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Over the last two decades, heart centres have developed strategies to meet the neurodevelopmental needs of children with congenital heart disease. Since the publication of guidelines in 2012, cardiac neurodevelopmental follow-up programmes have become more widespread. Local neurodevelopmental programmes, however, have been developed independently in widely varying environments. We sought to characterise variation in structure and personnel in cardiac neurodevelopmental programmes. A 31-item survey was sent to all member institutions of the Cardiac Neurodevelopmental Outcome Collaborative. Multidisciplinary teams at each centre completed the survey. Responses were compiled in a descriptive fashion. Of the 29 invited centres, 23 responded to the survey (79%). Centres reported more anticipated neurodevelopment visits between birth and 5 years of age (median 5, range 2–8) than 5–18 years (median 2, range 0–10) with 53% of centres lacking any standard for routine neurodevelopment evaluations after 5 years of age. Estimated annual neurodevelopment clinic volume ranged from 85 to 428 visits with a median of 16% of visits involving children >5 years of age. Among responding centres, the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence were the most routinely used tests. Neonatal clinical assessment was more common (64%) than routine neonatal brain imaging (23%) during hospitalisation. In response to clinical need and published guidelines, centres have established formal cardiac neurodevelopment follow-up programmes. Centres vary considerably in their approaches to routine screening and objective testing, with many centres currently focussing their resources on evaluating younger patients.
The seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) IgG antibody was evaluated among employees of a Veterans Affairs healthcare system to assess potential risk factors for transmission and infection.
All employees were invited to participate in a questionnaire and serological survey to detect antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 as part of a facility-wide quality improvement and infection prevention initiative regardless of clinical or nonclinical duties. The initiative was conducted from June 8 to July 8, 2020.
Of the 2,900 employees, 51% participated in the study, revealing a positive SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence of 4.9% (72 of 1,476; 95% CI, 3.8%–6.1%). There were no statistically significant differences in the presence of antibody based on gender, age, frontline worker status, job title, performance of aerosol-generating procedures, or exposure to known patients with coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) within the hospital. Employees who reported exposure to a known COVID-19 case outside work had a significantly higher seroprevalence at 14.8% (23 of 155) compared to those who did not 3.7% (48 of 1,296; OR, 4.53; 95% CI, 2.67–7.68; P < .0001). Notably, 29% of seropositive employees reported no history of symptoms for SARS-CoV-2 infection.
The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among employees was not significantly different among those who provided direct patient care and those who did not, suggesting that facility-wide infection control measures were effective. Employees who reported direct personal contact with COVID-19–positive persons outside work were more likely to have SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Employee exposure to SARS-CoV-2 outside work may introduce infection into hospitals.
Zn is an essential nutrient for humans; however, a sensitive biomarker to assess Zn status has not been identified. The objective of this study was to determine the reliability and sensitivity of Zn transporter and metallothionein (MT) genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to Zn exposure ex vivo and to habitual Zn intake in human subjects. In study 1, human PBMCs were cultured for 24 h with 0–50 µm ZnSO4 with or without 5 µm N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), and mRNA expression of SLC30A1-10, SLC39A1-14, MT1 subtypes (A, B, E, F, G, H, L, M and X), MT2A, MT3 and MT4 mRNA was determined. In study 2, fifty-four healthy male and female volunteers (31·9 (sd 13·8) years, BMI 25·7 (sd 2·9) kg/m2) completed a FFQ, blood was collected, PBMCs were isolated and mRNA expression of selected Zn transporters and MT isoforms was determined. Study 1: MT1E, MT1F, MT1G, MT1H, MT1L, MT1M, MT1X, MT2A and SLC30A1 increased with increasing concentrations of Zn and declined with the addition of TPEN. Study 2: Average daily Zn intake was 16·0 (sd 5·3) mg/d (range: 9–31 mg/d), and plasma Zn concentrations were 15·5 (SD 2·8) μmol/l (range 11–23 μmol/l). PBMC MT2A was positively correlated with dietary Zn intake (r 0·306, P = 0·03) and total Zn intake (r 0·382, P < 0·01), whereas plasma Zn was not (P > 0·05 for both). Findings suggest that MT2A mRNA in PBMCs reflects dietary Zn intake in healthy adults and may be a component in determining Zn status.
The Nottingham and Nottinghamshire Hospital for Diseases of the Throat, Ear and Nose existed in Nottingham for over 60 years, but there is little knowledge or documentation regarding its existence.
The following resources were searched to find out more about the hospital: the Nottinghamshire Archives; Manuscripts and Special Collections at the University of Nottingham Libraries; and Nottingham Central Library. Information was also obtained from the founders’ relatives.
The hospital was founded in 1886, by Dr Donald Stewart, supported by political and clerical leaders. Initially, it treated out-patients only; in-patients were admitted for surgical treatment from 1905. Suitable accommodation was purchased in 1925, on Goldsmith Street, but required much building extension and alteration. Building restrictions during and following World War II prevented expansion. The National Hospital Survey conducted in 1945 considered the clinical work undertaken to be of a minor character, and recommended closure and amalgamation with the services provided by the Nottingham General Hospital. The hospital closed in 1947.
The specialist hospital was deemed unfit and unsuitable to compete with the comprehensive service provided by the Nottingham General Hospital.
Cognitive deficits affect a significant proportion of patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Problems with sustained attention have been found independent of mood state and the causes are unclear. We aimed to investigate whether physical parameters such as activity levels, sleep, and body mass index (BMI) may be contributing factors.
Forty-six patients with BD and 42 controls completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and wore a triaxial accelerometer for 21 days which collected information on physical activity, sleep, and circadian rhythm. Ex-Gaussian analyses were used to characterise reaction time distributions. We used hierarchical regression analyses to examine whether physical activity, BMI, circadian rhythm, and sleep predicted variance in the performance of cognitive tasks.
Neither physical activity, BMI, nor circadian rhythm predicted significant variance on any of the cognitive tasks. However, the presence of a sleep abnormality significantly predicted a higher intra-individual variability of the reaction time distributions on the Attention Network Task.
This study suggests that there is an association between sleep abnormalities and cognition in BD, with little or no relationship with physical activity, BMI, and circadian rhythm.
The Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) is a screening test of global cognitive function used in research and clinical settings. However, the CASI was developed using face validity and has not been investigated via empirical tests such as factor analyses. Thus, we aimed to develop and test a parsimonious conceptualization of the CASI rooted in cognitive aging literature reflective of crystallized and fluid abilities.
Secondary data analysis implementing confirmatory factor analyses where we tested the proposed two-factor solution, an alternate one-factor solution, and conducted a χ2 difference test to determine which model had a significantly better fit.
Data came from 3,491 men from the Kuakini Honolulu-Asia Aging Study.
The Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument.
Findings demonstrated that both models fit the data; however, the two-factor model had a significantly better fit than the one-factor model. Criterion validity tests indicated that participant age was negatively associated with both factors and that education was positively associated with both factors. Further tests demonstrated that fluid abilities were significantly and negatively associated with a later-life dementia diagnosis.
We encourage investigators to use the two-factor model of the CASI as it could shed light on underlying cognitive processes, which may be more informative than using a global measure of cognition.
Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) post-stroke is frequent but may go undetected, which highlights the need to better screen cognitive functioning following a stroke.
We examined the clinical utility of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in detecting cognitive impairment against a gold-standard neuropsychological battery.
We assessed cognitive status with a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests in 161 individuals who were at least 3-months post-stroke. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to identify two cut points for the MoCA to maximize sensitivity and specificity at a minimum 90% threshold. We examined the utility of the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, a processing speed measure, to determine whether this additional metric would improve classification relative to the MoCA total score alone.
Using two cut points, 27% of participants scored ≤ 23 and were classified as high probability of cognitive impairment (sensitivity 92%), and 24% of participants scored ≥ 28 and were classified as low probability of cognitive impairment (specificity 91%). The remaining 48% of participants scored from 24 to 27 and were classified as indeterminate probability of cognitive impairment. The addition of a processing speed measure improved classification for the indeterminate group by correctly identifying 65% of these individuals, for an overall classification accuracy of 79%.
The utility of the MoCA in detecting cognitive impairment post-stroke is improved when using a three-category approach. The addition of a processing speed measure provides a practical and efficient method to increase confidence in the determined outcome while minimally extending the screening routine for VCI.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: This work-in-progress aims to: 1) identify and differentiate symptom pattern trajectories in a sample of older adult heart failure (HF) patients over 24 weeks, and 2) examine associations between sociodemographic/clinical/physiological characteristics, dyadic health, and symptom trajectories. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: ENABLE CHF-PC, a palliative care RCT (NCT02505425), was conducted at a Southeastern US medical center. Between 2016-2018, 415 older adult HF patients and 159 family caregivers were randomized to receive a psychoeducational intervention or usual care. Baseline sociodemographic information (age, gender, rurality, etc.) were collected. Outcome variables of interest include symptoms (Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ), Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Palliative 14, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)) and dyadic health (PROMIS-SF Global Health). We have calculated baseline descriptive statistics. Future work includes latent growth mixture modeling to identify distinct symptom trajectories and univariate associations with patient level factors. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Of 415 patient participants, mean age was 64, 53% were male; 55% were African American; 26% were rural dwellers; 46% had +15.8) and low anxiety (6.7+3.6) and depressive symptoms (5.7+4.3) on the HADS. Of 159 family caregivers participants, the mean age was 57.9, 85.4% were female, 51.9% were African-American, and 65.2% were the patient’s spouse/partner. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Limited data describes HF symptom pattern trajectories.How co-occurring symptoms affect quality of life or are affected by personal or situational factors are not well-understood. This study will help to identify factors and symptom phenotypes that may serve as targets for future interventions.
Recent survey in the Gulf of Carpentaria region of northern Australia has identified a unique assemblage of miniature and small-scale stencilled motifs depicting anthropomorphs, material culture, macropod tracks and linear designs. The unusual sizes and shapes of these motifs raise questions about the types of material used for the stencil templates. Drawing on ethnographic data and experimental archaeology, the authors argue that the motifs were created with a previously undocumented stencilling technique using miniature models sculpted from beeswax. The results suggest that beeswax and other malleable and adhesive resins may have played a more significant role in creating stencilled motifs than previously thought.
The identity, richness, and abundance of true flies (Diptera) from the nests of three cavity-nesting raptors (Aves) were investigated in northern Nova Scotia, Canada. After fledging, flies were extracted from the nest material using Berlese funnels within an emergence chamber. Thirty-one species/morphospecies from 14 families were collected, including eight new records for Nova Scotia and two new records for eastern North America.
Schizophrenia patients have increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. Guidelines emphasise need for monitoring risk factors including ECG and blood pressure (BP). There is little naturalistic data on number and severity of categorical abnormalities detected.
A global health clinic was set up in 2004 to undertake systematic physical health monitoring in all schizophrenia outpatients within Larkfield CMHT. Patients received 2 hour assessments from trained nurses. BMI, laboratory (non-fasting) parameters, ECG and BP performed.
Since 2004 from 140 Schizophrenia outpatients 95 have been invited to attend screening of which 53 accepted (56%). An abnormal parameter was measured in 92% (n=49), 72% 2 abnormal findings (n=38) and 47% 3 or more. ECG abnormalities in 50% (n=26) of which 18 were significant findings (prior myocardial infarction and/or ischaemia, conduction blocks, right ventricular hypertrophy). Normal blood pressure using guidelines from British Hypertension Society (BHS) 2004 (<130/85) was determined in 36% (n=20), high-normal 11% (n=6) and varying grades of hypertension 53% (n=27). Grade 3 (severe) hypertension 8% (n=4). No patient had abnormal QTc >500 mscs. One male patient had QTc 458msecs.In 18 patients (34%) the ECG analysis was determined by the analyser to be difficult to analyse due to significant baseline patient movement.
Significant BP and ECG abnormalities are common and require evaluation for treatment. QTc abnormalities are detected significantly less often than other important abnormalities. Using the most conservative definition of hypertension 53% of this cohort would be defined as needing antihypertensive treatments and lifestyle interventions in 64%.
Implicit memories like consumption habits and conditioned reactions to drug-related stimuli are operational in addiction and relapse. The affective startle paradigm is an attractive tool for the measurement of the incentive salience of drug-related cues. We tested whether the stronger appetitive valence of drug cues, shown in two recent startle studies in smokers, does persist after prolonged abstinence, and may thus contribute to relapse.
We examined the auditory startle reflex magnitude of mildly deprived (4-6 hours) heavy smokers (n = 24), former smokers (n = 16, mean abstinence interval 18 months), and non-smokers (n = 24) while they viewed smoking-related scenes or standardized unpleasant, neutral and pleasant control scenes from the International Affective Picture System.
As expected, non-smokers showed no appetitive reactions toward smoking-cues. In smokers, smoking-cues had both appetitive implicit (startle suppression) and explicit (ratings for valence and craving) motivational effects, resembling those of pleasant scenes and differing from neutral and unpleasant scenes. This effect was more pronounced in smokers who later relapsed after a smoking cessation program, and in smokers consuming less than 20 cigarettes per day. Former smokers, despite reporting no craving and negative reactions to smoking cues, still showed evidence of implicit appetitive valence of these cues.
Nicotine addiction results in automatic appetitive reactions to drug-cues, which does not vanish after prolonged abstinence and which may thus contribute to relapses. Heavy smoking may result in a progressive internalization of smoking habits and a decline in reactivity towards external smoking-associated cues.
Psychological stress is associated with accelerated cellular aging and increased risk for aging-related diseases, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear.
We examined the effect of stress on a DNA methylation age predictor that was shown to correlate strongly with chronological age across human tissues (Horvath 2013). Genome-wide DNA methylation was measured in peripheral blood using the 450K Illumina array in three independent cohorts: the Grady Trauma Project/GTP (N=366); a panic disorder case/control sample recruited at the Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry/MPI-P (N=318); and the Conte Center for the Psychobiology of Early-Life Trauma/Conte (N=42). Age acceleration was calculated by subtracting chronological age from age predicted by DNA methylation. Psychiatric symptomatology and stressors were assessed using standard questionnaires.
DNA methylation age strongly correlated with chronological age in all samples (r=0.9, p=2.5x10<sup>-133</sup>). Cumulative lifetime stress but not childhood or current stress predicted age acceleration in GTP (p=0.012) and MPI-P (p=0.021). Moreover, epigenetic age acceleration predicted depression (GTP: p=0.002; Conte: p=0.014) and panic disorder (p=0.007). In secondary analyses, we examined the effect of lifetime stress on individual CpGs of the DNA methylation age predictor. After correcting for multiple comparisons, we identified in both GTP and MPI-P a stress-regulated CpG near MCAM, a gene implicated in aging-related diseases, including cardiovascular disease and cancers.
Cumulative lifetime stress, but not childhood or current stress, and psychiatric phenotypes are associated with accelerated epigenetic aging. Our findings may explain the accelerated cellular aging and increased disease risk associated with chronic stress and psychiatric disorders.
Despite evidence to the contrary, many practitioners continue to inappropriately screen for and treat bacteria in the urine of clinically asymptomatic patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a new order set on the number of urine culture performed, antibiotic days of therapy (DOT), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI), and associated financial impact.
A quasi-experimental before-and-after intervention.
We conducted this study at 5 Catholic Health Initiative (CHI) hospitals in Texas that use the same electronic health record (EHR) system.
The study populations included adult patients who had urine culture performed from June 2017 to June 2019.
The intervention (implemented June 25, 2018) was the addition of a new order set in the electronic health record that required practitioners to choose an indication for the type of urine study. The primary outcome was number of urine cultures performed adjusted for the number of total patient days.
Following implementation of the new order set, the number of urine cultures performed among the 5 sites decreased from 1,175.8 tests per 10,000 patient days before the intervention to 701.4 after the intervention (40.4% reduction; P < .01). Antibiotic DOT for patients with a urinary tract infection indication decreased from 102.5 to 86.9 per 1,000 patient days (15.2% reduction; P < .01). The CAUTI standardized infection ratio was 1.0 before the intervention and 0.8 after the intervention (P = .23). The estimated yearly savings following the intervention was US$535,181.
The addition of a new order set resulted in decreases in the number of urine cultures performed and the antibiotic DOT, as well as substantial financial savings.
The introduction of 2,4-D–resistant soybean and cotton provided growers a new POST active ingredient to include in weed management programs. The technology raises concerns regarding potential 2,4-D off-target movement to sensitive vegetation, and spray droplet size is the primary management factor focused on to reduce spray particle drift. The objective of this study was to investigate the droplet size distribution, droplet velocity, and particle drift potential of glyphosate plus 2,4-D choline pre-mixture (Enlist Duo®) applications with two commonly used venturi nozzles in a low-speed wind tunnel. Applications with the TDXL11004 nozzle had larger DV0.1 (291 µm), DV0.5 (544 µm), and DV0.9 (825 µm) values compared with the AIXR11004 nozzle (250, 464, and 709 µm, respectively), and slower average droplet velocity (8.1 m s−1) compared with the AIXR11004 nozzle (9.1 m s−1). Nozzle type had no influence on drift deposition (P = 0.65), drift coverage (P = 0.84), and soybean biomass reduction (P = 0.76). Although the TDXL11004 nozzle had larger spray droplet size, the slower spray droplet velocity could have influenced the nozzle particle drift potential. As a result, both TDXL11004 and AIXR11004 nozzles had similar spray drift potential. Further studies are necessary to understand the impact of droplet velocity on drift potential at field scale and test how different tank solutions, sprayer configurations, and environmental conditions could influence the droplet size and velocity dynamics and consequent drift potential in pesticide applications.