for further study.
Photoelectric B and V light curves and high dispersion spectroscopic observations were obtained in 1985 February for the rapidly rotating spotted star HD 36705. The visual light range was about 0.09 magnitude, with a well correlated B-V change of approximately 0.04 magnitude, the star being redder when faintest. There is evidence for a broadband flare of ~0.05 magnitude in V and 0.07 magnitude in B. This occurred near maximum light.
Spectroscopic observations show a variation in the equivalent width of the Ca K emission by a factor of about two in antiphase with the photometric variations, maximum emission corresponding to minimum brightness. This is probably due to bright plages and enhanced chromospheric heating associated with the photospheric starspots.
High dispersion, high signal-to-noise spectroscopic observations confirm the presence of lithium λ 6708 as reported by Rucinski (1982, 1985).
Several interpretations of the nature of HD 36705 are discussed; however at present none is completely satisfactory and further observations are required. As the star is probably at less than 100 pc, a parallax determination may be possible, and could help answer many of the questions concerning HD 36705.
We present an overview of the survey for radio emission from active stars that has been in progress for the last six years using the observatories at Fleurs, Molonglo, Parkes and Tidbinbilla. The role of complementary optical observations at the Anglo-Australian Observatory, Mount Burnett, Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories and Mount Tamborine are also outlined. We describe the different types of star that have been included in our survey and discuss some of the problems in making the radio observations.
We present some preliminary results of an optical and radio study of the very active RS CVn binary HD 127535. Photometric measurements show the presence of a large amplitude wave which exhibits marked changes in shape and range on time scales as short as a few months. This photometric variation is almost certainly due to large cool starspots on the cooler, more luminous component. As part of a survey of southern active-chromosphere stars with the Parkes radio telescope, HD 127535 has been observed at 5, 8.4 and 22 GHz. No detection was made at 5 GHz, possibly because of confusion due to the angular proximity of the star to the galatic plane. However, it is one of the strongest sources detected in the 8.4 GHz survey, and is one of only two stars detected at 22 GHz. Photometry obtained two cycles before the 8.4 GHz observations suggest a possible correlation between the radio emission and the photometric wave, i.e. spot visibility, but more data are needed.
The subsurface exploration of other planetary bodies can be used to unravel their geological history and assess their habitability. On Mars in particular, present-day habitable conditions may be restricted to the subsurface. Using a deep subsurface mine, we carried out a program of extraterrestrial analog research – MINe Analog Research (MINAR). MINAR aims to carry out the scientific study of the deep subsurface and test instrumentation designed for planetary surface exploration by investigating deep subsurface geology, whilst establishing the potential this technology has to be transferred into the mining industry. An integrated multi-instrument suite was used to investigate samples of representative evaporite minerals from a subsurface Permian evaporite sequence, in particular to assess mineral and elemental variations which provide small-scale regions of enhanced habitability. The instruments used were the Panoramic Camera emulator, Close-Up Imager, Raman spectrometer, Small Planetary Linear Impulse Tool, Ultrasonic drill and handheld X-ray diffraction (XRD). We present science results from the analog research and show that these instruments can be used to investigate in situ the geological context and mineralogical variations of a deep subsurface environment, and thus habitability, from millimetre to metre scales. We also show that these instruments are complementary. For example, the identification of primary evaporite minerals such as NaCl and KCl, which are difficult to detect by portable Raman spectrometers, can be accomplished with XRD. By contrast, Raman is highly effective at locating and detecting mineral inclusions in primary evaporite minerals. MINAR demonstrates the effective use of a deep subsurface environment for planetary instrument development, understanding the habitability of extreme deep subsurface environments on Earth and other planetary bodies, and advancing the use of space technology in economic mining.
We examined the representativeness of the nonfederal hospital emergency department (ED) visit data in the National Syndromic Surveillance Program (NSSP).
We used the 2012 American Hospital Association Annual Survey Database, other databases, and information from state and local health departments participating in the NSSP about which hospitals submitted data to the NSSP in October 2014. We compared ED visits for hospitals submitting data with all ED visits in all 50 states and Washington, DC.
Approximately 60.4 million of 134.6 million ED visits nationwide (~45%) were reported to have been submitted to the NSSP. ED visits in 5 of 10 regions and the majority of the states were substantially underrepresented in the NSSP. The NSSP ED visits were similar to national ED visits in terms of many of the characteristics of hospitals and their service areas. However, visits in hospitals with the fewest annual ED visits, in rural trauma centers, and in hospitals serving populations with high percentages of Hispanics and Asians were underrepresented.
NSSP nonfederal hospital ED visit data were representative for many hospital characteristics and in some geographic areas but were not very representative nationally and in many locations. Representativeness could be improved by increasing participation in more states and among specific types of hospitals. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:562–569)
Emergency department thoracotomy (EDT) is a rare and potentially life-saving intervention performed for trauma patients in extremis. EDT is rare at Canadian trauma centres because of our infrequent occurrence of penetrating trauma. This study was undertaken to evaluate outcomes at a Canadian level 1 trauma facility and compare survival to large published datasets. Also, we evaluated the appropriateness of an EDT performed at our centre based on published national guidelines.
Retrospective medical record review of all patients undergoing an EDT during their resuscitation in the emergency department. Records were identified using our trauma registry, and all charts were manually reviewed. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge.
Over a 20-year period, 58 EDTs were performed with 6 (10.3%) survivors. Patients undergoing an EDT secondary to penetrating trauma had the highest survival (5 of 24 patients or 20.8% survival) compared to patients undergoing an EDT for blunt trauma (1 of 34 patients or 2.9% survival). Patients undergoing an EDT who had not suffered cardiac arrest represented the group with the highest survival rate (3 of 6 patients or 50% survival). The majority of EDTs (79.3%) were indicated, and no patient undergoing an EDT survived if it was performed outside of published guidelines.
Survival following an EDT in our small, regional trauma centre is consistent with survival rates from larger published datasets. An EDT should continue to be performed under accepted clinical indications.
We report static and time-resolved terahertz (THz) conductivity measurements of a highperformance thermoelectric material containing tellurium nanowires in a PEDOT:PSS matrix. Composites were made with and without sulfur passivation of the nanowires surfaces. The material with sulfur linkers (TeNW/PD-S) is less conductive but has a longer carrier lifetime than the formulation without (TeNW/PD). We find real conductivities at f = 1THz of σTeNW/PD = 160 S/cm and σTeNW/PD-S = 5.1 S/cm. These values are much larger than the corresponding DC conductivities, suggesting DC conductivity is limited by structural defects. The free-carrier lifetime in the nanowires is controlled by recombination and trapping at the nanowire surfaces. We find surface recombination velocities in bare tellurium nanowires (22m/s) and TeNW/PD-S (40m/s) that are comparable to evaporated tellurium thin films. The surface recombination velocity in TeNW/PD (509m/s) is much larger, indicating a higher interface trap density.
An ionosphere is the ionized part of the upper atmosphere of a planet or a moon, a transition layer between the space environment and the lower atmosphere. At Titan, the ionosphere was first detected by the Voyager 1 radio occultation experiment (Bird et al., 1997). As Titan is located within Saturn's magnetosphere for most of the time with occasional incursions into its magnetosheath (and even rarer incursions into the solar wind), its ionosphere is a key layer in coupling Titan with Saturn's space environment. The question of whether Titan's ionosphere is produced primarily by solar radiation or electron precipitation from Saturn's magnetosphere has been under debate for several decades (e.g., Nagy and Cravens, 1998). This is not surprising, bearing in mind the complex and dynamic nature of both the magnetospheric forcing and of the magnetic field line configuration at Titan (see Chapter 12). For instance, while Titan does not have any significant intrinsic magnetic field, Saturn's magnetic field lines drape around and permeate its ionosphere. The draping changes significantly with the angle between the solar direction and the co-rotating plasma direction, which varies as Titan orbits around Saturn.
The Cassini spacecraft, which arrived at Saturn in July 2004, has explored Titan's ionosphere in detail through many close fly-bys, the first of which took place in October 2004. The resulting rich datasets from many instruments, combined with comprehensive analyses, have revealed the chemically and dynamically most complex ionosphere in the solar system.
Titan, Mars, and Venus are three largely unmagnetized planetary bodies with dense atmospheres that are immersed in external and highly dynamic magnetized plasma flows. Mars and Venus interact with the solar wind, whereas Titan usually interacts with the rotating magnetosphere of Saturn, and only occasionally is subject to shocked solar wind during brief excursions into Saturn's magnetosheath (Figure 12.1). Titan's atmosphere is ionized by the energetic plasma flow, together with solar and cosmic ray radiation (see Chapter 11), and the resulting ionosphere provide a conductive environment with which the external plasma flow interacts. The ability of the ionosphere to carry an electrical current plays an important role in the dynamics and energetics of the ionosphere, and through collisions, to the deposition of energy and momentum into the neutral atmosphere. This magnetosphere/ionosphere interaction at Titan involves the formation of an induced magnetosphere around Titan with interaction boundaries that drapes the magnetic field lines into a long tail behind the moon, already detected by the instruments of the Voyager 1 spacecraft (e.g., Ness et al., 1982; Gurnett et al., 1982) during its swift fly-by of Titan's plasma wake. The interaction causes ionospheric convection and facilitates the escape of ionospheric plasma through the tail to the surrounding streaming magnetosphere past Titan. In addition, Titan's vast neutral gas environment becomes partly ionized; the created ions are picked up by the induced convection electric field by the streaming magnetospheric plasma and drift away in a gyrating motion, at the same time mass loading the streaming plasma so it slows down in the neighborhood of the moon.
Digital images were made of Bamberg Observatory Sky Patrol plates of the field surrounding the active-chromosphere star CF Octantis (HD 196818). These images, taken with an inexpensive camera, were analysed using standard aperture photometry techniques. Good agreement was found with catalogued photographic magnitudes for stars in the range mpg ∼8.5 to ∼10.5. The root-mean-square deviations in the measured differences for non-variable field stars was found to be of order 0.10 mag, although a small number of larger differences occurred. For CF Oct, a period search of data from 1966 recovered the known 20 d variation due to starspot rotational modulation, with a range of variation of order 0.5 mag photographic. For active-chromosphere stars with moderately large photometric variations (>∼0.3 mag), and moderate to long rotation periods (>∼1 week), careful analysis of similarly obtained digital copies of archive plates may provide valuable insights into historical actvity.