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Reconstructing the provenance of siliciclastic marine sediment is important for understanding sediment pathways and constraining palaeoclimate and erosion records. However, physical fractionation of different size fractions can occur during sediment transport, potentially biasing records derived from bulk sediment. In this study, records of radiogenic Sr and Nd isotopic composition and K/Al ratio of the separated clay fraction, as well as bulk grain size, are presented, measured from deep-sea sediments recovered from International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Sites U1456 and U1457 in the Arabian Sea. These new records are compared with published bulk sediment records to investigate the influence of sediment transport on these proxies and to constrain provenance evolution and its relationship to climate variability since middle Miocene time. Correlations between grain size and the bulk sediment isotopic composition confirm that transport processes are influencing the bulk sediment record. This relationship, although present, is not as strong in the clay-fraction isotopic records. Heterogeneity of bulk sediment likely drives differences between bulk and clay records, thought to be largely controlled by sediment transport processes. The isotopic records reveal variations in provenance that correlate with climatic change at 8–7 Ma, as well as an increase in overall provenance variability beginning at c. 3.5 Ma, likely linked to monsoon strength and glacial–interglacial cycles. The clay-fraction records highlight the potential value of measuring proxy records from multiple size fractions to help constrain provenance records as well as investigate sediment transport and/or weathering and erosion processes recorded in deep-sea sediment archives.
Substance-related emergency department (ED) visits are rapidly increasing. Despite this finding, many EDs do not have access to on-site addiction services. This study characterized substance-related ED presentations and assessed the ED health care team's perceived need for an on-site rapid-access addiction clinic for direct patient referral from the ED.
This prospectively enrolled cohort study was conducted at an urban tertiary care ED from June to August 2018. Adult ED patients with problematic or high-risk substance use were enrolled by ED staff using a one-page form. The electronic and paper records from the index ED visit were reviewed. The primary outcome evaluated whether the ED health care team would have referred the patient to an on-site rapid-access addiction clinic, if one were available.
We received 557 enrolment forms and 458 were included in the analysis. Median age was 35 years, and 64% of included patients were male. Alcohol was the most commonly reported substance of problematic or high-risk use (60%). Previous ED visits within 7 days of the index visit were made by 28% of patients. The ED health care team indicated “Yes” for rapid-access addiction clinic referral from the ED for 66% of patients, with a mean of 4.3 patients referred per day during the study period.
At least four patients per day would have been referred to an on-site rapid-access addiction clinic from the ED, had one been available. This indicates a gap in care and collaborating with other sites that have successfully implemented this clinic model is an important next step.
The detection of fireballs streaks in astronomical imagery can be carried out by a variety of methods. The Desert Fireball Network uses a network of cameras to track and triangulate incoming fireballs to recover meteorites with orbits and to build a fireball orbital dataset. Fireball detection is done on-board camera, but due to the design constraints imposed by remote deployment, the cameras are limited in processing power and time. We describe the processing software used for fireball detection under these constrained circumstances. Two different approaches were compared: (1) A single-layer neural network with 10 hidden units that were trained using manually selected fireballs and (2) a more traditional computational approach based on cascading steps of increasing complexity, whereby computationally simple filters are used to discard uninteresting portions of the images, allowing for more computationally expensive analysis of the remainder. Both approaches allowed a full night’s worth of data (over a thousand 36-megapixel images) to be processed each day using a low-power single-board computer. We distinguish between large (likely meteorite-dropping) fireballs and smaller fainter ones (typical ‘shooting stars’). Traditional processing and neural network algorithms both performed well on large fireballs within an approximately 30 000-image dataset, with a true positive detection rate of 96% and 100%, respectively, but the neural network was significantly more successful at smaller fireballs, with rates of 67% and 82%, respectively. However, this improved success came at a cost of significantly more false positives for the neural network results, and additionally the neural network does not produce precise fireball coordinates within an image (as it classifies). Simple consideration of the network geometry indicates that overall detection rate for triangulated large fireballs is calculated to be better than 99.7% and 99.9%, by ensuring that there are multiple double-station opportunities to detect any one fireball. As such, both algorithms are considered sufficient for meteor-dropping fireball event detection, with some consideration of the acceptable number of false positives compared to sensitivity.
Staff training in positive behaviour support (PBS) is a widespread treatment approach for challenging behaviour in adults with intellectual disability.
To evaluate whether such training is clinically effective in reducing challenging behaviour during routine care (trial registration: NCT01680276).
We carried out a multicentre, cluster randomised controlled trial involving 23 community intellectual disability services in England, randomly allocated to manual-assisted staff training in PBS (n = 11) or treatment as usual (TAU, n = 12). Data were collected from 246 adult participants.
No treatment effects were found for the primary outcome (challenging behaviour over 12 months, adjusted mean difference = −2.14, 95% CI: −8.79, 4.51) or secondary outcomes.
Staff training in PBS, as applied in this study, did not reduce challenging behaviour. Further research should tackle implementation issues and endeavour to identify other interventions that can reduce challenging behaviour.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
Suna Monaghan, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,
Jenny Myers, Senior Clinical Lecturer, Maternal and Fetal Health Research Centre, St Mary's Hospital, Manchester, UK,
Lorna A. Howie, Specialist Trainee in Anaesthesia, North West Deanery, St Mary's Hospital, Manchester, UK
Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are one of the most common antenatal complications, affecting 3–4% of all pregnancies:
• They are a leading cause of direct maternal death in the UK and USA, with a rate of 0.83 and 0.99 per 100,000 maternities respectively
• The necessity for urgent treatment of systolic hypertension (>160 mmHg) was one of the top ten recommendations in the last Maternal Mortality Report (CMACE 2006–2008):
• There were seven deaths associated with inadequate control of systolic hypertension resulting in cerebral haemorrhage
• Women with severe pre-eclampsia need to be managed by an effective multidisciplinary team
• There is fetal morbidity and mortality associated with pre-eclampsia:
• Iatrogenic preterm delivery
• Fetal death in utero and stillbirth
• Fetal growth restriction
• There is also growing evidence of increased long term health risks in:
• Women who have had pre-eclamptic pregnancies, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome
• Children of pre-eclamptic mothers also have an increased risk of hypertension and metabolic syndrome in later life.
Classification of hypertension in pregnancy
Hypertension in pregnancy is categorized according to gestation and cause (see Table 14.1). Before 20 weeks, it is likely to be due to chronic, pre-existing hypertension. Hypertension is often identified for the first time in early pregnancy and it is important to rule out any secondary causes. The commonest secondary cause is renal disease, but it is important to exclude vascular, endocrine and immunological causes. Approximately 20% of women with chronic hypertension will go on to develop superimposed pre-eclampsia.
Gestational hypertension complicates 10% of pregnancies and is defined as new-onset hypertension (>140/90 mmHg) after 20 weeks, without significant proteinuria or other features suggestive of multisystem disease.
Pre-eclampsia affects 3–4% of pregnancies, and is defined as new-onset hypertension with significant proteinuria: greater than 300 mg of urinary protein in 24 hours or a urinary protein:creatinine ratio (uPCR) > 30 mg/mmol.
Pre-eclampsia can occur at any time after 20 weeks’ gestation, even into the postpartum period. Early-onset pre-eclampsia (<34/40) represents around 30% of cases and is often associated with more severe fetal compromise. Severe maternal disease can develop at any gestation. The only cure for the condition is delivery of the placenta.
The intervention of 2003 and several key decisions made by the United States-led forces in the early days of the war set in process a chain of events that have had profound consequences for Iraq's women. In many respects the US-led invading forces failed to understand the complexity of Iraq and to adequately advocate for women's rights and freedoms. Women in Iraq now live in times characterised by surges in violence and state executions, illegal detention and abuse, political unrest, underage marriage, chronic housing shortages and so-called ‘honour’ crimes (Bassem 2013; Smith et al. 2013). Media reports indicate that Iraqi women are ‘victimised’ and have become increasingly unsafe in the streets (Archer 2013; Barwari 2013; McGeough 2014). Zillah Eisenstein (2013) notes that, more than ten years after the invasion, for the most part ‘women in Iraq are left to fend for themselves’. In this time of crisis, women cannot rely on the justice system in Iraq to uphold their rights. As the 2014 elections unfold in Iraq a new bill will be voted on. The ‘Jafari law’, as it is being called, would effectively legalise the marriage of minors (children as young as nine) and marital rape. Further legal injustices are highlighted by the Human Rights Watch report titled ‘No One Is Safe’. The report describes illegal arrests and ‘violations against women at every stage of the justice system … Women are subject to threats of, or actual, sexual assault sometimes in front of husbands, brothers, and children’ (Human Rights Watch 2014b: 2). This confirms what has long been denied by Iraqi officials – including the justice and human rights ministers – that women are being taken into custody and tortured, in many cases to coerce relatives into confessing to crimes they may or may not have committed (Human Rights Watch 2014b: 6; Zangana 2013). ‘No One Is Safe’ is but one record of the ways in which Iraqi women continue to face the consequences of the US-led invasion and occupation of Iraq, many of which have been denied, lied about and concealed from the broader public and Western audiences (Carr 2008; Tessier 2007–8). This chapter attempts to contribute to the understanding of Iraqi women's lives, at a time when many people are asking questions about what violence against women means for broader Iraqi society.
This interview took place in Miss Gish's Manhattan apartment on August 1, 1978. She was 84 years old. The interview was arranged by Lillian Vallish Foote, who was named after Miss Gish, and suggested by her husband, Horton; I had met the Footes at that summer's Faulkner conference in Mississippi, and we remained friends. I told Miss Gish that I would be playing this tape for my film history students and that they were her audience. It is significant that Miss Gish did not receive credit as producer or co-producer on La Bohème, The Scarlet Letter, or The Wind, but she never brought that up in the interview, and Iforgot to ask about it.
LILLIAN GISH: Is it on now?
BRUCE KAWIN: It's on. Could you start with the films you produced at MGM?
GISH: Well, Irving [Thalberg]… When I was signed by MGM, I didn't want the contract they gave me. It was for a lot of money, a million dollars for six pictures, and I wanted $500 a week and a percentage of my film, just enough to live on out there—Mother…—and they wouldn't give it to me. Because I had made films for inspiration and I had a percentage, a gross percentage, not a net; you never see a net percentage.[...]
This was written for Ron Gottesman's encyclopedia Violence in America, which appeared in 1999. The manuscript was called “Violent Film Genres, ” but in the encyclopedia the article appeared under the “Film” heading, so the title was changed. I mention this because I don't want the reader to expect some attempt here to cover all violent genres in all countries and all media; there's enough here as it is. I am grateful to Ann R. Cacoullos for helping me organize this piece, an attempt to update and summarize my thinking on violence in film despite its being limited to American movies from the twentieth century. For what it's worth, I have not seen anything in the twenty-first century that disproves what is said here.
I'm different from other people—pain hurts me!
Murder and bloody death are everywhere. In the Hollywood movie as surely as on network TV, hardly a crime is worth solving that doesn't involve a murder. Without the killings of an ape, an astronaut, and a computer, 2001: A Space Odyssey would have no plot. By the end of Oklahoma!, poor Jud is dead.
Since the 1960s, a decade that began with Psycho, American filmgoers' tolerance for onscreen violence has steadily increased. The camera looks at awful things instead of looking away, the sounds are sharper and louder, and the makeup and explosions and optical effects are ever more convincing. Even considering two films in the same subgenre (killer lovers on the run), both of which were perceived as shocking and irreverent when released, Natural Born Killers is far more violent than Bonnie and Clyde.
What can I say about this article except that most of it came true? (I was wrong to be apprehensive about the Library of Congress's National Film Registry, which turned out fine.) It offers a conservative perspective on film and video in 1988, when colorization was rampant and there were no DVDs or HDTVs, let alone 4K digital movies whose frames had the same number of pixels as film frames. Laserdiscs were catching on, but Blu-ray discs were far in the future. Most schools that used video used VHS or laser. It was published in Film Quarterly the following year. Things had changed a lot since I wrote “Creative Remembering, ” mainly for the better, but there was a new problem: film studies teachers were on the verge of abandoning celluloid in the classroom.
At the 1988 joint meeting of the University Film and Video Association and the Society for Cinema Studies (whose official topic was “the relationship of theory to practice”), there were several papers and panels devoted to the relative merits and values of film and video.
The film image was rated superior (be thankful for small favors), but the way this praise was rendered may prove of some interest. It was not that the frame of film—with its dyes, its silver, its tidepool emulsion—stored and yielded an image whose colors and other pictorial values were superior to and of an entirely different nature from the pictorial values of electronic imagery—not, in other words, that the film image alone could be the film image—but that the frame of film had the greater number of pixels.