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It is well known the remarkable optical properties of both graphene and left handed materials, for which we study the optical properties of a multilayer system building by graphene-dielectric-left hand material. In this work, we show the transmission, reflection and absorption spectra for a different set of parameters of the left-handed material structure. It is important to highlight that the inclusion of graphene remarkably modifies the transmission and absorption spectra. The optical properties of the graphene-LHM can be modulated via the different parameters of system. We showed that the fill function do not change the line form of the spectra, however, modify their amplitudes. With respect to light polarization, it’s possible to observe that the spectra are widen for TM respect to TE polarization.
The elastic constants, elastic modulus, anisotropy, Debye temperature, and sound velocity properties of Mo0.85Nb0.15B3 were investigated by first-principles calculations under pressure based on the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) proposed by Perdew–Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE). Employing the stress-strain method and the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximations, were calculated the elastic properties of single and polycrystalline crystals; Bulk modulus (B), Young modulus (E), Poisson ratio (ν), Pugh ratio (G/B), Debye temperature and the Cauchy pressure terms. The calculated ν, Cauchy pressure, and Pugh ratio G/B values indicate that Mo0.85Nb0.15B3 shows a transition from brittle to ductile under pressure. Finally, the Density of States decreases as pressure increases.
Experimental studies have reported on the anti-inflammatory properties of polyphenols. However, results from epidemiological investigations have been inconsistent, and especially studies using biomarkers for assessment of polyphenol intake have been scant. We aimed to characterize the association between plasma concentrations of 35 polyphenol compounds and low-grade systemic inflammation state as measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). A cross-sectional data analysis was performed based on 315 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort with available measurements of plasma polyphenols and hsCRP. In logistic regression analysis the odds and 95% confidence intervals (CI-s) of elevated serum hsCRP (>3 mg/L) were calculated within quartiles and per standard deviation (SD) higher level of plasma polyphenol concentrations. In multivariable-adjusted model, the sum of plasma concentrations of all polyphenols measured (per SD) was associated with 29% lower odds of elevated hsCRP (95% CI: 50%-1%). In the class of flavonoids, daidzein was inversely associated with elevated hsCRP (OR= 0.66, 95%CI 0.46-0.96). Among phenolic acids, statistically significant associations were observed for 3,5-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid (OR=0.58, 95%CI 0.39-0.86), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid (OR= 0.63, 95% CI 0.46-0.87), ferulic acid (OR= 0.65, 95%CI 0.44-0.96), and caffeic acid (OR= 0.69, 95%CI 0.51-0.93). The odds of elevated hsCRP were significantly reduced for hydroxytyrosol (OR= 0.67, 95%CI 0.48-0.93). This study showed that polyphenol biomarkers are associated with lower odds of elevated hsCRP. Whether diet rich in bioactive polyphenol compounds could be an effective strategy to prevent or modulate deleterious health effects of inflammation should be addressed by further well-powered longitudinal studies.
Development of biomaterials with primary amine surfaces is very important for the study of some cells of the immune systemuch as macrophages. Currently, the modification can be carried out by physical or chemical methods with several disadvantages due to the presence of additives or subproducts in the system. To overcome this problem, modified polypropylene (PP) films were synthesized by gamma radiation. In this work, radiation grafting of acryloyl chloride onto PP has been employed to form an acyl chloride. Then, the radiation-grafted films were reacted with ethylenediamine in several solvents to obtain the different concentration of the primary amine. The surface amine concentration was determined by derivatization with 4-trifluoromethyl benzaldehyde and characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (N/C ratios), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflection, contact angle, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and elementary analysis. The stability of the amines was measured up to 90 days, without the occurrence of aging as was found by plasma modification.
Breast-feeding is the ideal nutrition for a newborn’s integral necessities. It seems crucial therefore to know its composition in order to provide suitable infant formula when required. Of these, polyamines (with lactation and the microbiota being its intestinal source) are involved in the development of gut epithelium and immunity. Safety concerns limit human intervention studies. Therefore, we studied the amounts of polyamines supplied by breast milk (varying among mothers) or infant formula feeding, up to day 30 postpartum, in the faeces of newborns. Independent samples (68) of breast milk from fifty-nine healthy Caucasian woman (day 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 15 and 30 postpartum) who had natural deliveries after week 38, same-day faeces of newborns when available (eighty-one from breast milk and fifty-five from infant formula fed) and six infant formulas were collected and the polyamine content was determined by HPLC. In breast milk, polyamines and isoamylamine (a primary amine), with inter-individual variations, increased over time (with a higher content of spermidine; no other amines were present). Overall, they were much higher than in infant formula. By the 2nd week after birth, polyamines, cadaverine and tyramine, but not isoamylamine, were higher in the faeces of those fed infant formula compared with those fed breast milk. Cadaverine and tyramine could be used to predict the feeding type used for newborns. The differences in the content may be related to distinct colonisation of amine-producing bacteria, which can be established by polyamines. Further studies are required to determine the clinical utility of these findings.
The stability of a cantilevered elastic sheet in a uniform flow has been studied extensively due to its importance in engineering and its prevalence in natural structures. Varying the flow speed can give rise to a range of dynamics including limit cycle behaviour and chaotic motion of the cantilevered sheet. Recently, the ‘inverted flag’ configuration – a cantilevered elastic sheet aligned with the flow impinging on its free edge – has been observed to produce large-amplitude flapping over a finite band of flow speeds. This flapping phenomenon has been found to be a vortex-induced vibration, and only occurs at sufficiently large Reynolds numbers. In all cases studied, the inverted flag has been formed from a cantilevered sheet of rectangular morphology, i.e. the planform of its elastic sheet is a rectangle. Here, we investigate the effect of the inverted flag’s morphology on its resulting stability and dynamics. We choose a trapezoidal planform which is explored using experiment and an analytical theory for the divergence instability of an inverted flag of arbitrary morphology. Strikingly, for this planform we observe that the flow speed range over which flapping occurs scales approximately with the flow speed at which the divergence instability occurs. This provides a means by which to predict and control flapping. In a biological setting, leaves in a wind can also align themselves in an inverted flag configuration. Motivated by this natural occurrence we also study the effect of adding an artificial ‘petiole’ (a thin elastic stalk that connects the sheet to the clamp) on the inverted flag’s dynamics. We find that the petiole serves to partially decouple fluid forces from elastic forces, for which an analytical theory is also derived, in addition to increasing the freedom by which the flapping dynamics can be tuned. These results highlight the intricacies of the flapping instability and account for some of the varied dynamics of leaves in nature.
Traditionally, data has been presented in textual format and the interaction with the user confined to the keyboard or touch screen to input data and the screen to deliver information. However, with the advent of a data-driven society, an opportunity for more natural and efficient ways of presenting data and interacting with it has emerged.
Although the area of Human-Computer Interaction has existed for a long time, its focus has always been on the interaction with an artefact (the computer). Today instead, we face the challenge of interacting with an intangible object: data. As a result, a key requirement emerges: How do we make legible the enormous amounts of data produced per day to ordinary people?
Designers, able to devise natural and smooth interaction experiences, should play a relevant role in this new scenario. However, they might lack the basic technical knowledge required to understand the possibilities of these new systems.
In this paper we present a brief how-to manual for an undergraduate course on data materialisation: the process of transforming an intangible object (data) in an artefact that can be interacted with in a physical way.
Two new species of Canthidium Erichson, 1847 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) from Mexico are described: Canthidium nebularum Moctezuma, Sánchez-Huerta, and Halffter, new species; and C. chimalapense Moctezuma and Halffter, new species. An updated key for the North American species is included, with a brief discussion on taxonomic and biogeographic relevance of the new taxa.
Describe the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of an outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)–producing organisms and the novel use of a cohorting unit for its control.
A 566-room academic teaching facility in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Solid-organ transplant recipients.
Infection control bundles were used throughout the time of observation. All KPC cases were intermittently housed in a cohorting unit with dedicated nurses and nursing aids. The rooms used in the cohorting unit had anterooms where clean supplies and linens were placed. Spread of KPC-producing organisms was determined using rectal surveillance cultures on admission and weekly thereafter among all consecutive patients admitted to the involved units. KPC-positive strains underwent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and whole-genome sequencing.
A total of 8 KPC cases (5 identified by surveillance) were identified from April 2016 to April 2017. After the index patient, 3 patients acquired KPC-producing organisms despite implementation of an infection control bundle. This prompted the use of a cohorting unit, which immediately halted transmission, and the single remaining KPC case was transferred out of the cohorting unit. However, additional KPC cases were identified within 2 months. Once the cohorting unit was reopened, no additional KPC cases occurred. The KPC-positive species identified during this outbreak included Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae complex, and Escherichia coli. blaKPC was identified on at least 2 plasmid backbones.
A complex KPC outbreak involving both clonal and plasmid-mediated dissemination was controlled using weekly surveillances and a cohorting unit.
Dopaminergic mechanisms are involved in addiction but few effective drugs have been developed to treat it. Recent research has highlighted dopamine D2 receptor partial agonists, like aripiprazole, as a potential treatment for different types of substance dependence. In this study we investigate the use of both oral or long-acting injectable (LAI) aripiprazole in the treatment of dual disorders, specifically focusing on patients with psychotic disorder and comorbid substance use disorder.
Retrospective mirror-image study was conducted at an adult psychiatry inpatient unit from a tertiary care center (Ramon y Cajal University Hospital, Madrid, Spain). Patients included were those with a comorbid psychotic disorder and substance-related disorders (excluding tobacco and caffeine), according to DSM-5 criteria, who started aripiprazole in 2017. The number of psychiatric acute inpatient admissions and psychiatric emergency room visits, six months before and after aripiprazole initiation, were obtained from patients’ records. Sociodemographic factors, average length of stay, antipsychotic polypharmacy, type of substance and change on clinical global impression (GCI) scale during hospitalization were also obtained. Data was analyzed using the IBM SPSS, v21. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used in the analysis.
11 patients were included; 7 (63.6%) were males, the mean age was 40.37 (SD:13.23) years and the average length of stay was 11.27 (SD:7.53) days. LAI aripiprazole was prescribed in 7 (63.6%) patients (all of them receiving 400mg monthly) and oral aripiprazole was prescribed in 4 (36.4%) patients (mean daily dose= 16.25mg; SD:10.30). Antipsychotic polypharmacy was observed in 6 (54.5%) patients: 4 with quetiapine (mean daily dose=75mg; SD:61.23), 1 with clotiapine 20mg daily and 1 olanzapine 15mg daily. There were 6 (54.5%) polysubstance users and the substances used were cannabis (63.7%), alcohol (36.4%), stimulants (27.3%), opioids (9.1%), hallucinogens (9.1%) and sedative-hypnotics (9.1%).
The mean of inpatient admissions before and after aripiprazole initiation was 1.00 (SD:1.00) and 0.18 (SD:0.60) (p=0.047). The mean of emergency room visits before and after aripiprazole initiation was 1.64 (SD:1.85) and 0.36 (SD:0.67) (p=0.026). With respect to CGI scale, the severity of illness score was 5.09 (SD:0.94) and the global improvement score was 2.00 (SD:0.63) (p=0.004).
These results suggest that aripiprazole could be an effective treatment in psychotic patients with comorbid substance use disorders. However, the results should be taken with caution due to some limitations in our study: a small sample, the short period of time studied, the retrospective design and the inherent biases associated with this type of research. Preliminary investigations on the topic and the results of our study allow clinicians to be optimistic about the use of D2 receptor partial agonist in the treatment of dual disorders.
New therapeutic strategies have been established in chronic wound healing procedures, such as the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP). There is currently still uncertainty about the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and real safety of PRP in promoting chronic wound healing and what specific types of chronic wounds can benefit most from its use.
We conducted a systematic review of available scientific literature on the effectiveness, safety and cost-effectiveness of PRP compared to placebo, standard care or alternative topical therapies for the treatment of chronic wounds in adults. Overall effect size was estimated through a meta-analysis. A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted using a Markov model which simulates the costs and health outcomes of individuals for a 5-year horizon, from the perspective of the Spanish National Health Service (NHS) for the PRP versus standard treatment in patients with diabetic foot ulcers. The effectiveness measure was quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). We ran extensive sensitivity analyses, including a probabilistic sensitivity analysis.
Sixteen RCTs and four observational studies were included for the effectiveness and safety meta-analysis. The primary outcome was the proportion of chronic wounds completely healed: 143 patients out of 334 (42.8 percent) were cured in the standard treatment arm and 251 patients out of 375 (66.9 percent) in the PRP arm, relative risk (RR) 1.68 (95% CI: 1.22–2.31). It was unclear whether there was a difference in the risk of infection (RR 0.53, 95% CI: 0.10–2.71) or adverse events (RR 1.05, 95% CI: 0.29–3.88) between PRP and standard care. Three studies were considered for the cost-effectiveness analysis. In the base case analysis, PRP led to higher QALYs and healthcare costs with an estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of EUR 41,767 (USD 48,323)/QALY.
PRP treatment is more expensive and more effective than standard treatment. The estimated ICER is above the acceptability threshold in Spain.
Trends in structural and chemical leaf traits along a chronosequence of semi-evergreen tropical forest and their correlation with litter production and decomposition and associated carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fluxes were assessed. Leaves of 15 dominant species in each plot were collected to measure leaf area, specific leaf area (SLA), C and N concentration and C:N ratio. Litterfall was measured and litter decomposition experiments were set up in 16 experimental plots in a chronosequence of secondary and mature forest. All five leaf traits combined discriminated the secondary forests from mature forest. SLA, N and C:N were significantly correlated to litter decomposition rates. Litter decomposition was significantly slower in mature forest compared with secondary forests. The N concentration of litter was lowest during the dry season, when litterfall was highest. N concentration in fresh leaves was higher than in litter, indicating that N is re-absorbed before leaf abscission. Leaf dynamics and associated nutrient cycling differ significantly between secondary forests and mature forest. Ecosystem-level leaf structural and chemical traits are good predictors of the stage of the forest and explain well the differences in decomposition rates between secondary and primary forests.
In 2018, the Clostridium difficile LabID event methodology changed so that hospitals doing 2-step tests, nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) plus enzyme immunofluorescence assay (EIA), had their adjustment modified to EIA-based tests, and only positive final tests (eg, EIA) were counted in the numerator. We report the immediate impact of this methodological change at 3 Milwaukee hospitals.
To examine timing of eating across ten European countries.
Cross-sectional analysis of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study using standardized 24 h diet recalls collected during 1995–2000. Eleven predefined food consumption occasions were assessed during the recall interview. We present time of consumption of meals and snacks as well as the later:earlier energy intake ratio, with earlier and later intakes defined as 06.00–14.00 and 15.00–24.00 hours, respectively. Type III tests were used to examine associations of sociodemographic, lifestyle and health variables with timing of energy intake.
Ten Western European countries.
In total, 22 985 women and 13 035 men aged 35–74 years (n 36 020).
A south–north gradient was observed for timing of eating, with later consumption of meals and snacks in Mediterranean countries compared with Central and Northern European countries. However, the energy load was reversed, with the later:earlier energy intake ratio ranging from 0·68 (France) to 1·39 (Norway) among women, and from 0·71 (Greece) to 1·35 (the Netherlands) among men. Among women, country, age, education, marital status, smoking, day of recall and season were all independently associated with timing of energy intake (all P<0·05). Among men, the corresponding variables were country, age, education, smoking, physical activity, BMI and day of recall (all P<0·05).
We found pronounced differences in timing of eating across Europe, with later meal timetables but greater energy load earlier during the day in Mediterranean countries compared with Central and Northern European countries.
A new flower preserved in amber in sediments of Simojovel de Allende, México, is identified as an extinct member of Staphyleaceae, a family of angiosperms consisting of only three genera (Staphylea, Turpinia and Euscaphis), which has a large and abundant fossil record and is today distributed over the Northern Hemisphere. Staphylea ochoterenae sp. nov. is the first record of a flower for this group, which is small, pedicelled, pentamer, bisexual, with sepals and petals with similar size, dorsifixed anthers and superior ovary. Furthermore, the presence of stamens with pubescent filaments allows close comparison with extant flowers of Staphylea bulmada and S. forresti, species currently growing in Asia. However, their different number of style (one vs. three) and the apparent lack of a floral disc distinguish them from S. ochoterenae. The presence of Staphyleaceae in southern Mexico ca. 23 to 15My ago is evidence of the long history of integration of vegetation in low-latitude North America, in which some lineages, such as Staphylea, could move southwards from high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, as part of the Boreotropical Flora. In Mexico it grew in association with tropical elements, as suggested by the fossil record of the area.
Depression in palliative advanced cancer patients is common, but often goes unrecognized. One of the first steps toward improving detection is the development of tools that are valid in the specific language and setting in which they are to be used. The Brief Edinburgh Depression Scale (BEDS) is a sensitive case-finding tool for depression in advanced cancer patients that was developed in the United Kingdom. There are no validated instruments to identify depression in Mexican palliative patients. Our aim was to validate the Spanish-language version of the BEDS in Mexican population with advanced cancer.
We conducted a cross-sectional study with outpatients from the palliative care unit at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología in Mexico City. The Mexican BEDS was validated against a semistructured psychiatric clinical interview according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition, classification criteria for major depressive disorder. The interviewer was blind to the BEDS score at the time of the assessment.
Seventy subjects completed the scale and interview. Women represented 71.4% of the sample and median age of subjects was 56.5 years (range, 20–85 years). The prevalence of major depressive disorder according to the psychiatric interview was 20%. The most valid cutoff for defining a case of depression was a score ≥5 of 18 on the Mexican BEDS, which gave a sensitivity of 85.7% and specificity of 62.5%. The scale's Cronbach's alpha was 0.71.
Significance of results
Major depressive disorder is frequent in Mexican palliative patients. The Spanish-language Mexican version of the BEDS is the first valid case-finding tool in advanced cancer patients in this setting.
The objective of the study was to determine the causal effects of school failure (SF) among secondary school students, belonging to five public schools within the region of Girardota, Colombia, through the validation of a psychosocial model with structural equations. A total of 319 students, 25% more males, enrolled in classes between 6th and 11th year, with an average age of 14 years. Furthermore, 265 parents and 200 teachers were also included in the sample. Participants answered the questions raised in 9 instruments. Of the total number of students, 63.8% were surveyed. The instruments were subjected to a pilot test and to the judgment of experts. In order to reduce the amount of data, exploratory and confirmatory factorial analyses were used. Other techniques of multivariate analysis such as decision trees and linear regressions were also used in order to previously evaluate the relationships between the independent variables (IV) and the dependent variable (DV). Afterwards, the Full SEM was calculated, yielding a model consisting of 34 variables (10 latent and 24 observable), with the following indexes of goodness of fit: CMIN/DF = 1.146, p = .058, IFI = 0.974, TLI = .970, CFI = .974, RMSEA = .027 and PCLOSE = 0.998. Theoretically, the model confirms the predictive value of the selected variables, with respect to school failure. The results are applicable to both the design of educational policies and the direct intervention in the classroom. In both contexts, strategies can be developed that reduce factors that negatively affect school performance, actively linking students, teachers and parents.