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Sample geometry effects on mechanical strengths of gold micro-cantilevers are evaluated by a micro-bending test. Six micro-cantilevers with the same length of 50 μm are prepared, and the width and the thickness are varied to examine individual effects on the yield stress. The yield stress increases from 428 to 519 MPa when the thickness decreases from 11.1 to 6.0 μm. No obvious dependency is observed when varying the width. The results reveal that the thickness and the width each has a different influence on the yield stresses of micro-cantilevers evaluated by the bending test, which is the sample geometry effect.
We show that a
-cable of a non-trivial knot K does not admit chirally cosmetic surgeries for
with additional assumptions. In particular, we show that a
-cable of a non-trivial knot K does not admit chirally cosmetic surgeries as long as the set of JSJ pieces of the knot exterior does not contain the
-torus exterior for any r. We also show that an iterated torus knot other than the
-torus knot does not admit chirally cosmetic surgery.
The present study focuses on the impact of integration of family support components to a community support program for people with severe mental illness.
We believe that family members of people with mental illness need emotional and practical supports to lesson their burden and to achieve self-fulfillment. The more they live a fulfilling life, the more likely they will be able to keep a good relationship with a person with mental illness. Therefore, we utilize five specific interventions; 1) case management for family members, 2) direct support, 3) adjustment of relationship between family members and person with mental illness, 4) cooperation with housing program and respite care program, 5) family psychoeducation program. After interviewing family members regarding our services, process of changes in family members were analyzed by utilizing the stage of changes model (Prochaska & DiClemente, 1983). From this analysis, we identified the appropriate intervention for each stage and effectiveness of each intervention.
Results and Conclusion
Since many people with mental illness are living with their families in Japan, family support needs to be a major and fundamental component of community support programs. This present analysis shows the importance of family support suited to their stage of change, since family circumstance improves when family members have more mental elbowroom while being supporters. Even though our experience is from a specific cultural background, we believe that it would be adaptable enough for other programs with various cultural backgrounds.
Postmortem and PET studies indicate increased serotonin (5-HT)-5-HT1A receptor density in frontal and temporal cortices in schizophrenia, suggesting up-regulation secondary to diminished 5-HT1A-receptor stimulation. We previously conducted a series of pilot studies of the effects of the addition of tandospirone, a 5-HT1A partial agonist and azapirone derivative, to ongoing treatment with small to moderate doses of typical antipsychotic drugs, on cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia. The addition of tandospirone (30 mg/day), but not placebo, for 4 to 6 weeks was found to improve executive function and verbal learning and memory.
Methods and Results:
We have conducted a randomly-assigned placebo-controlled double-blind study to investigate the ability of the addition of buspirone to enhance cognitive function in subjects with schizophrenia treated with atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs). Buspirone, 30 mg/day, outperformed placebo in improving the performance on a measure of attention/speeded motor performance and index of general cognitive function. The distinct cognition-enhancing ability of buspirone suggests its usefulness for patients who have large deficits in attention in spite of treatment with AAPDs.
The findings from these clinical studies indicate 5-HT1A receptors are a promising target for the management of psychotic symptoms and cognitive disturbances of schizophrenia. This concept has prompted the development of novel antipsychotic compounds with agonist actions at 5-HT1A receptors, e.g. F156063, SLV313, SSR181507, and bifeprunox. Evidence from basic studies with these drugs suggests an optimal balance of activity at 5-HT1A and dopamine-D2 receptors is required to gain cognitive benefits, which deserves further investigations.
Sleep restriction has adverse effects on performance and neurobehavioral function. However, the mechanism of impaired performance and neurobehavioral function has not been studied yet.
We examined the effect of insufficient sleep on cerebral blood flow and cognitive function in 8 healthy adults (mean age 22.4 years).
All participants were in bed for 8 h (sufficient sleep), and for < 4 h (insufficient sleep). The oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) level by a word fluency task was measured with a near-infrared spectroscopy recorder on the morning following sufficient and insufficient sleep periods. Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST), continuous performance test (CPT) and N-back test were evaluated on the same days.
The peak oxyHb level was significantly lower in the left and right frontal lobes after insufficient sleep than after sufficient sleep (left: 0.25 ± 0.10 vs. 0.70 ± 0.29 mmol, P < 0.05; right: 0.23 ± 0.13 vs. 0.73 ± 0.22 mmol, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the number of words generated during the word fluency task between sufficient and insufficient sleep states. The percentage of correct responses on CPT after insufficient sleep was significantly lower than that after sufficient sleep (86.6 ± 10.2 vs. 96.0 ± 4.9%, P < 0.05). The reaction time of WCST was significantly longer after insufficient sleep than after sufficient sleep (76.6 ± 13.4 vs. 70.6 ± 16.2 sec, P < 0.05).
One night sleep restriction decreased the concentration changes of oxyHb in brain tissue, leading to impaired cognitive function.
Unroofed coronary sinus syndrome complicated by coronary sinus orifice atresia is a rare congenital anomaly. There are two alternate exits for coronary venous return: unroofed coronary sinus and persistent left superior caval vein. The coronary venous direction could be bidirectional depending on the pressure balance between the left atrium and the systemic vein. This anomaly has the risk of heart failure, paradoxical embolism, and cyanosis.
We study Fourier transforms of regular holonomic
-modules. In particular, we show that their solution complexes are monodromic. An application to direct images of some irregular holonomic
-modules will be given. Moreover, we give a new proof of the classical theorem of Brylinski and improve it by showing its converse.
Epidemiological studies of Echinococcus multilocularis infections in definitive hosts require a reliable and economic diagnostic method. In this study, the current copro-DNA examination technique was modified by increasing the faecal amounts tested and adding a step to neutralize the faeces before DNA extraction. Reliability of the modified method was evaluated using rectal faecal samples from red foxes and comparing them with intestinal worms detected using the sedimentation and counting technique (SCT) following necropsy. The modified copro-DNA examination method demonstrated 93.9% sensitivity (138/147) on the SCT. Its detectability increased depending on the worm burden, and the sensitivity was 100% in cases harbouring over 1000 worms. From 111 SCT-negative cases, six (5.4%) were copro-DNA-positive, and all were confirmed as E. multilocularis via sequencing analysis. Five of the remaining 105 SCT-negative cases (4.8%) retained polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors in the extracted solution, suggesting that approximately 5% of the red fox faeces retained these inhibitors after treatment with the present copro-DNA extraction method. Although further evaluation is needed for faeces deposited in the wild, the present copro-DNA examination technique will help monitor the E. multilocularis prevalence in definitive hosts. When used for detailed evaluations of endemicity (e.g. changes in infection pressure or spread in non-endemic areas), the absence of PCR inhibitors should be confirmed, and multiple trials on faecal subsamples are recommended.
We show that if a link
has a closed
-braid representative admitting a nondegenerate exchange move, an exchange move that does not obviously preserve the conjugacy class,
has infinitely many nonconjugate closed
Atmospheric supply of iron (Fe) to the ocean has been suggested to regulate marine productivity in large parts of the world’s ocean. However, there are still large uncertainties regarding how the atmospheric inputs of dissolved Fe (DFe) influence the seawater DFe concentrations and thus net primary production (NPP). Here, we use an atmospheric chemistry model and two ocean biogeochemistry models with high (Model H) and low (Model L) sensitivities to atmospheric sources of DFe to explore the responses of ocean biogeochemistry to different types of atmospheric inputs of DFe: mineral dust and combustion aerosols. When both Fe content in mineral dust of 3.5% and Fe solubility of 2% are prescribed in sensitivity simulations, the ocean models overestimate DFe concentration in the surface ocean downwind from the North African and East Asian dust plumes. Considering different degrees of atmospheric Fe processing reduces the overestimates of DFe concentration in the North Atlantic and North Pacific. The two ocean biogeochemistry models show substantially different magnitudes of responses to the atmospheric input of DFe. The more detailed Model H shows a much higher sensitivity of NPP to the change in combustion aerosols than to mineral dust, regardless of relative inputs of the sedimentary sources. This finding suggests that pyrogenic Fe-containing aerosols are more important sources of atmospheric bioavailable Fe for marine productivity than would be expected from the small amount of DFe deposition, especially in the Pacific and Southern oceans.
We discuss the geometry of rational maps from a projective space of an arbitrary dimension to the product of projective spaces of lower dimensions induced by linear projections. In particular, we give an algebro-geometric variant of the projective reconstruction theorem by Hartley and Schaffalitzky.
One of the key questions of the observational cosmology is how the environmental dependence of galaxies today formed. Proto-clusters, galaxy overdense regions at high redshift are important laboratory to study the formation history of clusters of galaxies. We perform the first statistic study of far-infrared spectral energy distribution(SED)s of proto-clusters at z ∼ 4 by the stacking analysis of Planck/ AKARI/ IRAS images of proto-clusters at z ∼ 4 selected from the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program (HSC-SSP) survey. By stacking ∼ 200 proto-clusters, we successfully constrain their average total SEDs in 60–850μm. Our results imply the excess of dusty starburst galaxies with star formation rate several 1000 M⊙yr−1 in total and obscured AGNs in proto-clusters at z ∼ 4.
We report fourteen and twenty-eight protocluster candidates at z = 5.7 and 6.6 over 14 and 19 deg2 areas, respectively, selected from 2,230 Lyα emitters (LAEs) photometrically identified with Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) deep images. Six out of the 42 protocluster candidates include at least 1 spectroscopically confirmed LAEs at redshifts up to z = 6.574. By the comparisons with the cosmological Lyα radiative transfer (RT) model reproducing LAEs with the reionization effects, we find that more than a half of these protocluster candidates might be progenitors of the present-day clusters with a mass of ≳ 1014M⊙. We also investigate the correlation between LAE overdensity and Lya rest-frame equivalent width (EW), because the cosmological Lyα RT model suggests that a slope of EW-overdensity relation is steepened towards the epoch of cosmic reionization (EoR), due to the existence of the ionized bubbles around galaxy overdensities easing the escape of Lyα emission from the partly neutral intergalactic medium. The available HSC data suggest that the slope of the EW-overdensity correlation does not evolve from the post-reionization epoch z = 5.7 to the EoR z = 6.6 beyond the moderately large statistical errors.
Pregnant women require increased levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) due to the demands of the growing fetus. Although some evidence indicates that maternal intake of fish and n-3 PUFAs is associated with reduced risk of postpartum depression, the results are inconsistent.
We investigated whether dietary consumption of fish and/or n-3 PUFAs during pregnancy is associated with a reduced risk of maternal postpartum depression at 6 months after delivery and of serious mental illness at 1 year in a Japanese population. After exclusion and multiple imputation from a dataset comprising 103 062 pregnancies obtained in the Japan Environment and Children's Study, we evaluated 84 181 and 81 924 women at 6 months and 1 year after delivery, respectively.
Multivariable logistic regression showed a reduced risk of postpartum depression at 6 months in the second to fifth quintiles v. the lowest quintile for fish and n-3 PUFA intake, with trend tests also revealing a significant linear association. At 1 year after delivery, fish intake was associated with a reduced risk of serious mental illness in the second to fifth quintiles v. the lowest quintile for fish and in the third to fifth quintiles v. the lowest quintile for n-3 PUFA intake, with trend tests also revealing a significant linear association.
Women with higher fish and/or n-3 PUFA intake showed reduced risk of postpartum depression at 6 months after delivery and of serious mental illness at 1 year after delivery.
The squirmer model of Lighthill and Blake has been widely used to analyse swimming ciliates. However, real ciliates are covered by hair-like organelles, called cilia; the differences between the squirmer model and real ciliates remain unclear. Here, we developed a ciliate model incorporating the distinct ciliary apparatus, and analysed motion using a boundary element–slender-body coupling method. This methodology allows us to accurately calculate hydrodynamic interactions between cilia and the cell body under free-swimming conditions. Results showed that an antiplectic metachronal wave was optimal in the swimming speed with various cell-body aspect ratios, which is consistent with former theoretical studies. Exploiting oblique wave propagation, we reproduced a helical trajectory, like Paramecium, although the cell body was spherical. We confirmed that the swimming velocity of model ciliates was well represented by the squirmer model. However, squirmer modelling outside the envelope failed to estimate the energy costs of swimming; over 90 % of energy was dissipated inside the ciliary envelope. The optimal swimming efficiency was given by the antiplectic wave; the value was 6.7 times larger than in-phase beating. Our findings provide a fundamental basis for modelling swimming micro-organisms.
System design at the early stage of design plays an important role in design process. Model based systems engineering is seen as a prominent approach for this challenge. System design can be explored by means of system simulation. However, as the system is a complex system, system model tends to have high level of abstraction. Therefore, the models cannot depict every details of the system, which makes optimization unreasonable.
Furthermore, at the early stage of design, there are many uncertainties such as success of technological developments. By properly incorporating uncertain factors in system design, the system can be tolerant. Currently system design is conducted by experienced experts. However, for more complex system, it would be difficult to continue the current practice. Therefore, a method to support design team to make decision in system design is needed.
This paper proposes a computational support for the system design. Design constraints, which seems the core information that design team wants at system design, are modeled. By visualizing constraints quantitatively and intuitively, the proposed method can support design team to conduct system design and design study.
In Japan, with the revision of the Nuclear Emergency Response Guidelines in 2015, nuclear emergency medical assistance teams responsible for the medical treatment in the acute phase of nuclear disaster have been developed nationwide. The purpose of this research is to develop active learning materials for the education of medical staff, to confirm the educational effect of the materials, and to identify the gaps in nuclear disaster risk reduction in Japan.
We established a working group and created active learning materials. We trained members of the nuclear emergency medical assistance team using the developed active learning materials and then conducted a questionnaire survey for trainees who participated in the training.
Regarding the developed teaching materials, out of 33 trainees, 33 (100%) answered “easy to understand” or “a little understandable” to the item dealing with how to use the radiation detectors and attaching/detaching personal protective equipment. Regarding the simulation about practicing hospital support and medical provision, 3 (8%) answered “a little confusing.”
The study demonstrated that the developed materials have an educational effect. Additionally, the results of the trainee questionnaire showed the necessity for improvement in the triage system and new protocols to help both the patients and responders.