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This paper investigates whether typical stress patterns in English nouns and verbs are available as a prosodic cue for categorisation and accelerated word learning during first language acquisition. The stress typicality hypothesis states that left-stressed nouns and right-stressed verbs should be acquired earlier than the reverse configurations if stress effectively signals lexical class membership. In this view, class-typical stress patterns are expected to facilitate learning of novel items. A series of generalized additive models (GAMs) based on a comprehensive set of lexical data (CELEX) as well as a large set of age-of-acquisition (AoA) and concreteness ratings reveals that stress typicality plays a minor role in early acquisition, as it is generally superseded by a preference for left-hand (or ‘trochaic’) patterns in both nouns and verbs. This may be explained by general cognitive constraints (perceptual salience and recency) or exposure to the dominant pattern in the ambient language.
Self-control problems are ubiquitous and a frequent target of behavior change interventions. From a theoretical perspective, self-control is not a unitary phenomenon but rather encompasses a vast and complex set of interacting aspects or key components. As the science of self-control keeps growing, the integration of these key components becomes increasingly important. To this end, an integrative self-control theory (integrative self-control theory) is proposed – a mid-level theory that connects seven psychological components or “hubs” of self-control: (1) desire; (2) self-control goal; (3) self-control conflict; (4) self-control motivation; (5) self-control capacity; (6) self-control effort; and (7) constraints. This chapter addresses the issue of behavior change from the perspective of this integrative theory of self-control. A brief introduction to the theory is followed by demonstrations on how it can be used to identify and classify various behavior change techniques in the self-control domain. Moreover, differences and similarities of integrative self-control theory next to more general frameworks such as the commitment-opportunity-motivation behavior model (Michie, Atkins, & West, 2014) are outlined, avenues for future research highlighted, and general recommendations for behavior change from the perspective integrative self-control theory provided.
We present the current performance of the in situ radiocarbon (14C) extraction line at the University of Bern with an improved extraction and combustion system. After three major steps of improvement, the extraction of sample CO2 gas now takes place inside a platinum crucible, supported by an outer quartz-glass crucible. This setup allows us to operate the line as a closed system for several samples without breaking the vacuum. Measurements of procedural blanks and samples from our reference strewn field, Jiddat al Harasis 073, performed in our system all show a good reproducibility and, for the strewn field samples, consistency with published data. We describe each improvement step in detail, discussing the advantages and disadvantages of all tested setups. By sharing our knowledge, we aim to inform and prevent others from making the same or similar detours in establishing 14C extraction systems for extraterrestrial samples.
CT findings in 17 patients and MRI in one patient with post partum psychiatric disorder (PPPD; psychosis: n = 17, depressive neurosis: n = 1) were compared with randomly selected CT scans in non-PPPD patients matched for age and sex. In the PPPD group, 13 examinations (controls: 8) revealed one or several abnormal findings such as sulcal widening, ventricular enlargement and asymmetry. There was a higher prevalence of abnormal CT/MRI findings in the PPPD group (trend, P < 0.1).
Research on neurobiologic underpinnings of psychotherapy in depression is still sparse, particularly in psychodynamic oriented research. At present, there is insufficient data on neurobiologic parameters that could allow a targeted use of therapeutic interventions. One reason for this is the methodological difficulty of investigating complex and individual phenomena relevant to the psychotherapeutic process with functional neuroimaging techniques. The Zurich Depression Study takes up this strong research need developing a pioneer study design.
An individualized neuroimaging paradigm was developed based on the MIPQS (Maladaptive Interpersonal Q-Sort (Zimmermann et al., accepted), a self report instrument derived from the OPD-2 axis interpersonal relations (Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnosis 2, Arbeitskreis OPD, 2006). Visual stimuli were developed and tested that systematically illustrate interpersonal behaviour patterns (Interpersonal Relations Picture Set (IRPS)). They are employed in an individualized fMRI experiment. The experiment was validated with ten healthy study participants
Preliminary results suggest that the experimental paradigm is an accurate method to be employed in psychotherapy research with depressed patients. Specific hemodynamic activation patterns observed during the individualized fMRI task involve brain regions commonly identified as playing a role in emotion processing and autobiographic memory. A final overview of these first results will be given at the EPA 2014 congress.
Pathological gambling is a behavioural addiction with negative economic, social, and psychological consequences. Identification of contributing genes and pathways may improve understanding of aetiology and facilitate therapy and prevention. Here, we report the first genome-wide association study of pathological gambling. Our aims were to identify pathways involved in pathological gambling, and examine whether there is a genetic overlap between pathological gambling and alcohol dependence.
Four hundred and forty-five individuals with a diagnosis of pathological gambling according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders were recruited in Germany, and 986 controls were drawn from a German general population sample. A genome-wide association study of pathological gambling comprising single marker, gene-based, and pathway analyses, was performed. Polygenic risk scores were generated using data from a German genome-wide association study of alcohol dependence.
No genome-wide significant association with pathological gambling was found for single markers or genes. Pathways for Huntington's disease (P-value = 6.63 × 10−3); 5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase signalling (P-value = 9.57 × 10−3); and apoptosis (P-value = 1.75 × 10−2) were significant. Polygenic risk score analysis of the alcohol dependence dataset yielded a one-sided nominal significant P-value in subjects with pathological gambling, irrespective of comorbid alcohol dependence status.
The present results accord with previous quantitative formal genetic studies which showed genetic overlap between non-substance- and substance-related addictions. Furthermore, pathway analysis suggests shared pathology between Huntington's disease and pathological gambling. This finding is consistent with previous imaging studies.
This article investigates some functions of the determinative sum(e) in Old, Middle and Early Modern English. It traces, quantifies and models the diachronic development of sum(e) as a pre-head element from a usage-based, cognitive Construction Grammar perspective by postulating several semi-specified but also abstract constructional OE and ME NP-schemas and sketching the observable (changing) network (re)configurations. By analyzing texts from the Penn–Helsinki Parsed Corpus of Middle English (PPCME) and the Penn–Helsinki Parsed Corpus of Early Modern English (PPCEME), the article especially focuses on the demise of the so-called ‘individualizing’ usage with singular nouns and traces the incipient stages of sum(e) as an indefinite near-article with plural and mass nouns. R was used to calculate correlation coefficients and measures of statistical significance in univariate analyses, and for multivariate regression models to address questions involving more than one predictor variable. It is shown that the usage of sum(e) with singular nouns became marginalized because of constructional competition with the numeral ān. In Old English, the two forms were both occasionally used to mark indefiniteness before singular nouns, but ultimately ān became the default marker of indefiniteness ousting sum(e). We also show that that the usage of sum(e) as an indefiniteness marker for plural nouns increased drastically from the later ME period onwards, particularly in informal text genres. Moreover, from the earliest periods onwards, there is a strong preference for this function to occur with complex NPs with pre- and post-head modification, which seem to have acted as bridging contexts.
The new forms of the use of outer space, such as space resources activities, not only will provide a vital contribution to research and industry, but could also entail a negative impact to the space environment. The present article aims at discussing from a legal perspective crucial problems such as how we shall ensure that the entities active in the area of space resources take environmental concerns into account, how we shall ensure that they utilize the best possible and least invasive technology and whether they should restore the ‘mining’ area when finishing their tasks.
This article examines the thought and career of Nabeyama Sadachika (1901–79) from communist militant in 1920s Japan to his conversion to the emperor system in the 1930s and, finally, to his role in shaping the postwar anti-communist movement. Using Nabeyama's recently released private papers, the article shows how he brokered his anti-communist expertise to a range of postwar actors and institutions—the police, the Self-Defense Forces, business circles, politicians—as well as to foreign states, especially the Republic of China (Taiwan). These networks indicate that important sections of Japan's postwar establishment rallied behind anti-communism in the face of reforms that threatened their power at home and their vision for Japan in the world order after 1945. As a transwar history, this article adds to our understanding of Japan's transition from the age of empire to that of liberal democracy by qualifying narratives about the “progressive” nature of postwar Japanese politics. It argues that the vitality of anti-communism is symptomatic of the durability of particular political traditions, and reveals that, despite the significant reforms that Japan underwent after 1945, the Right was able to claim a space in the country's political culture that has been neglected by historians.
This article describes an atomic force microscope (AFM) that can operate in any scanning electron microscope (SEM) or SEM combined with a focused ion-beam (FIB) column. The combination of AFM, SEM imaging, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), FIB milling, and nanofabrication methods (field-emission scanning probe lithography, tip-based electron beam induced deposition, and nanomachining) provides a new tool for correlative nanofabrication and microscopy. Piezoresistive, thermo-mechanically actuated cantilevers (active cantilevers) are used for fast imaging and nanofabrication. Thus, the AFM with active cantilevers integrated into an SEM (AFMinSEM) can generate and characterize nanostructures in situ without breaking vacuum or contaminating the sample.