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The interpretation of serum vitamin B12 concentrations in cattle is not well established but a value <350 ng/1 is commonly used to describe adequacy (MAFF, 1978). Three separate experiments explore this interpretation and the ability of cobalt (Co) bullets to increase serum vitamin B12 concentrations in cattle. In all cases, vitamin B12 has been measured microbiologically, using the organism L. leichmannii. In experiment 3, a number of samples were additionally analyzed using a radio isotope dilution (RID) technique.
Previous research suggests that the experience of abuse and neglect in childhood has negative implications for physical health in adulthood. Using data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 115), the present research examined the predictive significance of childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, and physical/cognitive neglect for multilevel assessments of physical health at midlife (age 37–39 years), including biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk, self-reports of quality of health, and a number of health problems. Analyses revealed that childhood physical/cognitive neglect, but not physical or sexual abuse, predicted all three health outcomes in middle adulthood, even when controlling for demographic risk factors and adult health maintenance behaviors. We discuss possible explanations for the unique significance of neglect in this study and suggest future research that could clarify previous findings regarding the differential impact of different types of abuse and neglect on adult health.
Visual displays of data in the parasitology literature are often presented in a way which is not very informative regarding the distribution of the data. An example being simple barcharts with half an error bar on top to display the distribution of parasitaemia and biomarkers of host immunity. Such displays obfuscate the shape of the data distribution through displaying too few statistical measures to explain the spread of all the data and selecting statistical measures which are influenced by skewness and outliers. We describe more informative, yet simple, visual representations of the data distribution commonly used in statistics and provide guidance with regards to the display of estimates of population parameters (e.g. population mean) and measures of precision (e.g. 95% confidence interval) for statistical inference. In this article we focus on visual displays for numerical data and demonstrate such displays using an example dataset consisting of total IgG titres in response to three Plasmodium blood antigens measured in pregnant women and parasitaemia measurements from the same study. This tutorial aims to highlight the importance of displaying the data distribution appropriately and the role such displays have in selecting statistics to summarize its distribution and perform statistical inference.
It is well established that pregnant women are at an increased risk of Plasmodium falciparum infection when compared to non-pregnant individuals and limited epidemiological data suggest Plasmodium vivax risk also increases with pregnancy. The risk of P. falciparum declines with successive pregnancies due to the acquisition of immunity to pregnancy-specific P. falciparum variants. However, despite similar declines in P. vivax risk with successive pregnancies, there is a paucity of evidence P. vivax-specific immunity. Cross-species immunity, as well as immunological and physiological changes that occur during pregnancy may influence the susceptibility to both P. vivax and P. falciparum. The period following delivery, the postpartum period, is relatively understudied and available epidemiological data suggests that it may also be a period of increased risk of infection to Plasmodium spp. Here we review the literature and directly compare and contrast the epidemiology, clinical pathogenesis and immunological features of P. vivax and P. falciparum in pregnancy, with a particular focus on studies performed in areas co-endemic for both species. Furthermore, we review the intriguing epidemiology literature of both P. falciparum and P. vivax postpartum and relate observations to the growing literature pertaining to malaria immunology in the postpartum period.
The larynx is an intricate structure serving three important functions in humans: it protects the lower respiratory airway, facilitates respiration and helps produce sound through a key role in phonation.
We report the first published finding of congenital duplication of the larynx in a patient with previously cleared squamous cell carcinoma of the neck and a new diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung.
We describe the incidental finding of duplication of the larynx in a 62-year-old man with previously completely cleared squamous cell carcinoma of the neck, who presented with worsening dyspnoea. We also provide a brief overview of other published cases in which duplication of the vocal folds and epiglottis has been reported.
Our patient experienced no symptoms related to this incidental finding of congenital duplication of the larynx.
The first case of congenital duplication of the larynx is currently of academic interest only; however, the possible association with squamous cell carcinoma is postulated to raise awareness in clinicians who may observe further cases in the future.
The turf-built sector of Hadrian's Wall was discovered in 1895 by the Cumberland Excavation Committee, at Appletree, east of Wall Bowers milecastle, 51. In the next three years, the associated ditch was traced underneath Birdoswald Fort and under the Stone Wall at milecastles 49 (Harrow's Scar) and 51, forming thus a two-mile loop-line (pl. 1) with the ditch of the Stone Wall which it preceded. The recognition of the new Wall as turf-built was made easy by the analysis of the Antonine Wall three years earlier, and Dr. Arthur Raistrick's pollen-analysis, given below in an Appendix (p. 18), puts the exact nature of the material beyond doubt.
Delta-doped boron marker layers in silicon have been used to test further the relationship between B transient enhanced diffusion (TED) and the flux of silicon interstitials released during the annealing stage following self implantation. We present new data which address a number of questions raised by the present models. We show that in our experiments bulk trapping of interstitials is significant only for low implant fluences (∼1012 cm −2). The origin of the observed diffusion-like profiles for the interstitial flux is instead found to lie in local trapping within the δ-doped layers themselves. Boron trapped in immobile clusters may be associated with Si interstitials in approximately a 1:1 ratio; nevertheless this trapping contribution alone may not entirely account for the observed gradient. We suggest that some part of the observed TED response with depth is attributable to local trapping of silicon interstitials within the boron doped layers.
A study has been made of B transient enhanced diffusion (TED) in heavily P-doped Si using secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). The Pdoped silicon was implanted with boron ions of 40 keV energy to a dose of 3 × 1014 cm-2, and then annealed at temperatures ranging from 700–1000°C in a N2 ambient for varying durations. As P doping concentration increased from 3 × 1019 to 1 × 1020 cm-3, boron diffusivity and the immobile boron fraction decreased. Our experimental results are inconsistent with the predictions of the Fermi-level model and suggest that the clustering between B atoms and Si interstitials should be invoked in order to explain the immobile portion of the B peak during TED.
Three types of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) exist that are distinguished by presence and severity of impairment in cognitive and everyday functioning. Although well-validated neurocognitive measures exist, determining impairment in everyday functioning remains a challenge. We aim to determine whether Self-Report measures of everyday functioning are as effective in characterizing HAND as Performance-Based measures. We assessed 674 HIV-infected participants with a comprehensive neurocognitive battery; 233 met criteria for a HAND diagnosis by having at least mild neurocognitive impairment. Functional decline was measured via Self-Report and Performance-Based measures. HAND diagnoses were determined according to published criteria using three approaches to assess functional decline: (1) Self-Report measures only, (2) Performance-Based measures only, and (3) Dual-method combining Self-Report and Performance-Based measures. The Dual-method classified the most symptomatic HAND, compared to either singular method. Singular method classifications were 76% concordant with each other. Participants classified as Performance-Based functionally impaired were more likely to be unemployed and more immunosuppressed, whereas those classified as Self-Report functionally impaired had more depressive symptoms. Multimodal methods of assessing everyday functioning facilitate detection of symptomatic HAND. Singular Performance-Based classifications were associated with objective functional and disease-related factors; reliance on Self-Report classifications may be biased by depressive symptoms. (JINS, 2012, 18, 79–88)
Most biological materials are hierarchically structured composites that often possess exceptional mechanical properties. We show that nanoindentation can be a powerful tool for understanding the structure‑mechanical property relationship of biological materials and illustrate this for fish teeth and scales, not heretofore investigated at the nanoscale. Piranha and shark teeth consist of enameloid and dentin. Nanoindentation measurements show that the reduced modulus and hardness of enameloid are 4‑5 times higher than those of dentin. Arapaima scales are multilayered composites that consist of mineralized collagen fibers. The external layer is more highly mineralized, resulting in a higher modulus and hardness compared with the internal layer. Alligator gar scales are composed of a highly mineralized external ganoin layer and an internal bony layer. Similar design strategies, gradient structures, and a hard external layer backed by a more compliant inner layer are exhibited by fish teeth and scales and seem to fulfill their functional purposes.