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The sent-down youth movement, a Maoist project that relocated urban youth to remote rural areas for 're-education', is often viewed as a defining feature of China's Cultural Revolution and emblematic of the intense suffering and hardship of the period. Drawing on rich archival research focused on Shanghai's youth in village settlements in remote regions, this history of the movement pays particular attention to how it was informed by and affected the critical issue of urban-rural relations in the People's Republic of China. It highlights divisions, as well as connections, created by the movement, particularly the conflicts and collaborations between urban and rural officials. Instead of chronicling a story of victims of a monolithic state, Honig and Zhao show how participants in the movement - the sent-down youth, their parents, and local government officials - disregarded, circumvented, and manipulated state policy, ultimately undermining a decade-long Maoist project.
Recent studies on global performance indicators (GPIs) reveal the distinct power that nonstate actors can accrue and exercise in world politics. How and when does this happen? Using a mixed-methods approach, we examine the impact of the Aid Transparency Index (ATI), an annual rating and rankings index produced by the small UK-based NGO Publish What You Fund. The ATI seeks to shape development aid donors' behavior with respect to their transparency—the quality and kind of information they publicly disclose. To investigate the ATI's effect, we construct an original panel data set of donor transparency performance before and after ATI inclusion (2006–2013) to test whether (and which) donors alter their behavior in response to inclusion in the ATI. To further probe the causal mechanisms that explain variations in donor behavior we use qualitative research, including over 150 key informant interviews conducted between 2010 and 2017. Our analysis uncovers the conditions under which the ATI influences powerful aid donors. Our mixed-methods evidence reveals how this happens. Consistent with Kelley and Simmons's central argument that GPIs exercise influence via social pressure, we find that the ATI shapes donor behavior primarily via direct effects on elites: the diffusion of professional norms, organizational learning, and peer pressure.
Bureaucracies with field operations that cannot be easily supervised and monitored by managers are caught between two sources of dysfunction that may harm performance. The first source of dysfunction is straightforward: field workers can use operating slack and asymmetric information to their own advantage, thwarting an organization's objectives. The second source of dysfunction is often overlooked: attempts to limit workers’ autonomy may have deleterious effects, curbing agents’ ability to respond efficaciously to the environment. I find that the parliaments and executive boards to whom International Development Organizations (IDOs) are accountable differentially constrain IDO organizational autonomy, which in turn affects management's control of field agents. Tight management control of field agents has negative effects, particularly in more unpredictable environments. Attempts by politicians to constrain organizations in an effort to improve performance can sometimes be self-undermining, having net effects opposite those intended.
Randall Berry, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Northwestern University,
Michael L. Honig, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Northwestern University,
Rakesh V. Vohra, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania
The continued growth of wireless networks and services depends on the availability of adequate spectrum resources. Accelerating demand for those resources, due to the popularity of portable data-intensive wireless devices, are testing the limits of current commercial wireless networks, underscoring the need for changes in current spectrum allocations. This has prompted the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in the United States to consider ways to increase the supply of spectrum allocated to broadband access and to introduce techniques for improving the utilization of existing allocations [1, Ch. 5].
Spectrum allocations generally fall into one of two categories: a licensed allocation gives exclusive use rights to the licensee, whereas an unlicensed allocation corresponds to the commons model in which the band can be shared by different applications and service providers . Licensed spectrum typically carries restrictions on how it can be used, and is generally not transferable. Although these restrictions have been alleviated to some extent by the introduction of secondary spectrum markets , existing rules still inhibit the reallocation of spectrum to more efficient uses.
In contrast to the current “command and control” method for licensing spectrum, a spectrum market is based on a notion of spectrum property rights, which can be traded among buyers and sellers. The potential benefits of spectrum markets for increasing the efficiency of spectrum allocations is widely acknowledged. Thus far related discussions have focused on secondary markets, which allow service providers with licensed spectrum to lease their spectrum to other service providers. Transactions must be filed with the FCC for approval (which are automatic in some scenarios), introducing delays that increase transaction costs .
Here we reconsider the spectrum allocation problem without existing regulatory constraints. We start by providing general motivations for introducing spectrum markets. That is, a basic policy choice is whether to define and enforce spectrum property rights. From a social welfare point of view, this choice ultimately depends on whether spectrum is scarce, that is, if demand for it exceeds supply when it is free.
Infants exposed to selective antidepressants (SADs) in utero are at risk to develop poor neonatal adaptation (PNA) postpartum. As symptoms are non-specific and the aetiology of PNA is unknown, the diagnostic process is hampered. We hypothesised that the serotonin metabolism plays a role in the aetiology of PNA.
In this controlled study, infants admitted postpartum from February 2012 to August 2013 were included and followed for 3 days. Infants exposed to SADs during at least the last 2 weeks of fetal life were included in the patient group (n=63). Infants not exposed to psychotropic medication and admitted postpartum for another reason were included in the control group (n=126). The neonatal urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetid acid (5-HIAA) levels of SAD-exposed infants who developed PNA, SAD-exposed infants who did not develop PNA and control infants were compared.
The course of the 5-HIAA levels over the first 3 days postpartum differed between infants with and without PNA (p≤0.001) with higher 5-HIAA levels in infants with PNA on day 1 (2.42 mmol/mol, p=0.001). Presence of maternal psychological distress modified this relationship.
A transient disturbance of the neonatal serotonergic system may play a role in the aetiology of PNA. Other factors, including the presence of maternal psychological distress, also seem to play a role.
This article explores the relationship between the sent-down youth movement and economic development in rural China during the Cultural Revolution. It examines ways in which sent-down youth themselves initiated improvements in rural life, and more importantly, how local officials used both their presence to acquire equipment and technical training and their skills and education to promote rural industry. The sent-down youth offices established in the cities and the countryside inadvertently provided connections between remote rural counties and large urban centres that enabled the transfer of a significant quantity of material goods, ranging from electrical wires and broadcast cables to tractors and factory machinery. Ultimately, we show how individual sent-down youths, their families, and both urban and rural officials – none of whom had a role in determining government policies – identified and made use of resources that those policies unintentionally produced.
We use information from Social Security earnings records to examine the accuracy of survey responses regarding participation in tax-deferred pension plans. As employer-provided defined benefit pensions are replaced by voluntary contribution plans, employees’ understanding of the link between their annual contributions and their post-retirement wealth is becoming increasingly important. We examine the extent to which wage-earners in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) correctly report their inclusion in tax-deferred contribution plans and, conditional on inclusion, their annual contributions. We use three samples representing different cohorts in three different periods: the original HRS cohort interviewed in 1992 at ages 51–56, the War Babies cohort interviewed in 1998 at ages 51–56, and the Early Baby Boomer cohort interviewed in 2004 at the same ages. Our findings indicate that while respondents interviewed in 1998 and 2004 were more likely to correctly report whether they were included in defined contribution plans, they were no more accurate when reporting whether they had contributed to their plans than respondents interviewed in 1992. Contributors in the three cohorts, moreover, overstated their annual contributions and thus would be likely to realize lower than expected account balances at retirement. The magnitude of this error is not negligible. In all three cohorts, the mean reporting error (the absolute difference between respondent-reported and Social Security earnings record contributions) was approximately 1.5 times larger than the mean contribution in the W-2 earnings record.
Presenting state-of-the-art research into methods of wireless spectrum allocation based on game theory and mechanism design, this innovative and comprehensive book provides a strong foundation for the design of future wireless mechanisms and spectrum markets. Prominent researchers showcase a diverse range of novel insights and approaches to the increasing demand for limited spectrum resources, with a consistent emphasis on theoretical methods, analytical results and practical examples. Covering fundamental underlying principles, licensed spectrum sharing, opportunistic spectrum sharing, and wider technical and economic considerations, this singular book will be of interest to academic and industrial researchers, wireless industry practitioners, and regulators interested in the foundations of cutting-edge spectrum management.
We present the largest mid-infrared (MIR) atlas of active galactic nuclei at sub-arcsec spatial scales containing 253 objects with a median redshift of 0.016. It comprises all available ground-based high-angular resolution MIR observations performed to date with 8-meter class telescopes and includes 895 photometric measurements. All types of AGN are present in the atlas, which also includes 80 per cent of the 9-month BAT AGN sample. Therefore, this atlas and its subsamples are very well-suited for AGN unification studies. A first application of the atlas is the extension of the MIR–X-ray luminosity correlation for AGN.
Postoperative pulmonary complications are defined as pulmonary abnormalities occurring in the postoperative period that produce clinically significant identifiable disease or dysfunction that adversely affects the clinical course . The definition includes pneumonia, atelectasis, respiratory failure, pulmonary embolism, pleural effusion, pneumothorax, pulmonary edema, and hypoxemia. These problems complicate approximately 2–3% of all surgeries varying with the invasiveness of the procedure and the presence of patient-related risk factors . Pulmonary complications are described in 19–59% of thoracic procedures, 16–17% of upper abdominal surgeries, but only 0–5% of lower abdominal procedures . They are most commonly seen in the first week after surgery, especially in the first 24–72 postoperative hours and can be particularly problematic because attention may be relaxed after transfer from a post-anesthesia care unit.
Taken together, they are the most expensive form of postoperative complication, are more common than postoperative cardiac complications, lead to longer hospital stays, and increase the relative risk of death to 14.9 (95% confidence limits 4.76–26.9) particularly from pneumonia . They may cause as much as 84% of postoperative thoracotomy deaths .