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As the Southern states cascaded toward secession, Virginia, the “mother of presidents,” stood at the precipice of Civil War. Virginia was the pivotal state. The first battles of the Civil War, after Fort Sumter’s nearly bloodless fall, were fought on the soil of Virginia. Four anguished years would pass before the war ended on her doorstep, at a rural courthouse called Appomattox.
By 1918, Japan had achieved lofty goals conceived more than fifty years previously by those known in the West as the oligarchs, and in Japan as genro (elder statesmen). Over the next twenty-five years, these gains were lost as Japan experienced crises at home and launched disastrous military adventures abroad. In Japan, power had long adhered to those close to the emperor, who, himself, seldom ruled and who stood for no particular ideology. Japanese society consisted of many autonomous, competing groups. The father of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA), Yamagata Aritomo, equipped it with several advantages in this competition, allowing it to eventually seize control of the state. The IJA led the nation into war with Manchuria, then China, and then the Allies. Its organizational culture produced tough, proficient, and courageous soldiers, who won three conventional conflicts. But its culture left it unable to deal with military losses; it was a culture that prized reputation over public honesty, ritualized death and placed its own judgment above question. According to its own creed, the IJA should have “done its utmost to protect the state.” Instead its soldiers are remembered in Japan and much of the world as “beasts.”
In recent years, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology has expanded to include UAV sprayers capable of applying pesticides. Very little research has been conducted to optimize application parameters and measure the potential of off-target movement from UAV-based pesticide applications. Field experiments were conducted in Raleigh, NC during the spring 2018 to characterize the effect of different application speeds and nozzle types on target area coverage and uniformity of UAV applications. The highest coverage was achieved with an application speed of 1 m s-1 and ranged from 30 to 60%, while applications at 7 m s-1 yielded 13 to 22% coverage. Coverage consistently decreased as application speed increased across all nozzles, with extended range flat spray nozzles declining at a faster rate than air induction nozzles likely due to higher drift. Experiments measuring the drift potential of UAV applications using extended range flat spray, air induction flat spray, turbo air induction flat spray, and hollow cone nozzles under 0, 2, 4, 7, and 9 m s-1 perpendicular wind conditions in the immediate 1.75 m above the target were conducted in the absence of natural wind in Raleigh, NC. Off-target movement was observed under all perpendicular wind conditions with all nozzles tested but was non-detectable beyond 5 m away from the target. Coverage from all nozzles exhibited a concave-shaped curve in response to the increasing perpendicular wind speed due to turbulence. The maximum target coverage in drift studies was observed when the perpendicular wind was 0 and 8.94 m s-1, but higher turbulence at the two highest perpendicular wind speeds (6.71 and 8.94 m s-1,) increased coverage variability while the lowest variability was observed at 2.24 m s-1 wind speed. Results suggested that air induction flat spray and turbo air induction flat spray nozzles and an application speed of 3 m s-1 provided an adequate coverage of target areas while minimizing off-target movement risk.
Technological advances in synthesis and preparation of aerogels have resulted in formulations that have the mechanical integrity (while retaining flexibility) to be utilized in a broad range of applications and have overcome the initial brittleness that this class of materials was once known for. Both structural and functional aerogels show a drop in performance when subjected to certain cyclic thermal or impact loading due to the wear and formation of cracks, which reduces their lifespan. Here we present the proof-of-concept of a computational toolset that connects the change in thermal profile to structural failure and degradation. In combination with an appropriate finite element (FEM) solver, we have developed a genetic algorithm that can reconstruct the size and shape of the defective region in silica aerogels given the temperatures from a sensor grid. Results show that a heatmap can be used as the foundation for reconstructing faults and defects in thermally insulating materials. Furthermore, the model developed in this study can be expanded to accommodate other material types. Experimental setup can used to benchmark and refine the computational toolset.
Homework assignments are generally viewed as an important factor of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT).
This study examined whether perfectionists procrastinate homework assignments.
Thirty-eight university students attended two sessions, 7 days apart from each other. After completing perfectionism scales at the first session, they were asked to complete homework tasks from a self-help wellbeing booklet and return the booklet at session 2.
Only maladaptive facets of perfectionism correlated with most of the behavioural measures of procrastination. Moreover, those high in maladaptive perfectionism set and completed fewer planned activities to improve their mood.
These findings suggest that perfectionism may affect how clients set their homework, and perfectionism may interfere with the homework assignments of CBT.
Blood glucose level (BGL) is routinely assessed by paramedics in the out-of-hospital setting. Most commonly, BGL is measured using a blood sample of capillary origin analyzed by a hand-held, point-of-care glucometer. In some clinical circumstances, the capillary sample may be replaced by blood of venous origin. Given most point-of-care glucometers are engineered to analyze capillary blood samples, the use of venous blood instead of capillary may lead to inaccurate or misleading measurements.
The aim of this prospective study was to compare mean difference in BGL between venous and capillary blood from healthy volunteers when measured using a capillary-based, hand-held, point-of-care glucometer.
Using a prospective observational comparison design, 36 healthy participants provided paired samples of blood, one venous and the other capillary, taken near simultaneously. The BGL values were similar between the two groups. The capillary group had a range of 4.3mmol/l, with the lowest value being 4.4mmol/l and 8.7mmol/l the highest. The venous group had a range of 2.7mmol/l, with the lowest value being 4.1mmol/l and 7.0mmol/l the highest.
For the primary research question, the mean BGL for the venous sample group was 5.3mmol/l (SD = 0.6), compared to 5.6mmol/l (SD = 0.8) for the capillary group. This represented a statistically significant difference of 0.3mmol/l (P = .04), but it did not reach the a priori established point of clinical significance (1.0mmol/l). Pearson’s correlation coefficient for capillary versus venous indicated moderate correlation (r = 0.42).
In healthy, non-fasted people in a non-clinical setting, a statistically significant, but not clinically significant, difference was found between venous- and capillary-derived BGL when measured using a point-of-care, capillary-based glucometer. Correlation between the two was moderate. In this context, using venous samples in a capillary-based glucometer is reasonable providing the venous sample can be gathered without exposure of the clinician to risk of needle-stick injury. In clinical settings where physiological derangement or acute illness is present, capillary sampling would remain the optimal approach.
Interprofessional collaboration is understood to improve efficiencies and quality of care but is associated with challenges such as professionals’ differing routines, knowledge, and identities, as well as professional hierarchies and time constraints. Given these challenges, there is limited understanding of how professionals collaborate effectively in providing patient-centred care. This study, with a convergence triangulation mixed-methods study design, explored interprofessional staffs’ perceptions of interprofessional collaboration and patient-centred care when working with hospitalized older adults. Thirty-six staff responded to a survey which included the Patient-Centred Care measure and the Modified Index of Interdisciplinary Collaboration; we also interviewed 14 nursing staff. Although all scores suggested a high value was placed on interprofessional collaboration, scores were low related to activities that facilitated team processes. We identified three themes from the data: knowing the patient/family, functional needs, and communication processes. Staff identified daily rounds with interprofessional teams as supportive of interprofessional collaboration and patient-centred-care.
Tanzania is commonly cited as “a success story” where a cohesive society has been built in tandem with its nationhood. In this chapter, we offer an account of interplay between ethnicity and social norms in the context of nation building in Tanzania and highlight the historical transformation of localized, ethnic-based mechanisms for self-protection, “trust networks”, to a national framework for trust enhancement and resolution of conflicts at local levels. This, we argue, was the key for acceptance of national identity by Tanzanians for self-protection, and, hence, a transition from divided pasts to cohesive futures. The chapter traces nation building efforts in Tanzania, and explains why Tanzania is an exception to the patterns of violence and instability experienced in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is argued that that, although conflicts are sometime inevitable, cross-cutting identities such as occupation, and particularly the all-encompassing identity of nationality, can help to decrease the likelihood that conflicts will divide the nation. Diversity may present a challenge to national unity, but it is not insuperable if the political leadership is genuinely committed to deemphasizing ethnic group identities in the public sphere and pursues policies which consider the goal of equality.
This study investigated whether higher maternal choline levels mitigate effects of marijuana on fetal brain development. Choline transported into the amniotic fluid from the mother activates α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on fetal cerebro-cortical inhibitory neurons, whose development is impeded by cannabis blockade of their cannabinoid-1(CB1) receptors.
Marijuana use was assessed during pregnancy from women who later brought their newborns for study. Mothers were informed about choline and other nutrients, but not specifically for marijuana use. Maternal serum choline was measured at 16 weeks gestation.
Marijuana use for the first 10 weeks gestation or more by 15% of mothers decreased newborns' inhibition of evoked potentials to repeated sounds (d’ = 0.55, p < 0.05). This effect was ameliorated if women had higher gestational choline (rs = −0.50, p = 0.011). At 3 months of age, children whose mothers continued marijuana use through their 10th gestational week or more had poorer self-regulation (d’ = −0.79, p < 0.05). This effect was also ameliorated if mothers had higher gestational choline (rs = 0.54, p = 0.013). Maternal choline levels correlated with the children's improved duration of attention, cuddliness, and bonding with parents.
Prenatal marijuana use adversely affects fetal brain development and subsequent behavioral self-regulation, a precursor to later, more serious problems in childhood. Stopping marijuana use before 10 weeks gestational age prevented these effects. Many mothers refuse to cease use because of familiarity with marijuana and belief in its safety. Higher maternal choline mitigates some of marijuana's adverse effects on the fetus.
Understood simply, people are either citizens of a country or stateless. Yet reality belies this dichotomy. Between absolute statelessness and full citizenship exist millions of people who are nationals of a country in principle but lack the identity documents to prove it, beginning with a birth certificate. Languishing in a gray zone, undocumented nationals have difficulty accessing the full services and rights that their documented counterparts enjoy. Drawing on a range of country examples, Undocumented Nationals: Between Statelessness and Citizenship calls attention to and analyzes the plight of people who cannot exercise full citizenship owing to evidentiary deficiencies. The existing literature has not adequately conceptualized and examined this in-between status, which results sometimes from state neglect and other times from intentional state discrimination. By highlighting its causes and consequences, and exploring ways to address the problem, this Cambridge Element addresses an important gap in the literature.