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Newton's Principia is perhaps the second most famous work of mathematics, after Euclid's Elements. Originally published in 1687, it gave the first systematic account of the fundamental concepts of dynamics, as well as three beautiful derivations of Newton's law of gravitation from Kepler's laws of planetary motion. As a book of great insight and ingenuity, it has raised our understanding of the power of mathematics more than any other work. This heavily annotated translation of the third and final edition (1726) of the Principia will enable any reader with a good understanding of elementary mathematics to easily grasp the meaning of the text, either from the translation itself or from the notes, and to appreciate some of its significance. All forward references are given to illuminate the structure and unity of the whole, and to clarify the parts. The mathematical prerequisites for understanding Newton's arguments are given in a brief appendix.
Political sociology is a large and expanding field with many new developments, and The New Handbook of Political Sociology supplies the knowledge necessary to keep up with this exciting field. Written by a distinguished group of leading scholars in sociology, this volume provides a survey of this vibrant and growing field in the new millennium. The Handbook presents the field in six parts: theories of political sociology, the information and knowledge explosion, the state and political parties, civil society and citizenship, the varieties of state policies, and globalization and how it affects politics. Covering all subareas of the field with both theoretical orientations and empirical studies, it directly connects scholars with current research in the field. A total reconceptualization of the first edition, the new handbook features nine additional chapters and highlights the impact of the media and big data.
The dominant conceptions of emotional intelligence can be categorized into “ability” models and “mixed” models. Ability models view emotional intelligence as a construct related to other intelligences and consisting of a set of mental abilities whereas mixed models view emotional intelligence as a blend of standard personality traits and various abilities. In this chapter, we review these models of emotional intelligence, including the measures associated with each, and provide a brief summary of the debate between ability models and mixed models. Narrowing in on the ability conception of emotional intelligence, we then discuss its behavioral and neural correlates, development, and malleability, as well as a school-based intervention designed to promote these skills. We conclude with an exploration of possibilities for the emotional intelligence research landscape in the next thirty years.
The timing of feed intake can alter circadian rhythms of peripheral tissues. Milk synthesis displays a daily rhythm across several species, but the effect of feeding time on these rhythms is poorly characterised. The objective of this experiment was to determine if the time of feed intake modifies the daily patterns of milk synthesis, plasma metabolites and body temperature in dairy cows. Sixteen lactating Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment sequences in a cross-over design with 17 d periods. Treatments included day-restricted feeding (DRF; feed available from 07.00 to 23.00 hours) and night-restricted feeding (NRF; feed available from 19.00 to 11.00 hours). Cows were milked every 6 h on the last 7 d of each period, and blood samples were collected to represent every 4 h over the day. Peak milk yield was shifted from morning in DRF to evening in NRF, while milk fat, protein and lactose concentration peaked in the evening in DRF and the morning in NRF. Plasma glucose, insulin, NEFA and urea nitrogen concentration fit daily rhythms in all treatments. Night feeding increased the amplitude of glucose, insulin and NEFA rhythms and shifted the daily rhythms by 8 to 12 h (P < 0·05). Night feeding also phase-delayed the rhythm of core body temperature and DRF increased its amplitude. Altering the time of feed availability shifts the daily rhythms of milk synthesis and plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations and body temperature, suggesting that these rhythms may be entrained by food intake.
Dietary protein insufficiency has been linked to excessive TAG storage and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in developing countries. Hepatic TAG accumulation following a low-protein diet may be due to altered peroxisomal, mitochondrial and gut microbiota function. Hepatic peroxisomes and mitochondria normally mediate metabolism of nutrients to provide energy and substrates for lipogenesis. Peroxisome biogenesis and activities can be modulated by odd-chain fatty acids (OCFA) and SCFA that are derived from gut bacteria, for example, propionate and butyrate. Also produced during amino acid metabolism by peroxisomes and mitochondria, propionate and butyrate concentrations correlate inversely with risk of obesity, insulin resistance and NAFLD. In this horizon-scanning review, we have compiled available evidence on the effects of protein malnutrition on OCFA production, arising from loss in mitochondrial, peroxisomal and gut microbiota function, and its association with lipid accumulation in the liver. The methyl donor amino acid composition of dietary protein is an important contributor to liver function and lipid storage; the presence and abundance of dietary branched-chain amino acids can modulate the composition and metabolic activity of the gut microbiome and, on the other hand, can affect protective OCFA and SCFA production in the liver. In preclinical animal models fed with low-protein diets, specific amino acid supplementation can ameliorate fatty liver disease. The association between low dietary protein intake and fatty liver disease is underexplored and merits further investigation, particularly in vulnerable groups with dietary protein restriction in developing countries.
Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto is regarded to have the highest zoonotic potential of all Echinococcus taxa. Globally, human infection due to this species constitutes over 88.44% of the total cystic echinococcosis (CE) burden. Here, we report a CE infection in a Nigerian camel caused by E. granulosus G1 genotype. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first encounter of the G1 genotype in the West Africa sub-region where the G6 genotype is reportedly prevalent, suggesting that the epidemiology of this highly zoonotic group could have a wider host range and distribution in the sub-region, and emphasizes the need for further investigation into the genetic diversity of Echinococcus spp. in Nigeria and across the sub-region.
Describe common pathogens and antimicrobial resistance patterns for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) that occurred during 2015–2017 and were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN).
Data from central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), ventilator-associated events (VAEs), and surgical site infections (SSIs) were reported from acute-care hospitals, long-term acute-care hospitals, and inpatient rehabilitation facilities. This analysis included device-associated HAIs reported from adult location types, and SSIs among patients ≥18 years old. Percentages of pathogens with nonsusceptibility (%NS) to selected antimicrobials were calculated for each HAI type, location type, surgical category, and surgical wound closure technique.
Overall, 5,626 facilities performed adult HAI surveillance during this period, most of which were general acute-care hospitals with <200 beds. Escherichia coli (18%), Staphylococcus aureus (12%), and Klebsiella spp (9%) were the 3 most frequently reported pathogens. Pathogens varied by HAI and location type, with oncology units having a distinct pathogen distribution compared to other settings. The %NS for most pathogens was significantly higher among device-associated HAIs than SSIs. In addition, pathogens from long-term acute-care hospitals had a significantly higher %NS than those from general hospital wards.
This report provides an updated national summary of pathogen distributions and antimicrobial resistance among select HAIs and pathogens, stratified by several factors. These data underscore the importance of tracking antimicrobial resistance, particularly in vulnerable populations such as long-term acute-care hospitals and intensive care units.
To describe common pathogens and antimicrobial resistance patterns for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) among pediatric patients that occurred in 2015–2017 and were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN).
Antimicrobial resistance data were analyzed for pathogens implicated in central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), ventilator-associated pneumonias (VAPs), and surgical site infections (SSIs). This analysis was restricted to device-associated HAIs reported from pediatric patient care locations and SSIs among patients <18 years old. Percentages of pathogens with nonsusceptibility (%NS) to selected antimicrobials were calculated by HAI type, location type, and surgical category.
Overall, 2,545 facilities performed surveillance of pediatric HAIs in the NHSN during this period. Staphylococcus aureus (15%), Escherichia coli (12%), and coagulase-negative staphylococci (12%) were the 3 most commonly reported pathogens associated with pediatric HAIs. Pathogens and the %NS varied by HAI type, location type, and/or surgical category. Among CLABSIs, the %NS was generally lowest in neonatal intensive care units and highest in pediatric oncology units. Staphylococcus spp were particularly common among orthopedic, neurosurgical, and cardiac SSIs; however, E. coli was more common in abdominal SSIs. Overall, antimicrobial nonsusceptibility was less prevalent in pediatric HAIs than in adult HAIs.
This report provides an updated national summary of pathogen distributions and antimicrobial resistance patterns among pediatric HAIs. These data highlight the need for continued antimicrobial resistance tracking among pediatric patients and should encourage the pediatric healthcare community to use such data when establishing policies for infection prevention and antimicrobial stewardship.
Given the rapid rate of technological innovation and a desire to be proactive in addressing potential ethical challenges that arise in contexts of innovation, engineers must learn to engage in value-sensitive design – design that is responsive to a broad range of values that are implicated in the research, development, and application of technologies. One widely-used tool is Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Physical products, as with organisms, have a life cycle, starting with extraction of raw materials, and including refining, transport, manufacturing, use, and finally end-of-life treatment and disposal. LCA is a quantitative modeling framework that can estimate emissions that occur throughout a product’s life cycle, as well as any harmful effects that these emissions have on the environment and/or public health. Importantly, LCA tools allow engineers to evaluate multiple types of environmental and health impacts simultaneously and are not limited to a single endpoint or score. However, LCA is only useful to the extent that its models accurately include the full range of values implicated in the use of a technology, and to the extent that stakeholders, from designers to decisionmakers, understand and are able to communicate these values and how they are assigned. Effective LCA requires good ethical training to understand these values.
Toxoplasmosis is a global health threat in which occurrence in pregnant women poses grave consequences to fetal wellbeing. Studies on prenatal Toxoplasma gondii infection are generally limited in sub-Saharan African countries, including Nigeria. The risk of transmission of toxoplasmosis is very high in Nigeria due to the favourable climatic conditions and prevailing behavioural and socio-economic factors that could aid transmission. Currently, there are no systematic and organized procedures for diagnosis and treatment of maternal toxoplasmosis in Nigeria. These conditions forecast possible unabated transmission in many areas and exponential impact on associated adverse events of the disease during pregnancy. This paper highlights the importance of early diagnosis and treatment during pregnancy which may forestall subsequent development of infection in children delivered by infected mothers. Inclusion of toxoplasmosis control policy in the routine antenatal care of pregnant women is therefore strongly recommended.
Accessibility in immersive media is a relevant research topic, still in its infancy. This article explores the appropriateness of two rendering modes (fixed-positioned and always-visible) and two guiding methods (arrows and auto-positioning) for subtitles in 360° video. All considered conditions have been implemented and integrated in an end-to-end platform (from production to consumption) for their validation and evaluation. A pilot study with end users has been conducted with the goals of determining the preferred options by users, the options that result in a higher presence, and of gathering extra valuable feedback from the end users. The obtained results reflect that, for the considered 360° content types, always-visible subtitles were more preferred by end users and received better results in the presence questionnaire than the fixed-positioned subtitles. Regarding guiding methods, participants preferred arrows over auto-positioning because arrows were considered more intuitive and easier to follow and reported better results in the presence questionnaire.
The Gilded Age was a tumultuous period for US labor and capital: the labor movement grew in size and intensity, strikes mushroomed, and women’s labor force and strike participation grew in tandem. Yet little is known about how women’s participation influenced strike efficacy. On the one hand, women may have added numerical force, militant energy for gendered solidarity and therefore contributed to strike success. On the other hand, women’s participation may have hindered the cause by delegitimizing it or by producing harmful internal factionalism. In this article, we ask: How did women’s participation in Gilded Age strikes influence strike success? We use a unique data source to test the impact of women’s participation relative to men on the success of every strike that took place in the Northeastern United States from 1881 to 1886. We find that striking gender composition ratios matter and are reflected in a nonlinear pattern: for male-dominated and female-dominated strikes, greater numbers of female strikers reduce the chances of success. However, when gender composition approaches approximate parity, the effect of female strikers enhances strike success. We suggest that in approximate proportional parity range, women were more likely to participate and also be taken more seriously by male co-workers. We supplement quantitative findings with qualitative accounts from specific strikes. Our findings have important implications for diversity in contentious collective action in general and strike success in particular.
We examine the relative importance of eight goals U.S. grass-fed beef (GFB) producers have for their farms and the relative importance of nine reasons for selecting the GFB enterprise. We further analyze factors affecting goal structure and reasons for selecting the enterprise. The data used for this study are from a 2013 mail survey of U.S. GFB producers. The most important reasons for selecting the GFB enterprise included “producing healthy beef” and “GFB is good for the environment,” classified in the study as social and environmental sustainability reasons, respectively. Reasons such as “profitability” and “strong demand for GFB” were generally of lower importance.
This paper examines grass-fed beef producer preferences for cattle traits using data from a mail survey of 384 U.S. grass-fed beef producers. Conjoint analysis and Likert scale questions were used to determine preferences. Generally, results indicated that producers preferred easy-to-handle, heavy, black, and relatively lower-priced feeders raised from their own cows. The Kernel density figures for source, color, and temperament confirm the mixed logit standard deviation estimates that suggest heterogeneity in producer preferences.
Despite the longstanding underrepresentation of blacks in Congress, political science research has not settled on the cause. While there is increasing evidence that racial attitudes affect vote choice in today's congressional elections, how this effect interacts with the race of the candidates is unknown. This study addresses this debate by analyzing novel survey, census, and candidate data from the Obama era of congressional elections (2010–2016) to test whether racially prejudiced attitudes held by whites decrease their likelihood of supporting black Democratic candidates and Democratic candidates as a whole. In line with theoretical predictions, this paper finds that Democratic House candidates are less likely to receive votes among white voters with strong racial resentment toward blacks, and black Democratic candidates fare even worse. These findings help to explain the persistence of black legislative underrepresentation and contribute to theories of partisan racial realignment.
In the desert of southeastern California, the geological and archaeological remnants of a once massive lake, Lake Cahuilla, are still visible. One of the most distinctive features marking Lake Cahuilla's relic shorelines is a series of rock fish trap features that, in some cases, stretch across thousands of square meters. These fish traps are severely understudied, and systematic archaeological survey can help scientists reconstruct the dynamic human-environmental history of the region. The large number of fish traps along with the rocky desert terrain, however, make traditional pedestrian archaeological surveys both difficult and inefficient. We used unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology along with traditional archaeological methods to conduct surveys and identify patterning in the shapes, orientations, and frequencies of fish traps. Our study demonstrates the potential of emerging archaeological field technology to better understand the nature of human-environmental ecodynamics through time and space.
Previous studies of cranial shape have established a consistent interspecific allometric pattern relating the relative lengths of the face and braincase regions of the skull within multiple families of mammals. In this interspecific allometry, the facial region of the skull is proportionally longer than the braincase in larger species. The regularity and broad taxonomic occurrence of this allometric pattern suggests that it may have an origin near the base of crown Mammalia, or even deeper in the synapsid or amniote forerunners of mammals. To investigate the possible origins of this allometric pattern, we used geometric morphometric techniques to analyze cranial shape in 194 species of nonmammalian synapsids, which constitute a set of successive outgroups to Mammalia. We recovered a much greater diversity of allometric patterns within nonmammalian synapsids than has been observed in mammals, including several instances similar to the mammalian pattern. However, we found no evidence of the mammalian pattern within Therocephalia and nonmammalian Cynodontia, the synapsids most closely related to mammals. This suggests that the mammalian allometric pattern arose somewhere within Mammaliaformes, rather than within nonmammalian synapsids. Further investigation using an ontogenetic series of the anomodont Diictodon feliceps shows that the pattern of interspecific allometry within anomodonts parallels the ontogenetic trajectory of Diictodon. This indicates that in at least some synapsids, allometric patterns associated with ontogeny may provide a “path of least resistance” for interspecific variation, a mechanism that we suggest produces the interspecific allometric pattern observed in mammals.
Analytic philosophy emerged from a stew of ideas in philosophy and mathematics, which, especially in Britain and German-speaking Europe, was brought slowly to a simmer in the closing decades of the nineteenth century. Many of these ideas were, naturally enough, highly technical, and thus intelligible only within the philosophical and scientific discourses on which they drew. It is worth stressing, then, that these conceptual developments were infused with the ambient cultural and political values of their time, especially those of the diffuse cultural moment known as modernism. The radicalism of analytic philosophy was of a piece with the broader sense of rupture and renewal that defined fin-de-siècle Europe.
Three ingredients stand out as being of special importance to the formation of the tradition. The first is the legacy of German Idealism. It has often been said that analytic philosophy was born in revolt against Kant and Idealism – a claim based, in large part, on Bertrand Russell’s and G. E. Moore’s explicit repudiation of specific doctrines of Kant and Hegel, as well their broader scorn for the metaphysics of British Idealism.