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One of the commonly used analytical approaches for measuring oxygen isotope ratios δ18O of solids (organic and inorganic) is to pyrolyze the samples to gaseous phases and then send the gas into an isotope ratio mass spectrometer system. Solid samples for δ18O measurements are usually stored in silver cups because of its low reactivity towards oxygen and other oxidants. Samples in silver cups can be dropped directly into the carbon column of the pyrolysis furnace. However, the silver cups can tarnish and then be oxidized over a prolonged storage period. We find that while a small amount of silver oxides does not affect measurements with appreciable sample sizes, it can skew isotope results of small samples. We thus recommend careful storage of samples in silver cups to minimize oxidation, such as under an air-isolated condition, and avoiding prolonged storage for accurate δ18O measurements.
We report on a diverse and abundant mammal fauna from Chongphadae Cave—Hwangju region in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK). The cave sediments include many mammal fossils and consist of fluvial, cave clay, and calcareous deposits. During our field excavation 33 species were encountered: 9 species of rodents, 1 species of lagomorph, 1 species of insectivore, 8 species of carnivores, 4 species of perissodactyls, 9 species of artiodactyls, and 1 species of primates. Of these, perissodactyls and artiodactyls dominate the fauna in terms of diversity. The cave sediments include 15 layers. Radiocarbon dating showed that Layers 12 and 13 were formed from 34,770 to 27,800 cal yr BP and from 24,980 to 21,340 cal yr BP, respectively. Additional identification of various palyno-botanical remains including 25 families and genera of trees, 19 families and genera of grasses and herbs, and 10 families and genera of ferns provides a wealth of information on the past ecology of the Chongphadae Cave Site area. During the Late Pleistocene, the Chongphadae area was surrounded by luxuriant forests associated with hills and grasslands in a cool and humid temperate climatic environment.
Prior studies indicate greater disease burden for obesity among rural compared with urban residents but no differences for mood disorder based on geographic location. Recent attention has focused on the need to examine regional rural–urban disparities in disease burden. We focused on mood disorders and obesity prevalence within three southeastern Minnesota counties served by the Mayo Clinic Center for Translational Science Award, in Rochester, Minnesota, as these were top priorities identified in community health needs assessments.
Cross-sectional study to assess the association of rural–urban locality on 5-year (2009–2014) prevalence of mood disorder and obesity obtained using the Rochester Epidemiological Project medical records linkage system, among subjects residing in three mixed rural–urban counties on April 1, 2014. Multivariable analyses adjusted for demographics, socioeconomic status using an individual housing-based measure, and counties.
The study cohort (percent rural location) included 91,202 (15%) for Olmsted, 10,197 (51%) in Dodge, and 10,184 (57%) in Wabasha counties. On multivariate analysis, 5-year prevalence of mood disorders and obesity was significantly greater for urban compared with rural residents, after adjusting for confounders; odds ratios (95% confidence intervals): 1.21 (1.17–1.26), P < 0.001, and 1.05 (1.01–1.10), P = 0.016, respectively. Observed effects were not modified in additional models adjusted for health care utilization (HCU; ≥1 general medical examination visit and flu vaccination).
Rural–urban health disparities for burden of mood disorders and obesity are independent of socioeconomic status and HCU in a Midwestern community. It is important to assess potential regional heterogeneity of rural–urban disparities on health outcomes.
To investigate the impacts of depression screening, diagnosis and treatment on major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
Prospective cohort study including a nested 24-week randomised clinical trial for treating depression was performed with 5–12 years after the index ACS. A total of 1152 patients recently hospitalised with ACS were recruited from 2006 to 2012, and were divided by depression screening and diagnosis at baseline and 24-week treatment allocation into five groups: 651 screening negative (N), 55 screening positive but no depressive disorder (S), 149 depressive disorder randomised to escitalopram (E), 151 depressive disorder randomised to placebo (P) and 146 depressive disorder receiving medical treatment only (M).
Cumulative MACE incidences over a median 8.4-year follow-up period were 29.6% in N, 43.6% in S, 40.9% in E, 53.6% in P and 59.6% in M. Compared to N, screening positive was associated with higher incidence of MACE [adjusted hazards ratio 2.15 (95% confidence interval 1.63–2.83)]. No differences were found between screening positive with and without a formal depressive disorder diagnosis. Of those screening positive, E was associated with a lower incidence of MACE than P and M. M had the worst outcomes even compared to P, despite significantly milder depressive symptoms at baseline.
Routine depression screening in patients with recent ACS and subsequent appropriate treatment of depression could improve long-term cardiac outcomes.
The South Korean Twin Registry (SKTR) is an ongoing nationwide volunteer registry of South Korean twins and their families. Since its inception, from preschooler to young adult, twins have been registered with the SKTR and have demonstrated that relative influences of genetic and environmental factors explaining individual differences in various psychological, mental health and physical traits in South Koreans are similar to those found in many Western twin studies. Currently, studies at the SKTR focus on identification of the process of gene-by-environment interactions as well as developmental differences in genetic and environmental influences on psychological and mental health traits in South Koreans. This report provides a brief overview, recruitment strategies, current samples, zygosity assessment, measures and future directions of the SKTR.
The area of dry-season rice (Oryza sativa L.) has rapidly increased in Cambodia owing to the large-scale development of irrigation infrastructure. But little is known of potential productivity and adaptive crop management. The objective of our study was to evaluate potential yield and nutrient requirements of dry-season rice in Cambodia, and the economic feasibility of soil-specific management recommended by the government. Field experiments were conducted on four soil types (Bakan, equivalent to Alfisol; Krakor, Inceptisol; Prateah Lang, Plinthustalfs; and Toul Samroung, Endoaqualfs) in four provinces (Battambang, Kampong Thom, Pursat, and Siem Reap) during the 2016 and 2017 dry seasons to compare 14 (2016) and 8 (2017) N-P-K combinations. Grain yield ranged from 1.0 to 5.5 t ha−1 in 2016 and from 1.3 to 6.7 t ha−1 in 2017. Potential yield from the experiments was 6–7 t ha−1 on Toul Samroung soil, 5–6 t ha−1 on Bakan soil, and 3–5 t ha−1 on Prateah Lang and Krakor soils. A rate of 140-60-60 kg ha−1 of N-P2O5-K2O was more than enough to achieve the best yields on any soil group. On the other hand, modest application rates in soil-specific management (44–78 kg ha−1 of N, 23–28 kg ha−1 of P2O5, 0–30 kg ha−1 of K2O) proved reasonable for resource-poor farmers in Cambodia, since the treatment always provided >75 % of the highest economic profit in high-input plots.
Rice is widely grown in rainfed lowlands during the wet season in the Mekong region. Limited nutrient availability is a common constraint on crop yield, and the optimal rate of fertilizer application depends on the soil type. The objective of our study was to evaluate rice productivity and the economic feasibility of various nutrient management regimes in Cambodia. We conducted field experiments on three soil types (Prey Khmer, Prateah Lang, and Toul Samroung, equivalent to Psamments, Plinthustalfs, and Endoaqualfs, respectively) in four provinces (Battambang, Kampong Thom, Pursat, and Siem Reap) during the 2016 and 2017 wet seasons to compare nine (2016) and seven (2017) N–P–K combinations. Grain yield ranged from 0.9 to 4.8 t ha−1 in 2016 and from 1.0 to 5.2 t ha−1 in 2017, depending on soil type and nutrient management. The Prey Khmer soil contained around 80% sand, and rice yield responded most weakly to nutrient management. The moderate fertilizer input in the current soil-specific recommendation was effective on this soil type. However, on more fertile soils with a higher clay content and a higher cation-exchange capacity (Toul Samroung and Prateah Lang), an additional 20 kg N ha−1 combined with adding 15 kg ha−1 of P2O5 or 20 kg ha−1 of K2O significantly increased yield and economic return. Although P and K use during Cambodia’s wet season is uncommon, our results demonstrate the importance of these nutrients in improving the country’s rice production.
In the Republic of Korea, despite the introduction of one-dose universal varicella vaccination in 2005 and achieving a high coverage rate of 98.9% in 2012, the incidence rate has been increased sevenfold. This study aimed to investigate time trends of varicella incidence rate, assessing the age, period and birth cohort effects. We used national data on the annual number of reported cases from 2006 to 2017. A log-linear Poisson regression model was used to estimate age–period–cohort effects on varicella incidence rate. From 2006 to 2017, the incidence of varicella increased from 22.5 cases to more than 154.8 cases per 100 000. Peak incidence has shifted from 4 to 6 years old. The estimated period and cohort effects showed significant upward patterns, with a linear increasing trend by net drift. There has been an increase in the incidence among the Korean population regarding period and cohort despite the universal vaccination of varicella vaccine. Our data suggest the need for additional studies to address the current gap in herd immunity.
Clozapine, the antipsychotic of choice for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, has a number of side-effects, some of which are potentially life-threatening. Historically viewed as a relatively minor side-effect, there is increasing awareness of the potentially severe sequalae of constipation secondary to clozapine-induced gastrointestinal hypomotility (CIGH). These include ileus, intestinal obstruction, bowel ischaemia, gastrointestinal necrosis, toxic megacolon and death. CIGH is significantly more common than clozapine-induced blood dyscrasias and has a higher mortality rate. Although strict criteria must be followed to assertively monitor, detect and treat blood dyscrasias in patients taking clozapine, no such framework exists for CIGH. We recommend that prescribing guidelines, regulatory agencies and information from manufacturers should more clearly highlight the risks identified in the literature. Furthermore, we recommend that, in people taking clozapine, constipation should be prevented by prophylactic treatment with laxatives rather than treated only when clinically identified.
After reading this article you will be able to:
•understand the mechanism of gastrointestinal hypomotility in those taking clozapine
•improve the monitoring of clozapine-induced constipation
•understand prophylactic laxative treatment and the use of less commonly prescribed laxatives in patients who experience clozapine-induced constipation.
The purpose of this study was to assess laypersons’ attitudes and completion of advance care planning (ACP) and to examine associations with sociodemographic characteristics and health beliefs on Alzheimer's disease.
A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted during April and May 2017, with a sample of 514 Israeli adults, aged 18 years and above. A structured, pretested questionnaire assessing participants’ awareness, attitudes, and completion of ACP, as well as health beliefs on Alzheimer's disease (subjective knowledge, susceptibility, and worry), and sociodemographic factors, was used.
Two-fifths of the participants had heard of at least one of the terms: advance directives or durable power of attorney. Overall, participants expressed positive attitudes toward ACP. Results of regression models showed that gender, religiosity, and subjective knowledge of Alzheimer's disease were statistically significant correlates of attitudes toward ACP. Adding health beliefs on Alzheimer's disease doubled the amount of the variance explained, from 3% to 6%.
Significance of results
Our results support the use of cognitive models of health behavior by assessing intra-personal beliefs and knowledge to understand ACP attitudes and completion. Specifically, we demonstrated the importance of knowledge of Alzheimer's disease for ACP attitudes, suggesting the importance of including a module on the topic to ACP interventions.
Adélie penguins are renowned for their natal philopatry on land-based colonies, requiring small pebbles to be used for nests. We report on an opportunistic observation via aerial survey, where hundreds of Adélie penguins were documented displaying nesting behaviours on fast ice ~3 km off the coast of Cape Crozier, which is one of the largest colonies in the world. We counted 426 Adélie penguins engaging in behaviours of pair formation, spacing similarly to normal nest distributions and lying in divots in the ice that looked like nests. On our first visit, it was noticed that the guano stain was bright pink, consistent with krill consumption, but had shifted to green over the course of ~2 weeks, indicating that the birds were fasting (a behaviour consistent with egg incubation). However, eggs were not observed. We posit four hypotheses that may explain the proximate causes of this behaviour and caution against future high-resolution satellite imagery interpretation due to the potential for confusing ice-nesting Adélie penguins with the presence of emperor penguin colonies.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Approximately 80% of adolescents do not meet the current national guidelines of engaging in 60 minutes or more of physical activity daily. Physical activity is widely recognized as being beneficial for healthy growth as well as important for good mental health and fitness. Interventions are needed that promote and encourage physical activity among this population to reduce the risk of obesity and to encourage maintenance of a healthy weight. Since adolescents enjoy digital technologies, robotic-assisted platforms might be a novel, innovative and engaging mechanism to deliver physical activity interventions. The objective of this study was to assess the potential acceptability of robotic-assisted exercise coaching among diverse youth. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This was a pilot study that used a cross-sectional survey design. Adolescents ages 12-17 were recruited at 3 community-based sites. We obtained written informed consent from participants’ parents and guardians as well as assent from participants. We demonstrated the robotic system human interface (also known as the robotic human trainer) to groups of adolescents. We delivered the exercise coaching in real time via an iPad tablet placed atop a mobile robotic wheel base and controlled remotely by the coach using an iOS device or computer. After the demonstration participants were asked to complete a 28- item survey that included questions about socio demographics, smoking history, weight, exercise habits, and depression history. The survey also included the 8- item Technology Acceptance Scale (TAS). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Participants (N = 190) were 55% (103/189) male, 43% (81/190) racial minority, 6% (11/190) Hispanic, and 28% (54/190) lived in a lower-income community. The mean age of participants was 15.0 years (SD=2.0). Approximately 25% (47/190) of participants met national recommendations for physical activity. Their mean body mass index (BMI) was 21.8(SD_4.0) kg/m2. Of note, 18% (35/190) had experienced depression now or in the past. The mean Technology Acceptance Scale (TAS) total score was 32.8 (SD 7.8) of a possible score of 40, indicating high potential receptivity to the technology. No significant associations were detected between TAS score and gender, age, racial minority status, median income of participant’s neighborhood, BMI, meeting national recommendations for physical activity levels, or depression history. Of interest, 68% (129/190) of participants agreed that they and their friends were likely to use the robot to help them exercise. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This pilot survey study demonstrated that among a racially and socioeconomically diverse group of adolescents, robotic-assisted exercise coaching is likely acceptable. The discovery that all demographic groups represented in this sample had similarly high receptivity to the robotic human exercise trainer is encouraging for ultimate considerations of intervention scalability and reach among diverse adolescent populations. Next steps include a study to assess the impact of robotic-assisted exercise coaching on adolescents’ exercise and health outcomes.
Curiosity and situational interest are powerful driving forces in learning and motivation that lead students to learn more effectively. In this chapter, we elucidate curiosity and situational interest by focusing on (1) conceptual definitions and characteristics, (2) antecedents, (3) cognitive and behavioral outcomes, and (4) strategies to foster them in school. Curiosity is a short-lasting, aversive state that desires an acquisition of specific information. Its properties contrast with those of situational interest, which is an overall positive affect and a general preference for a topic. Whereas curiosity and situational interest are stimulated by similar contextual features (such as collative variables), triggering curiosity requires one to perceive an information gap between what one knows and what one wants to know. Despite these differences, ample evidence displays that both curiosity and situational interest positively impact students’ learning, motivation, creativity, and well-being once triggered. Thus, in closing, integrative and specific pedagogical guidelines to enhance students’ curiosity and situational interest in education practice are suggested.
As a strengthening of Hadwiger’s conjecture, Gerards and Seymour conjectured that every graph with no odd Kt minor is (t − 1)-colourable. We prove two weaker variants of this conjecture. Firstly, we show that for each t ⩾ 2, every graph with no odd Kt minor has a partition of its vertex set into 6t − 9 sets V1, …, V6t−9 such that each Vi induces a subgraph of bounded maximum degree. Secondly, we prove that for each t ⩾ 2, every graph with no odd Kt minor has a partition of its vertex set into 10t −13 sets V1,…, V10t−13 such that each Vi induces a subgraph with components of bounded size. The second theorem improves a result of Kawarabayashi (2008), which states that the vertex set can be partitioned into 496t such sets.
Palaeoenvironmental history is reconstructed from diatoms in two sediment cores, GC01-PW02 and GC03-PW02, recovered from Powell Basin, Antarctica. A total of 43 species belonging to 21 genera are identified from GC01-PW02. A total of 61 species belonging to 27 genera are identified from GC03-PW02. The number of diatom valves g-1 of dry sediment ranges from 0.1–48.3 × 106 valves g-1. Based on diatom abundance, six assemblage zones were identified from GC01-PW02, and five diatom zones were identified from GC03-PW02. Barren intervals represent glacial periods, while intervals with higher diatom abundances were deposited during interglacial periods and reduced sea ice cover. The occurrence of Rouxia leventerae only within the deepest zone of each of the cores indicates that the core sediments were deposited since marine isotope stage (MIS) 6.
In this paper, flow over a streamwise oscillating circular cylinder is numerically simulated to examine the effects of the driving amplitude and frequency on the distribution of the lock-in regions in laminar flows. At
, lock-in is categorized according to the spectral features of the lift coefficient as two different lock-in phenomena: harmonic and subharmonic lock-in. These lock-in phenomena are represented as maps on the driving amplitude–frequency plane, which have subharmonic lock-in regions and two harmonic lock-in regions. The frequency range of the subharmonic region is shifted to lower frequencies with increasing amplitude, and the lower boundary of this subharmonic region is successfully predicted. A symmetric harmonic region with a symmetric vortex pattern is observed in a certain velocity range for a moving cylinder. Aerodynamic features induced by different flow patterns in each region are presented on the driving amplitude–frequency plane. The lock-in region and aerodynamic features at
are compared with the results for
. A subharmonic region and two harmonic regions are observed at
, and these show the same features as for
at a low driving amplitude. Lock-in at
also shows one subharmonic region and two harmonic regions. However, compared with the
case, the symmetric harmonic lock-in is dominant. The features of aerodynamic force at
are represented on a force map, which shows similar characteristics in corresponding regions for the
A prominent large negative δ13Corg excursion and a coeval notable spike in mercury (Hg)/total organic carbon ratio are observed in the middle–upper Permian Gohan Formation in central Korea, located in the eastern Sino-Korean block (SKB), which may represent the Capitanian mass extinction event. The SKB was separated from the South China block by the eastern Palaeo-Tethys Ocean. This finding from the SKB supports the widespread Hg loading to the environment emitted from the Emeishan volcanic eruptions in SW China. This study demonstrates that the Hg cycle was globally perturbed in association with global carbon cycle perturbation that occurred during the Capitanian Extinction.