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A History of Egyptology is a ground-breaking reference work that traces the study of ancient Egypt. Spanning 150 years and global in purview, it enlarges our understanding of how and why people have looked, and continue to look, into humankind's distant past through the lens of the enduring allure of ancient Egypt. Written by an international team of scholars, the volume investigates how territories around the world have engaged with and have been inspired by Egyptology, and how that engagement has evolved over time. Each essay presents a specific territory from an institutional and national perspective, while examining a range of transnational links as well. The volume thus touches on multiple strands of scholarship, embracing not only Egyptology, but also social history, the history of science, and reception studies. It will appeal to amateurs and professionals alike.
In the current absence of a vaccine for COVID-19, public health responses aim to break the chain of infection by focusing on the mode of transmission. We reviewed the current evidence on the transmission dynamics and on pathogenic and clinical features of COVID-19 to critically identify any gaps in the current infection prevention and control (IPC) guidelines.
In this study, we reviewed global COVID-19 IPC guidelines by organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO), the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Guidelines from 2 high-income countries (Australia and United Kingdom) and from 1 middle-income country (China) were also reviewed. We searched publications in English on ‘PubMed’ and Google Scholar. We extracted information related to COVID-19 transmission dynamics, clinical presentations, and exposures that may facilitate transmission. We then compared these findings with the recommended IPC measures.
Nosocomial transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in healthcare settings occurs through droplets, aerosols, and the oral–fecal or fecal–droplet route. However, the IPC guidelines fail to cover all transmission modes, and the recommendations also conflict with each other. Most guidelines recommend surgical masks for healthcare providers during routine care and N95 respirators for aerosol-generating procedures. However, recommendations regarding the type of face mask varied, and the CDC recommends cloth masks when surgical masks are unavailable.
IPC strategies should consider all the possible routes of transmission and should target all patient care activities involving risk of person-to-person transmission. This review may assist international health agencies in updating their guidelines.
This paper presents a novel solution for precision draping of prepreg composite fabrics onto double curved molds. Our contributions relate to system design, including hardware and software components, and to system integration. On the hardware side, design and implementation of a drape tool with up to 120 suction cups positioned individually by linear actuators are described. On the software side, design and implementation of the software architecture are presented, along with necessary algorithms within sensor technologies and mathematical modeling. The essential system’s components were verified individually, and the entire integrated system was successfully validated in the Proof-of-Concept experiments, performed on an experimental physical model of the system.
Short-term peripheral venous catheter–related bloodstream infection (PVCR-BSI) rates have not been systematically studied in resource-limited countries, and data on their incidence by number of device days are not available.
Prospective, surveillance study on PVCR-BSI conducted from September 1, 2013, to May 31, 2019, in 727 intensive care units (ICUs), by members of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC), from 268 hospitals in 141 cities of 42 countries of Africa, the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, South East Asia, and Western Pacific regions. For this research, we applied definition and criteria of the CDC NHSN, methodology of the INICC, and software named INICC Surveillance Online System.
We followed 149,609 ICU patients for 731,135 bed days and 743,508 short-term peripheral venous catheter (PVC) days. We identified 1,789 PVCR-BSIs for an overall rate of 2.41 per 1,000 PVC days. Mortality in patients with PVC but without PVCR-BSI was 6.67%, and mortality was 18% in patients with PVC and PVCR-BSI. The length of stay of patients with PVC but without PVCR-BSI was 4.83 days, and the length of stay was 9.85 days in patients with PVC and PVCR-BSI. Among these infections, the microorganism profile showed 58% gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli (16%), Klebsiella spp (11%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6%), Enterobacter spp (4%), and others (20%) including Serratia marcescens. Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant gram-positive bacteria (12%).
PVCR-BSI rates in INICC ICUs were much higher than rates published from industrialized countries. Infection prevention programs must be implemented to reduce the incidence of PVCR-BSIs in resource-limited countries.
Although the Model Law has, through article 9, settled that the application for interim measure is not incompatible with the arbitration agreement, it does not expressly stipulate whether the forum court enjoys the power to issue interim measures. Therefore, it was thought that the mere adoption by some regimes of article 9 may not be sufficient, in and of itself, to establish the power of the courts to issue interim measures, which in turn gave rise to the need for the formulation of a provision such as article 17J in the 2006 amendments to the Model Law.
One of the first priorities of the Commission when it decided to draft a Model Law was to include an express provision that recognised the parties’ freedom to choose their own rules of procedure. As the purpose of a Model Law was to contribute to the harmonisation of international arbitration, it was crucial that it met ‘the concerns which have repeatedly been expressed … in international commercial arbitration’. One of those concerns was precisely the existence of provisions that ‘unduly restrict the freedom of the parties to … conduct the proceedings as deemed appropriate taking into account the parties’ wishes’.
Article 33 sets out the conditions warranting a correction or interpretation of the award, or the making of an additional award. In the beginning of the drafting process, there was no certainty if there was any need for the Model Law to deal with the various types of awards. However, later the negotiators were convinced that the Model Law should deal with this issue and the Commission affirmed this position by stating that in ‘preparing the model law due account be taken of the 1958 New York Convention and of the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules’. As to the particular point concerning the various types of awards, it was desired that if various types of awards were to be encompassed under the Model Law, the arbitrator should be entitled to make those awards only on the request of the parties. A fixed standard time period, as followed in national laws, was considered good practice, despite the difficulty of regulating such time limits uniformly. However, it was stipulated that if the standard time is laid down, it should be coupled with mechanisms for possible extensions.
The oases of Kharga and Dakhla have been linked administratively from ancient times into the present. This chapter presents a study of the two main physical routes that connected the two oases: the Darb al-Ghubari and the Darb Ain Amur. Cairns, tracks, rock art, inscriptions, ceramics, and other small finds serve to identify the tracks and stopping points along the way. These paths, particularly the Darb Ain Amur, evolved over time, reflecting the changing environment and modes of transport that were used to make the journey from pharaonic to Roman times.
The aim of this work was to study the bioavailability of fatty acids (FA), focusing on n-3 long-chain (LC) PUFA, carried by different molecular lipid species, that is, phospholipids (PL) or TAG, with three formulations based on fish oils or marine PL, providing a similar n-3 LC PUFA amount. The digestive lipolysis was first assessed using an in vitro enzymatic model. Then, intestinal absorption and enterocyte metabolism were investigated in vivo, on male Wistar rats through lymph lipid analysis. The in vitro results showed that the release of n-3 LC PUFA from lipolysis was increased by 48 % when FA were provided as PL rather than TAG. The in vivo results demonstrated that EPA and DHA from both TAG and PL were similarly absorbed and incorporated into lymph lipids. However, DHA was mainly distributed at the sn-1/3 positions of lymph TAG when provided as marine PL, whereas it was equally distributed at the three positions with marine TAG. On the whole, even if the molecular lipid species of n-3 LC PUFA did not greatly modify the in vivo digestion and absorption steps, it modulated the rearrangement of DHA on the glyceride positions of the lymph TAG, which may further impact the DHA metabolic fate and tissue accretion. Consequently, the present study has provided data which may be used to formulate lipid diets rich in DHA in the context of an insufficient consumption of n-3 PUFA in Western countries.
Mixing of phosphate fertilizer with farmyard manure (FYM) is a simple technique for optimizing phosphorus (P) availability and then improving the productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in alkaline calcareous soils. Diammonium phosphate (DAP) and phosphoric acid (PA) were applied to soil at 36 mg P kg−1, either as sole or after amending 1-g P fertilizer with 2-g FYM (1:2, w/w basis). After 45-day incubation, concentration of P ions in the soil solution (Cp) and exchangeable P present in soil solid (E-value) were determined to evaluate the amount of total plant-available pool. The FYM-amended fertilizers, i.e., PA+FYM and DAP+FYM, showed higher E-values, i.e., 114 and 97 mg kg−1 soil, respectively. Similarly, PA+FYM exhibited the highest proportion of P derived from fertilizer (Pdff = 51.5%) and induced the highest P uptake by wheat seedlings (L-value = 72.1 mg kg−1). Consequently, PA+FYM and DAP+FYM treatments caused higher grain yield and P-use efficiency. The regression analysis revealed strong and positive correlation between L-value and grain yield (r = 0.86), biomass production (r = 0.84) and P-use efficiency (r = 0.87) by wheat crop. Results suggested that FYM-amended inorganic P fertilizer can be a promising technique to optimize supply of P from soil, improve efficiency of inorganic P fertilizers, and improve wheat yield in alkaline calcareous soils.
Maternal polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been proposed as a model for investigating the role of prenatal androgen exposure in the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, women with PCOS are at higher risk of developing psychiatric conditions and previous studies are likely confounded by genetic influences.
A Swedish nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted to disentangle the influence of prenatal androgen exposure from familial confounding in the association between maternal PCOS and offspring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and Tourette's disorder and chronic tic disorders (TD/CTD). PCOS-exposed offspring (n = 21 280) were compared with unrelated PCOS-unexposed offspring (n = 200 816) and PCOS-unexposed cousins (n = 17 295). Associations were estimated with stratified Cox regression models.
PCOS-exposed offspring had increased risk of being diagnosed with ADHD, ASD, and TD/CTD compared with unrelated PCOS-unexposed offspring. Associations were stronger in girls for ADHD and ASD but not TD/CTD [ADHD: adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.61 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.31–1.99), ASD: aHR = 2.02 (95% CI 1.45–2.82)] than boys [ADHD: aHR = 1.37 (95% CI 1.19–1.57), ASD: aHR = 1.46 (95% CI 1.21–1.76)]. For ADHD and ASD, aHRs for girls were stronger when compared with PCOS-unexposed cousins, but slightly attenuated for boys.
Estimates were similar when accounting for familial confounding (i.e. genetics and environmental factors shared by cousins) and stronger in girls for ADHD and ASD, potentially indicating a differential influence of prenatal androgen exposure v. genetic factors. These results strengthen evidence for a potential causal influence of prenatal androgen exposure on the development of male-predominant neuropsychiatric disorders in female offspring of women with PCOS.
The role of diet on breast cancer risk is not well elucidated but animal food sources may play a role through, for example, the pathway of the insulin-like growth factor 1 system or cholesterol metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between animal foods and the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. This study was embedded in the Rotterdam Study, a population-based prospective cohort study of subjects aged 55 years and over (61 % female). Dietary intake of different animal foods was assessed at baseline using a validated FFQ and adjusted for energy intake using the residual method. We performed Cox proportional hazards modelling to analyse the association between the intake of the different food sources and breast cancer risk after adjustment for socio-demographic, lifestyle and metabolic factors. During a median follow-up of 17 years, we identified 199 cases of breast cancer (6·2 %) among 3209 women. After adjustment for multiple confounders, no consistent association was found between the intake of red meat intake, poultry, fish or dairy products and breast cancer risk. However, we found that egg intake was significantly associated with a higher risk of breast cancer (hazard ratioQ4 v. Q1: 1·83; 95 % CI 1·20, 2·79; Ptrend=0·01). In conclusion, this study found that dietary egg intake but no other animal foods was associated with a higher risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Further research on the potential mechanisms underlying this association is warranted.
The present study planned to assess the medicinally important plants in the lower Margalla Hills of Islamabad, Pakistan using scanning electron microscopy of their pollens. Both quantitative and qualitative characters of the pollens were analyzed. The shapes of the pollen were prolate, spheroidal, elliptical, and oblate. Exine sculpturing showed rugulate, scabrate, psilate gemmate, and reticulate ornamentation. The people residing in the rural areas are thought to depend, primarily, on medicinal plant resources for many health care needs. A sample of 140 respondents was selected and interviewed by using a stratified random sampling technique. Results showed that the local communities of lower Margalla Hills are highly dependent on plants to treat various ailments, for example, respiratory (28%), digestive (46%) nervous, circulatory and dermatological problems (6% each), and reproductive problems (8%). The continuous dependence of the local community on ethnomedicinally important plants has led to serious degradation of the natural forest of lower Margalla Hills. Priority-based conservation and sustainable use of these forest resources are necessary, and use of alternative resources will also help in the forest conservation.
To investigate the predictive ability of the previously established global cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) burden scale on long-term clinical outcomes in a longitudinal study of Asian elderly participants across the spectrum of cognitive impairment.
A case-control study was conducted over a 2-year period involving participants with no cognitive impairment, cognitive impairment-no dementia (CIND), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Annually, cognitive function was assessed with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery and the clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale was used to stage disease severity.
Of 314 participants, 102 had none/very mild CeVD, 31 mild CeVD, 94 moderate CeVD, and 87 severe CeVD at baseline. There was a 1.14 and 1.42 units decline per year on global cognitive z-scores in moderate and severe CeVD groups, respectively, compared to none/very mild CeVD. Moderate-severe CeVD predicted significant functional deterioration at year 2 (HR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2–3.4), and conversion to AD (HR = 6.3, 95% CI = 1.7–22.5), independent of medial temporal atrophy.
The global CeVD burden scale predicts poor long-term clinical outcome independent of neurodegenerative markers. Furthermore, CeVD severity affects the rate of cognitive and functional deterioration. Hence, cerebrovascular burden, which is potentially preventable, is a strong prognostic indicator, both at preclinical and clinical stages of AD, independent of neurodegenerative processes.
Previous studies have examined associations of cardiometabolic factors with depression and cognition separately.
To determine if depressive symptoms mediate the association between cardiometabolic factors and cognitive decline in two community studies.
Data for the analyses were drawn from the Rotterdam Study, the Netherlands (n = 2940) and the Whitehall II study, UK (n = 4469).
Mediation analyses suggested a direct association between cardiometabolic factors and cognitive decline and an indirect association through depression: poorer cardiometabolic status at time 1 was associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms at time 2 (standardised regression coefficient 0.07 and 0.06, respectively), which, in turn, was associated with greater cognitive decline between time 2 and time 3 (standardised regression coefficient of −0.15 and −0.41, respectively).
Evidence from two independent cohort studies suggest an association between cardiometabolic dysregulation and cognitive decline and that depressive symptoms tend to precede this decline.
Subjectively assessed health is related to mortality. Various subjective indicators of health have been studied, but it is unclear whether perceived physical functioning or mental health best accounts for the relation with mortality.
We studied the relation of subjective measures of health with all-cause mortality in 5538 participants of age 55 to 96 years at baseline from the Rotterdam Study. Various instruments of subjectively assessed health were used, that included basic activities of daily living (BADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), quality of life (QoL), positive affect, somatic symptoms and negative affect. All participants completed questionnaires for each subjective measure of health and were followed for mortality for a mean of 12.2 (s.e. = 0.09) years. Cox regression analysis was conducted in the total sample.
In this cohort, 2021 persons died during 48 534 person-years of follow-up. All measures of subjective health were related to mortality after adjusting for age, gender, education, cognition, prevalent chronic diseases and cardiovascular risk [BADL hazard ratio (HR, calculated per Z-score) = 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29–1.41; IADL HR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.22–1.32; QoL HR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.81–0.89; positive affect HR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.88–0.96; somatic symptoms HR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.06–1.16; and negative affect HR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.01–1.10]. In the mutually adjusted model, only BADL (HR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.16–1.32) and IADL (HR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.04–1.17) remained independently associated with mortality.
Measures of subjectively assessed health are important indicators of mortality. Our study shows that of the different measures of subjective health, perceived physical health predicts mortality over and above mental health. Conversely, the association between mental health and mortality may partly be explained by poor perceived physical health.
The ancient Egyptians mummified animals as part of cultic activity from the Late Period into the Roman era (7th century BC to the 4th century AD). Necropolises have provided millions of animal mummies, reflecting the religious fervor of Egyptians with regard to sacred animal cults during this period. Despite the number of sites containing mummies, and the number of mummies themselves, surprisingly little is known with regard to the nuances in the dating of the cults’ popularity and activities. As part of a multidisciplinary project, we have conducted a series of radiocarbon dates based on a group of animal mummies from the collection of the Musée des Confluences in Lyon, France. Thus, 63 specimens of animal mummies and their wrappings were analyzed to provide a range of dates for this practice. Results show that some correlations can be made between the popularity of particular species and the time period in which they were mummified. Monkeys and goats appear to have been among the first mummified species (from 800 BC), while antelopes appear to be a later addition to the corpus (30 BC to 4th century AD), thereby reflecting changes in thought processes, religious beliefs, and economic imperatives over time.