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Nonhuman primate (NHP) studies are crucial to biomedical research. NHPs are the species most similar to humans in lifespan, body size, and hormonal profiles. Planning research requires statistical power evaluation, which is difficult to perform when lacking directly relevant preliminary data. This is especially true for NHP developmental programming studies, which are scarce. We review the sample sizes reported, challenges, areas needing further work, and goals of NHP maternal nutritional programming studies. The literature search included 27 keywords, for example, maternal obesity, intrauterine growth restriction, maternal high-fat diet, and maternal nutrient reduction. Only fetal and postnatal offspring studies involving tissue collection or imaging were included. Twenty-eight studies investigated maternal over-nutrition and 33 under-nutrition; 23 involved macaques and 38 baboons. Analysis by sex was performed in 19; minimum group size ranged from 1 to 8 (mean 4.7 ± 0.52, median 4, mode 3) and maximum group size from 3 to 16 (8.3 ± 0.93, 8, 8). Sexes were pooled in 42 studies; minimum group size ranged from 2 to 16 (mean 5.3 ± 0.35, median 6, mode 6) and maximum group size from 4 to 26 (10.2 ± 0.92, 8, 8). A typical study with sex-based analyses had group size minimum 4 and maximum 8 per sex. Among studies with sexes pooled, minimum group size averaged 6 and maximum 8. All studies reported some significant differences between groups. Therefore, studies with group sizes 3–8 can detect significance between groups. To address deficiencies in the literature, goals include increasing age range, more frequently considering sex as a biological variable, expanding topics, replicating studies, exploring intergenerational effects, and examining interventions.
Uncertain future risks pose cognitive and analytical challenges to household decision makers. Risks with uncertain probabilities, coupled with potentially severe outcomes pose problems for decision-making and are prone to overreactions. Imprecision in risk estimates generates behavioral distortions such as ambiguity aversion. This article presents new empirical results indicating household overvaluations of uncertain threats posed by several drinking water risks: traces of prescription drugs in drinking water, plastic water bottles with bisphenol-A, and the weed killer atrazine in drinking water. Negative reactions reflect responses to ambiguous risks, but policies driven by these concerns may misallocate regulatory resources due to risk conservatism and “no-regrets” responses.
We compared systematic and random survey techniques to estimate breeding population sizes of burrow-nesting petrel species on Marion Island. White-chinned (Procellaria aequinoctialis) and blue (Halobaena caerulea) petrel population sizes were estimated in systematic surveys (which attempt to count every colony) in 2009 and 2012, respectively. In 2015, we counted burrows of white-chinned, blue and great-winged (Pterodroma macroptera) petrels within 52 randomized strip transects (25 m wide, total 144 km). Burrow densities were extrapolated by Geographic Information System-derived habitat attributes (geology, vegetation, slope, elevation, aspect) to generate island-wide burrow estimates. Great-winged petrel burrows were found singly or in small groups at low densities (2 burrows ha−1); white-chinned petrel burrows were in loose clusters at moderate densities (3 burrows ha−1); and blue petrel burrows were in tight clusters at high densities (13 burrows ha−1). The random survey estimated 58% more white-chinned petrels but 42% fewer blue petrels than the systematic surveys. The results suggest that random transects are best suited for species that are widely distributed at low densities, but become increasingly poor for estimating population sizes of species with clustered distributions. Repeated fixed transects provide a robust way to monitor changes in colony density and area, but might fail to detect the formation/disappearance of new colonies.
This research paper addresses the hypothesis that in times of negative energy balance around parturition in dairy cattle, lipids stored in adipocytes are mobilised in a more intensive manner out of the abdominal depots than out of the subcutaneous adipose tissues. Furthermore, the impact of niacin supplementation and energy density of the ration on adipose tissue mass gain and loss was assessed. Absolute masses of subcutaneous (SCAT), retroperitoneal (RPAT), omental (OMAT), mesenterial (MAT) and abdominal adipose tissue as a whole (AAT) were estimated by ultrasonography at −42, 3, 21 and 100 DIM. Absolute and relative daily gain during dry period (−42 to 3 DIM) and loss in fresh cow period (3 to 21 DIM) and early lactation period (22 to 100 DIM) were calculated. Feeding regime neither by niacin nor by energy density exerted any effect on adipose tissue masses. The AAT was always bigger than SCAT, but RPAT, OMAT and MAT did not differ amongst each other. All depot masses showed similar patterns with an increase during dry period and a decrease after calving. In fresh cow period AAT absolutely and relatively lost more mass than SCAT. This confirms that AAT is more intensively mobilised than SCAT during that time span. Further absolute daily gain during dry period was strongly negatively correlated with absolute daily loss during fresh cow period. This underlines the impact of individual body condition on adipose mobilisation in periparturient dairy cows. According to these results, it has to be taken into account that the largest amount of fat mobilised in the fresh cow period origins from AAT. This might impact the pattern of adipose derived metabolites and metabolic effectors interacting in physiological and deregulated adaptation to negative energy balance.
Public support is usually a precondition for the adoption and successful implementation of costly policies. We argue that such support is easier to achieve with policy-packages that incorporate primary and ancillary measures. We specifically distinguish command-and-control and market-based measures as primary measures and argue that the former will usually garner more public support than the latter given the low-visibility tendency of costs associated with command-and-control measures. Nevertheless, if included in a policy-package, ancillary measures are likely to increase public support by reducing negative effects of primary measures. Based on a choice experiment with a representative sample of 2,034 Swiss citizens, we assessed these arguments with respect to political efforts to reduce vehicle emissions. The empirical analysis supported the argument that policy-packaging affects public support positively, particularly generating more support when ancillary measures are added. Lastly, we ultimately observe that command-and-control measures obtain more public support than market-based instruments.
Perceptions of social-contextual food environments and associated factors that influence food purchases are understudied in American Indian (AI) communities. The purpose of the present study was to: (i) understand the perceived local food environment; (ii) investigate social-contextual factors that influence family food-purchasing choices; and (iii) identify diet intervention strategies.
This qualitative study consisted of focus groups with primary household shoppers and key-informant interviews with food retailers, local government food assistance programme directors and a dietitian. An inductive, constant comparison approach was used to identify major themes.
A large AI reservation community in the north-central USA.
Four focus groups (n 31) and seven key-informant interviews were conducted in February and May 2016.
Perceptions of both the higher cost of healthy foods and limited access to these foods influenced the types of foods participants purchased. Dependence on government assistance programmes and the timing of benefits also contributed to the types of foods purchased. Participants described purchasing foods based on the dietary needs and preferences of their children. Suggestions for improving the purchase and consumption of healthy foods included: culturally relevant and family-centred cooking classes and workshops focused on monthly food budgeting. Participants also emphasized the importance of involving the entire community in healthy eating initiatives.
Cost and access were the major perceived barriers to healthy eating in this large rural AI community. Recommended interventions included: (i) family-friendly and culturally relevant cooking classes; (ii) healthy food-budgeting skills training; and (iii) approaches that engage the entire community.
This article examines the “new professions” as alternative settings where women thought and wrote about the international. Presenting the case studies of Fannie Fern Andrews, Mary Parker Follett and Florence Wilson, it shows that, in emerging professional and disciplinary contexts that have hitherto lain beyond the purview of historians of international thought, these women developed their thinking about the international. The insights they derived from their practical work in schools, immigrant communities and libraries led them to emphasize the mechanics of participation in international affairs and caused them to think across the scales of the individual, the local group and relations between nations. By moving beyond the history of organizations and networks and instead looking for the professional settings and audiences which enabled women to theorize, this article shifts both established understandings of what counts as international thought and traditional conceptions of who counts as an international thinker.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To better understand host, viral and bacterial responses underlying disparate outcome. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We utilized metagenomic analysis of 559 genes, the NanoString nCounter Immunology Panel-Plus kit and FFPE mouse lungs from a published BSI time course. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Results show an overall increased level of gene expression during BSIs associated with survival when compared to gene expression during peak viral titers. Early viral clearance and the presence of S. pyogenes in the lungs of TX98 infected lungs 24 hours after BSI was confirmed. Host responses tied to differences in early viral detection and clearance consisted of RIG-I, OAS, TLR3, TLR8 and TLR9. Key changes were noted in the expression of type I and II interferons, complement proteins, cytokines, chemokines, Fc receptors, scavenger receptors, the immunoproteasome and genes associated with T, B, Treg and NK cell activation. Interestingly, there was no significant increase in host antimicrobial peptides during BSIs associated with survival while CAMP and Nos2 were significantly increased 24hrs prior to death in lethal BSIs. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: To our knowledge this is the first side by side metagenomics study of influenza BSIs associated with death and survival. Results offer mechanistic insight into clinical outcomes.
In this paper, we analyze the relationship between unconventional monetary policy (UMP), measured through shadow interest rates, and housing markets for the USA, the United Kingdom, Japan, and the Euro Area using a set of time-varying parameter vector autoregressive models. Our findings suggest that the monetary policy transmission mechanism to the housing market has not changed with the implementation of quantitative easing or forward guidance for most economies considered. A counterfactual exercise provides some evidence that UMP has been particularly successful in dampening the consequences of the financial crisis on housing markets in the USA, while the effects are more muted in the remaining countries considered.
Human–bear conflicts resulting from livestock depredation and crop use are a common threat to the brown bear Ursus arctos throughout its range. Understanding these conflicts requires the recording and categorization of incidents, assessment of their geographical distribution and frequency, and documentation of the financial costs and the presence of any preventative measures. Damage compensation schemes can help mitigate conflicts and, in some cases, improve acceptance of bears. This study aims to elucidate the major factors determining the patterns of damage caused by bears, examine the effectiveness of preventative measures in reducing such damage, and identify bear damage hotspots in Croatia. Our analysis is based on damage reports provided by hunting organizations to the Croatian Ministry of Agriculture during 2004–2014. The highest number of claims were made for damage to field crops and orchards. Damage to livestock, agricultural crops and beehives resulted in the highest total cost to farmers. Damage to beehives and to automatic corn feeders for game species incurred the highest cost per damage event. We identified a hotspot for bear damage claims in Croatia, located near Risnjak National Park and the border with Slovenia. Damage appears higher in areas that have more villages closer to protected areas and a greater per cent of forest cover, indicating a synergistic effect of protected environments that facilitate bear movements and the presence of human activities that provide easily accessible food for bears.
The OSU-FEI Electron Microscopy Collaboratory multiplies the number of individuals who can experience hands-on advanced microscopy techniques. The microscopy classroom allows up to 33 attendees to operate, individually and in real time, electron microscopes as if they were sitting in front of the actual instruments. The communications link, a fast backbone augmented by Internet2, allows various microscopes to be operated from the classroom or by collaborators in another city. This system transforms the training of new users from a one-person-at-a-time session with an expert operator to a group collaborative activity that can include users from around the world.