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This chapter considers ways that perceived time – both at the level of seconds and lifetimes – may influence adult development. Research suggests that age-related impairments in divided attention contribute to older adults’ underestimation of short-term duration judgments. A separate literature suggests that perceived constraints on future time lead to the prioritization of emotionally meaningful goals. We consider ways that these two research streams may inform one another. Findings about duration judgments may help to explain age-related time acceleration that affects perceptions of the future. Findings about motivational changes associated with perceived constraints on time may influence attention in ways that reduce accuracy of duration judgments. We urge joint consideration of these literatures in hypothesis generation about developmental trajectories of cognitive processing, motivation, and emotional well-being.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and depressive disorders are the most two harmful problems for human health in the 21st century. The relationships between the two diseases are complicated, yet the mechanisms are not clear so far. This study addressed this issue by clarifying shared and unique factors between metabolic syndrome (MS) and mild psychiatric disorder (MPD) using the 8-year follow-up Landseed cohort.
A total of 5712 community residents were followed-up and analyzed. The point prevalence rates of MS and MPD and their comorbidity rate were estimated by each wave. Three multiple logistic regression models, with each treating MS, MPD, and comorbid condition as dependent variable, were compared to identify the shared and unique factors. Variables specifically correlate with MS or MPD are defined as unique factors; whilst those correlated with both MS and MPD or with comorbid condition as shared factors.
The point prevalence rates of MS ranged 13.83-14.26%, MPD ranged 17.17-19.60%, and comorbidity rates 2.75-3.07% in three waves. Educational level and weekly exercise frequency are shared factors of MS and MPD. Moderate personal income is a unique protective factor for MS; and male and abstaining from alcohol use are unique protective factors for MPD.
A balanced life style is beneficial for both physical and psychological health. Specifically, there are no dose-response effects between weekly exercise frequency and MS or MPD. It is important for clinicians and health educators to educate community people to engage in exercise in a proper way to improve public health.
Most deep latent factor models choose simple priors for simplicity, tractability, or not knowing what prior to use. Recent studies show that the choice of the prior may have a profound effect on the expressiveness of the model, especially when its generative network has limited capacity. In this paper, we propose to learn a proper prior from data for adversarial autoencoders (AAEs). We introduce the notion of code generators to transform manually selected simple priors into ones that can better characterize the data distribution. Experimental results show that the proposed model can generate better image quality and learn better disentangled representations than AAEs in both supervised and unsupervised settings. Lastly, we present its ability to do cross-domain translation in a text-to-image synthesis task.
Opponents of spanking rest their arguments on the implicit assumption that punishment can only be justified by its corrective or deterrent effects. But this is a questionable assumption. Punishment is fundamentally about retribution: it seeks to give a wrongdoer what he deserves. It is for this reason that corporal punishment is morally permissible, irrespective of whether it corrects or deters future misbehaviour.
The WHO’s (2001) International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) model conceptualizes health from an ecological perspective. It has been implemented by many professionals as the standard health classification framework that guides providers’ decisions regarding assessment tools and targeted interventions. Despite this model’s prevalence among many healthcare providers, the ICF framework remains largely underutilized by many in the counseling fields. This conceptual paper provides an overview of the strengths of the ICF model and ICF-based measurements, and demonstrates its clinical, research, and educational value. A case study is presented to guide counselors and counselor educators through application of the ICF model in various contexts to encourage expanded use of the model. Use of the ICF model among counseling professionals, educators, and researchers is recommended as one way to enhance measurement of clinical outcomes.
The phase evolution of reactive radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtered Cr0.28Zr0.10O0.61 coatings has been studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction during annealing under air atmosphere and vacuum. The annealing in vacuum shows t-ZrO2 formation starting at ∼750–800 °C, followed by decomposition of the α-Cr2O3 structure in conjunction with bcc-Cr formation, starting at ∼950 °C. The resulting coating after annealing to 1140 °C is a mixture of t-ZrO2, m-ZrO2, and bcc-Cr. The air-annealed sample shows t-ZrO2 formation starting at ∼750 °C. The resulting coating after annealing to 975 °C is a mixture of t-ZrO2 and α-Cr2O3 (with dissolved Zr). The microstructure coarsened slightly during annealing, but the mechanical properties are maintained, with no detectable bcc-Cr formation. A larger t-ZrO2 fraction compared with α-Cr2O3 is observed in the vacuum-annealed coating compared with the air-annealed coating at 975 °C. The results indicate that the studied pseudo-binary oxide is more stable in air atmosphere than in vacuum.
Archaeobotanical studies tend to concentrate on the evidence for specialised agricultural food production, with less attention directed towards the use of plant foods within hunter-gatherer contexts. Here, the authors present evidence for the exploitation of Canarium nuts from four late hunter-gatherer sites in southern China. Canarium nuts contributed to the inhabitants’ diets from as early as 9000 cal BP. They also identify new uses of Canarium, c. 4500–4400 cal BP, as ritual offerings in the context of the introduction of rice and millet farming. The results are examined in the context of Canarium use across the wider Asia-Pacific region.
Both konjac glucomannan (KGM) and inulin oligosaccharide have been shown to improve bowel function, but their effects on the mucosal barrier function and immunity are not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of a low-level supplementation of dietary fibres on the colonic mucosal barrier function, antioxidant enzyme defence and immunity. C57BL/6J mice (6 weeks of age, eight per group) were randomly assigned to consume one of the following diets: control or control diet supplemented with 2 % (w/w) of KGM, inulin oligosaccharide (degree polymerisation = 8) or KGM+inulin (1 %, w/w each (K+I)). Fresh faeces were collected on days 19–21. Mice were killed on day 22 after fasting. Segments of colon tissues were processed for histological procedure and stained for acidic mucins and tight junction protein marker zona occludin-1 (ZO-1). The remaining tissues were processed to determine the gene expression of mucin 2, tight junction proteins, antioxidant enzymes and cytokines. The plasma cytokines were measured. Results indicated that KGM, inulin and K+I significantly increased the mucosal layer thickness, mucin density (granule number/crypt) and gene expression of Muc2 as compared with the control. All fibre treatments increased the gene expressions of ZO-1, occludin, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase π, catalase and IL-10. In addition, all fibre treatments increased faecal butyrate and probiotics, and plasma IL-10 concentrations. In conclusion, supplementation of low-level, 2 % (w/w), of K+I was sufficient to enhance the mucosal barrier function and anti-inflammatory status.
The condition of caregivers is important to the quality of care received by people with Parkinson’s disease (PD), especially at the late disease stages. This study addresses the distress placed on caregivers by participants’ neuropsychiatric symptoms at different stages of PD in Taiwan
This prospective study enrolled 108 people with PD. All participants were examined with the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI), and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale. Caregiver distress was measured using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Caregiver Distress Scale (NPI-D). Statistical analysis was used to explore the PD-related factors that contribute to caregiver distress.
The mean follow-up interval in the 108 PD participants were 24.0 ± 10.2 months with no participant lost to follow-up due to death. NPI-distress (the sum of NPI caregiver distress scale across the 12 domains of the NPI) was positively correlated with NPI-sum (the total score across the 12 domains of the NPI) (r = 0.787, p < 0.001), CDR (r = 0.403, p < 0.001), UPRDS (r = 0.276, p = 0.004), and disease duration (r = 0.246, p = 0.002), but negatively correlated with CASI (r = −0.237, p = 0.043) and MMSE (r = −0.281, p < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that only NPI-sum and disease duration were independently correlated with NPI-distress.
The disease duration and NPI-sum are independent predictors of caregiver distress in Taiwanese populations with PD. Early detection and reduction of neuropsychiatric symptoms in people with PD can help decrease caregiver distress.
Many on both sides of the gun control debate are under the impression that the best way to settle it is by weighing outcomes in the context of a utilitarian cost-benefit analysis. This article suggests that this way of thinking about the gun control debate is fundamentally mistaken. What matters is not the risk (or lack thereof) that guns pose to society, but simply whether guns are a reasonable means of self-defence when used to resist crimes. What this means is that even if we were to grant the claim that gun ownership decreases average safety, it wouldn't follow that restrictive gun control measures would be justified.
Dietary quality (DQ), as assessed by the Alternative Healthy Eating Index for Pregnancy (AHEI-P), and conception and pregnancy outcomes were evaluated.
In this prospective cohort study on couples planning their first pregnancy. Cox proportional hazards regression assessed the relationship between AHEI-P score and clinical pregnancy, live birth and pregnancy loss.
Participants were recruited from the Northeast region of the USA.
Participants: Healthy, nulliparous couples (females, n 132; males, n 131; one male did not enrol).
There were eighty clinical pregnancies, of which sixty-nine resulted in live births and eleven were pregnancy losses. Mean (sd) female AHEI-P was 71·0 (13·7). Of those who achieved pregnancy, those in the highest tertile of AHEI-P had the greatest proportion of clinical pregnancies; however, this association was not statistically significant (P = 0·41). When the time it took to conceive was considered, females with the highest AHEI-P scores were 20 % and 14 % more likely to achieve clinical pregnancy (model 1: hazard ratio (HR) = 1·20; 95 % CI 0·66, 2·17) and live birth (model 1: HR = 1·14; 95 % CI 0·59, 2·20), respectively. Likelihood of achieving clinical pregnancy and live birth increased when the fully adjusted model, including male AHEI-P score, was examined (clinical pregnancy model 4: HR = 1·55; 95 % CI 0·71, 3·39; live birth model 4: HR = 1·36; 95 % CI 0·59, 3·13).
The present study is the first to examine AHEI-P score and achievement of clinical pregnancy. DQ was not significantly related to pregnancy outcomes, even after adjustments for covariates.
Around 5000 BC, affluent village communities emerged along the South China Coast. Although traditionally regarded as ancestors of Austronesian migrants, whose farming economies expanded into the Asia-Pacific region, the new synthesis presented here shows that these coastal groups actually lived as hunter-gatherers and fishers, with evidence of socio-cultural complexity. Around c. 3000–2500 BC, this ‘first layer’ of hunter-gatherers witnessed the arrival of a ‘second layer’, associated with rice farming and Austronesian assemblages. This new synthesis positions global coastlines as centres of socio-economic and political complexity, long-distance contact and technological advancement.
Cellulitis is a common infection of the skin and soft tissue. Susceptibility to cellulitis is related to microorganism virulence, the host immunity status and environmental factors. This retrospective study from 2001 to 2013 investigated relationships between the monthly incidence rate of cellulitis and meteorological factors using data from the Taiwanese Health Insurance Dataset and the Taiwanese Central Weather Bureau. Meteorological data included temperature, hours of sunshine, relative humidity, total rainfall and total number of rainy days. In otal, 195 841 patients were diagnosed with cellulitis and the incidence rate was strongly correlated with temperature (γS = 0.84, P < 0.001), total sunshine hours (γS = 0.65, P < 0.001) and total rainfall (γS = 0.53, P < 0.001). The incidence rate of cellulitis increased by 3.47/100 000 cases for every 1° elevation in environmental temperature. Our results may assist clinicians in educating the public of the increased risk of cellulitis during warm seasons and possible predisposing environmental factors for infection.
The equations for the hydrodynamic force and torque acting on a sphere in unsteady Stokes equations under different flow conditions are solved analytically by means of the singularity method. This analytical technique is based on the combination of suitable singularity solutions (also called fundamental solutions) such as primary Stokeslets, potential dipoles, or higher-order singularities, to construct the flow field. The different flows considered here include four examples: (1) a rotating sphere in a viscous flow, (2) a stationary sphere in a time-dependent shear flow, (3) a sphere with free rotation in a simple shear flow, as well as (4) a stationary sphere in a time-dependent axisymmetric parabolic flow. Our paradigm is to derive the fundamental solutions in unsteady Stokes flows and to express the solutions as a convolution integral in time using the time–space fundamental solutions. Next the Laplace transform is used to determine the strength of the distributed singularities that induce the velocity field around a stationary or rotating sphere. Then we use the computed strength of the singularities to derive hydrodynamic force and torque. In particular, for the problem of a stationary sphere in unsteady axisymmetric parabolic flow, our solution for the time-dependent force acting on the sphere consists of five force components – the well-known quasi-steady Stokes drag, the added mass term, the Basset historic (memory) force, and two additional memory forces. The first additional memory force due to the rate change of velocity, we find, is similar to the result obtained by Lawrence & Weinbaum (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 171, 1986, pp. 209–218) for the ostensibly unrelated setting of a slightly deformed translating spheroid. The second additional memory force comes from the effect of the rate change of acceleration and is found for the first time in this study to the best of our knowledge.
Population-based colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programs that use a fecal immunochemical test (FIT) are often faced with a noncompliance issue and its subsequent waiting time (WT) for those FIT positives complying with confirmatory diagnosis. We aimed to identify factors associated with both of the correlated problems in the same model.
A total of 294,469 subjects, either with positive FIT test results or having a family history, collected from 2004 to 2013 were enrolled for analysis. We applied a hurdle Poisson regression model to accommodate the hurdle of compliance and also its related WT for undergoing colonoscopy while assessing factors responsible for the mixture of the two outcomes.
The effect on compliance and WT varied with contextual factors, such as geographic areas, type of screening units, and level of urbanization. The hurdle score, representing the risk score in association with noncompliance, and the WT score, reflecting the rate of taking colonoscopy, were used to classify subjects into each of three groups representing the degree of compliance and the level of health awareness.
Our model was not only successfully applied to evaluating factors associated with the compliance and the WT distribution, but also developed into a useful assessment model for stratifying the risk and predicting whether and when screenees comply with the procedure of receiving confirmatory diagnosis given contextual factors and individual characteristics.
The Chinese Crested Tern Thalasseus bernsteini (CCT) is likely the most critically endangered seabird species in Asia. The Matsu, Penghu, Jiushan, and Wuzhishan Archipelagos along the China coastline, plus Yeonggwang County in South Korea, are the five areas where this species is currently confirmed to breed. According to census and historical data collected in the Matsu Archipelago from 2004 to 2017, there was an average of 10 ± 4 adult CCT individuals at the Matsu Islands Tern Refuge (MITR) during the breeding season. CCT nested only in association with Greater Crested Terns T. bergii (GCT) among seven protected islands in the MITR, and the numbers of observed breeding individuals of the two species were positively correlated (r = 0.59, P < 0.001). We used generalized linear models to examine the effects of chlorophyll-a concentrations in surrounding marine habitats, typhoon frequency, and in-season shifts in colony location on inter-annual variation in numbers of breeding individuals and productivity (chick:adult ratios) of both CCT and GCT at the MITR from 2004 to 2017. Average chlorophyll-a concentrations during July-August obtained from the MODIS satellite were positively correlated with the annual maximum number of GCT at the MITR, but not that of CCT. In addition, we found that nest abandonment events during early incubation at the mixed-species colonies were associated with in-season shifts in colony location and delayed nesting chronology, thereby extending nesting into the peak typhoon season during July and August. The effects of in-season colony shifts on nesting chronology and the additive effects of typhoons caused a significant decline in CCT breeding success during the study period. We propose more rigorous monitoring to ascertain the root causes of in-season colony shifts of terns and then determine possible solutions. Additionally, creating educational programmes to increase public awareness towards seabird conservation could prove beneficial.