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Cysticercus tenuicollis as metacestode of Taenia hydatigena is the most prevalent taeniid species in livestock. Eighty-eight C. tenuicollis samples were collected from sheep (n = 44) and goats (n = 44) of the northern Iran from 2015 to 2016. The isolated parasites were characterized by morphometric keys. The DNA of the larval stage was extracted, amplified and sequenced targeting mitochondrial 12S rRNA and Cox 1 markers. A significant difference in larval rostellar hook length was observed in 12S rRNA haplotypes. Analysis of molecular variance of 12S rRNA indicated a moderate genetic diversity in the C. tenuicollis isolates. The pairwise sequence distance of C. tenuicollis showed an intra-species diversity of 0.3–0.5% and identity of 99.5–100%. Using the 12S rRNA sequence data we found a moderate genetic difference (Fst; 0.05421) in C. tenucollis isolates collected from livestock of the northern and southeastern regions of Iran. We concluded that the genetic variants of C. tenuicollis are being undoubtedly distributing mostly in different parts of Iran. Further studies with a larger number of T. hydatigena isolates collected from various intermediate and definitive hosts are needed to study this evolutionary assumption and also to determine the apparent genetic differences observed in the studied regions.
What would happen to the reception of Emerson if one does not share his religious sentiments? I argue that appreciating Emerson does not depend upon sharing a similar attitude towards religion not only because we can discern a secular sense of wonder in his writings, as George Kateb claims, but also because his literary excellence shows us ways of wonder in the first place. Further, I show that though there is a brief exchange of similar ideas between Emerson and Thomas Nagel in the latter's engagement of ‘the religious temperament’, their responses to what they call the tremendousness of existence is fundamentally different.
In assisted reproductive technology (ART) programmes, approximately 10% of infertile patients have at least two or three repeated implantation failures (RIFs) after an in vitro fertilization (IVF) protocol. Successful implantation mainly depends on local immune tolerance mechanisms involving a spectrum of cytokines, interleukins and growth factors. The latter have played pivotal roles in the recruitment of immune cells (and notably T-lymphocyte cells). In total, 250 couples participating in frozen–thawed embryo transfer programme were incorporated in a randomized clinical trial (peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) subgroup: n=122; control subgroup: n=128). In the PBMC group, a blood sample was collected 5 days before the scheduled frozen–thawed embryo transfer; PBMCs were isolated using Ficoll separation and then cultured for 72 h. Two days prior to embryo transfer, 0.4 ml of cultured PBMCs were transferred into the patient’s uterus. Although the clinical pregnancy rate was higher in the PBMC group (34.4%) than in the control group (23.4%), this difference was not statistically significant (P=0.05 in a chi-squared test). Nevertheless, when we limited the analysis to patients with ≥3 RIFs (n=138), there was a significant difference in the clinical pregnancy rate between the PBMC group (38.6%) and the control group (19.7%; P=0.01). Our results imply that PBMC transfer can be part of effective fertility treatment for patients with RIF.
The present study investigated whether dietary patterns could interact with fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) polymorphisms in relation to changes in BMI and waist circumference (WC) over 3⋅6 years of follow-up. Subjects were selected from participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (n 4292, 43⋅2 % male). Dietary data were collected using a valid and reliable FFQ. Dietary patterns were determined using factor analysis. The genotypes of polymorphisms (rs1421085, rs1121980, rs17817449, rs8050136, rs9939973 and rs3751812) were determined. Genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated using the weighted method. Mean ages of men and women were 42·6 (sd 14) and 40⋅4 (sd 13) years, respectively. The healthy (e.g. vegetables and fruits) and the Western dietary patterns (WDP; e.g. soft drinks and fast foods) were extracted. In carriers of the risk alleles rs1121980, rs1421085, rs8050136, rs1781799 and rs3751812, BMI was approximately 2-fold higher in individuals in the higher quartile of WDP score, compared with the first quartile (P < 0⋅05). WC increased with increasing WDP score in carriers of the risk alleles rs1121980 and rs3751812, but not in individuals who did not carry any risk alleles. BMI and WC increased to a greater extent in the high GRS group while increasing quartiles of the WDP score, compared with the low GRS group (BMI change; Q1: 1⋅04 (se 0⋅34) v. Q4: 2⋅26 (se 0⋅36)) (WC change; Q1: 0⋅47 (se 0⋅32) v. Q4: 0⋅95 (se 0⋅34)) (Pinteraction < 0⋅05). These results suggest that adults with higher genetic predisposition to obesity are more susceptible to the harmful effects of adherence to the WDP, which emphasised the need to reduce the consumption of unhealthy foods for the prevention of obesity.
In this paper, the mechanical behavior of a functionally graded nano-cylinder under a radial pressure is investigated. Strain gradient theory is used to include the small scale effects in this analysis. The variations in material properties along the thickness direction are included based on three different models. Due to slight variations in engineering materials, the Poisson’s ratio is assumed to be constant. The governing equation and its corresponding boundary conditions are obtained using Hamilton’s principle. Due to the complexity of the governed system of differential equations, numerical methods are employed to achieve a solution. The analysis is general and can be reduced to classical elasticity if the material length scale parameters are taken to be zero. The effect of material index n, variations in material properties and the applied internal and external pressures on the total and high-order stresses, are well examined. For the cases in which the applied external pressure at the inside (or outside) radius is zero, due to small effects in nano-cylinder, some components of the high-order radial stresses do not vanish at the boundaries. Based on the results, the material inhomogeneity index n, as well as the selected model through which the mechanical properties may vary along the thickness, have significant effects on the radial and circumferential stresses.
The objective of this study was to establish different single or multiple trait selection indices to calculate genetic and economic gains by combining some production, reproduction and udder health traits in a population similar to the overall practical situation in Iran, with and without imposing restrictions on genetic change for some traits. The SelAction software was used to perform the analyses based on selection index theory through a deterministic model. Results indicated that among established indices, the index that showed the highest genetic gain for milk yield did not maximize the total genetic and economic gains. Rather, the index that included all production, reproduction and udder health traits yielded the highest genetic and economic gains. When we placed restriction on the selection indices, the economic gain decreased and the amount of reduction depended on the heritability and the correlation of restricted trait(s) with other traits. Generally, regarding the economic genetic gain per generation, the indices based on records of 200 offspring were 4.819% more efficient than those that used information of 100 offspring.
This paper reports an extended state observer (ESO)-based robust dynamic surface control (DSC) method for triaxial MEMS gyroscope applications. An ESO with non-linear gain function is designed to estimate both velocity and disturbance vectors of the gyroscope dynamics via measured position signals. Using the sector-bounded property of the non-linear gain function, the design of an
-robust ESO is phrased as a convex optimization problem in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Next, by using the estimated velocity and disturbance, a certainty equivalence tracking controller is designed based on DSC. To achieve an improved robustness and to remove static steady-state tracking errors, new non-linear integral error surfaces are incorporated into the DSC. Based on the energy-to-peak (
) performance criterion, a finite number of LMIs are derived to obtain the DSC gains. In order to prevent amplification of the measurement noise in the DSC error dynamics, a multi-objective convex optimization problem, which guarantees a prescribed
performance bound, is considered. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed control method is illustrated by detailed software simulations.
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) as an obligate intracellular protozoan with a worldwide distribution can infect virtually all warm-blooded animals and humans. This study aims to provide a summary of the available data on genotypes of T. gondii in human. Five databases including MEDLINE in PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Web of Science and Google Scholar were searched for the T. gondii genotyping in human during 1995–August 2017. Next, we screened all the articles based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Overall, 26 studies were eligible regarding genotyping T. gondii in human samples. In clonal genotyping, 167 out of 286 cases (58%) were infected with type II. Genetic characterisation of T. gondii isolates displayed that type II was the most predominant genotype in human with the prevalence of 64.3%, 62.1% and 41.7% in patients with AIDS, congenital and ocular toxoplasmosis, respectively. In ToxoDB genotyping, most individuals were infected with genotypes #9 and #65 (21.2%). Based on these results, genotype profile of T. gondii isolates is different throughout the world. The strains in Asian and African countries are characterised by low genetic diversity, while in North and South America a wide diversity of this parasite is found. In countries without any data (e.g. Australia, Western and Southern Africa and Western Asia), identification of T. gondii genotypes might discover higher genetic diversity.
One of the methods to generate transgenic animals is called sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT). Mature sperm cells can take up exogenous DNA molecules intrinsically and transfer them into the oocyte during fertilization. This study assessed the effect of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and electrolyte-free medium (EFM) on DNA uptake (EGFP–N1plasmid) in mouse sperm. Sperms cells cultured in human tubular fluid (HTF) without any treatment were considered as the control group. Sperms cells that were incubated in EFM and HTF with DNA/DMSO at 4°C were classified into EFM and HTF groups. Sperm motility and viability were assessed following treatment. In vitro fertilization (IVF) with sperm in all groups was performed. Fertilization, embryo development and GFP-positive blastocyst rates were analyzed and compared. The result showed that sperm motility and viability in EFM were better than those in the HTF group. The rate of development to reach the blastocyst stage and GFP-positive blastocysts was significantly higher in the EFM group compared with the HTF group (P<0.05). Our data demonstrate that sperm stored in the EFM group can improve the efficiency of SMGT for the generation of GFP-positive blastocysts.
Obesity and particularly central obesity are the main risk factors of colon cancer. All intestinal cell populations including stem cells, their progenitors and differentiated colonocytes seem to be the origin of colorectal cancer. However, recent data support the role of differentiated cells as cancer origin especially during inflammation. Based on Yamanaka’s seminal work, re-expression of few transcription factors in terminally differentiated cells creates stemness properti'es. Although these transcription factors are involved in tumorigenesis, they are epigenetically repressed in adult tissues. We proposed that obesity might regulate methylation of stemness genes in colonocytes via inflammatory signalling. Obesity-associated inflammation was analysed using Western blot analysis of phospho-IκB (inhibitor of NF-κB). Methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting analysis was performed on colonic mucosal samples of twenty obese and twenty normal-weight men to analyse promoter methylation of POU5F1 (OCT4), NANOG, MYC and CDKN2A. TNF-treated HT-29 cells were used to recapitulate the effect of NF-κB activation on stemness genes methylation. Our results showed that colonic phosphorylation of IκB, as a signal of NF-κB activation, was higher in obese subjects compared with their normal-weight counterparts. Moreover, promoter methylation of NANOG was likely to be lower in obese subjects and correlated with central obesity. HT-29 cells incubated by TNF-α showed hypomethylation of POU5F1 and MYC genes in addition to the NANOG. These results suggest that obesity-induced inflammation might be involved in the regulation of DNA methylation of oncogenic genes such as NANOG in differentiated colonocytes and thus predispose them to later oncogenic alterations.
Crises require a timely and well-prepared response by health services, especially those that are directly engaged with the lives of the patients such as blood services. The Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization as a single national authority of blood transfusion has left many crises behind. In this study, we examined the main international crises that the blood transfusion organization has faced during its 44-year history and objectively evaluated the methods for crisis risk reduction, both administrative and operational, all of which have led to fundamental advances in the organization. By proper planning and effective strategy setting, the Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization has managed to cope with international threats and in some cases has turned threats into opportunities to implement new, permanent administrative and operational strategies. It is not prudent for blood transfusion centers to develop their disaster risk reduction strategies on an individual-country basis in a world where global risk and crisis factors are rapidly increasing. Reduction of risk for blood transfusion centers must become a strategic priority nationally and globally. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:410-413)
Thermal resistance across the interface between touching surfaces is critical for many industrial applications. We developed a network model to predict the macroscopic thermal resistance of mechanically contacting surfaces. Contacting interfaces are fractally rough, with small islands of locally intimate contact separated by regions with a wider gas filled boundary gap. Heat flow across the interface is therefore heterogeneous and thus the contact model is based on a network of thermal resistors representing boundary resistance at local contacts and the access resistance for lateral transport to contacts. Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to characterize boundary resistance of Silicon Alumina interfaces for testing the sensitivity of thermal resistance to contact opening. Boltzmann transport simulations of access resistance in Si are conducted in the ballistic transport regime.
Local chemotherapy with biocompatible drug-delivery systems prolongs survival in patients. Due to the biocompatibility and high loading capacity, bentonite nanoclay is a good candidate for the fabrication of drug-delivery vehicles. In this study, doxorubicin-bentonite nanoclay complex (DOX-Bent complex) was prepared for the first time as a sustained-release drug-delivery system for intratumoural chemotherapy of melanoma. An efficient loading of DOX on 1 mg of bentonite nanoclay as high as 994.45 ± 4.9 µg was obtained at a 30:1 DOX:bentonite nanoclay mass ratio. The DOX-Bent complex showed a low initial burst release of DOX in the first 24 h of release, followed by a sustained-release pattern for 21 days. The cumulative in vitro release of DOX from the DOX-Bent complex at pHs 6.5 and 7.4 revealed that the DOX-Bent complex can distinguish between tumour and normal tissues and express specific drug release at the tumour site. The results of cytotoxicity experiments indicated that the release pattern of DOX can supply sufficient DOX to inhibit growth of the melanoma cancer cell with an IC50 of 0.29 ± 0.07 µg/mL. It is thus suggested that the DOX-Bent complex be introduced as a drug-delivery system for effective local cancer therapy.
Safety is a mandatory issue during the operation of a nuclear power plant. A nuclear reactor can have some atmospheric dispersion due to any errors in the safety system.
The aim of this study is to estimate the cancer risk incidence for different body organs due to accidentally released radionuclides from Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP).
Materials and methods
The assumed hypothesis was atmospheric dispersion of radionuclide into the environment due to the safety failure of BNPP. Total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) from radionuclide diffusion in the medium was calculated using HOTSPOT code at two different wind speeds. Finally, the risk of cancer incidence for different organs of male and female sex has been estimated by Biologic Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII model.
The results showed that with increasing the exposure age and attained age, the risk of cancer incidence for different organs is decreased. The value of TEDE was increased at lower wind speed. The most probable organ for cancer incidence at different levels of TEDE in male and female sex was colon and bladder, respectively. On the other hand, prostate and uterus had the lowest radiation sensitivity and cancer risk incidence in male and female sex, respectively. Increasing the wind speed reduces the risk of cancer incidence for all of organs understudy.
Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the younger persons are more subject to the cancer risk incidence because of both the intrinsically greater radio-sensitivity of their organs and their longer remaining life expectancy during which a cancer may develop. The overall risk of cancer incidence as well as the site specific solid cancer incidence were highly dependent to the sex of exposed person, so that the female sex was more exposed to the cancer risk incidence at all of the irradiation levels understudy.
A recurrent theme in Ralph Waldo Emerson’s writings is his struggles with the problem of scholarly inaction. Commentators have given much attention to “The American Scholar” but less to his remarks about the “pale scholar.” In this paper, I focus on the latter and argue that understanding the evolving nature of Emerson’s views about what counts for action could not only deepen our understanding of his philosophy and its orientation toward the conduct of life but also explain why, according to Emerson, there seems to be no reconciliation between “the theory and practice of life.”
The palm grows well in wet, humid parts of tropical Asia (mainly South-east Asia), Africa, and Central and South America Palm oil is a greatest oils the entire world. The palm oil has a greatest saturated fatty acid. The main aim of this study was to determine the best level of palm olein oil on production performance (gain body weight, egg production, egg weight, egg mass, FCR and feed intake), egg quality (Haugh unit, yolk index, yolk colour index, shell thickness and specific gravity), egg cholesterol and blood factors of laying hens of Leghorn W36.
Canola meal is one of the most widely used protein sources in animal feeds. It has an excellent amino acid profile and it is rich in vitamins and essential minerals. Many experiments have been conducted on the value of canola meal for dairy cows. Excellent and often improved milk production has resulted from the use of canola meal as a main protein source. Canola meal provides an important contribution to both rumen microbial protein needs as well as to the digestible amino acids required for animal growth and lactation. Canola meal possesses an excellent RDP profile that may stimulate microbial growth in the rumen. Although canola meal was extensively degraded in the rumen, its 12-h residue still provided an estimated AA profile to the intestinal tract that was close to the AA profile of milk protein (Piepenbrink and Schingoethe, 1998). Kendall et al. (1991) found that the effective degradability of canola meal averaged 51.5%. This compared to 59.1% for soybean meal. In the current animal feed market in Iran, canola meal is cheaper than soybean meal (320 vs. 482 Toman/kg; US $1=933 Toman). The objective of this experiment was to evaluate substitution of soybean meal with canola meal and measure its effects on milk production and composition, and dry matter intake in early lactation Iranian Holstein cows.