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We study a stationary Gibbs particle process with deterministically bounded particles on Euclidean space defined in terms of an activity parameter and non-negative interaction potentials of finite range. Using disagreement percolation, we prove exponential decay of the correlation functions, provided a dominating Boolean model is subcritical. We also prove this property for the weighted moments of a U-statistic of the process. Under the assumption of a suitable lower bound on the variance, this implies a central limit theorem for such U-statistics of the Gibbs particle process. A by-product of our approach is a new uniqueness result for Gibbs particle processes.
Sexual assault, including unwanted sexual contact, coercion, and rape, are both criminal and traumatic. They are approached in a variety of ways in different global contexts. Attempts to address risk and protective factors for perpetrators and victims are limited by the difficulty of collecting empirical data on experiences that can be stigmatizing, complicated, shocking, and private. This chapter takes a global intersectional focus and explores current and historic definitions of sexual assault as well as how they influence estimates of sexual assault prevalence and subsequent psychological and public health responses. Empirical research is selectively reviewed to identify best practices in sexual assault measurement, prevalence, risk factors, and impact. Then interventions and prevention are addressed with emphasis on culturally acceptable and empirically validated approaches that acknowledge intersections of identity viewed from individual through societal levels. The chapter concludes with recommendations for future directions in sexual assault surveillance, prevention, and response.
Impairments in social and nonsocial cognition have been demonstrated in both patients suffering from bipolar disorder (BD) and their unaffected relatives and might therefore represent a heritable marker of risk. This study investigated the relevance of emotional intelligence (EI) as part of the emotion processing domain of social cognition in this regard.
A total of 54 outpatients suffering from BD, 54 unaffected siblings, and 80 control subjects were investigated using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were performed with adjustment for the BACS composite score. The three groups were compared by one-way analysis of variance or chi-square test, depending on the variable type. As the three groups differed significantly in their level of education, additional ANCOVAs with adjustment for education were performed.
Patients achieved significantly lower levels of overall EI and overall nonsocial cognitive functioning compared to unaffected siblings and controls, whereas performance of the latter two groups was comparable in both domains.
Due to comparable levels of EI in unaffected siblings of patients suffering from BD and control subjects, EI assessed by means of the MSCEIT does not represent an endophenotype for BD.
New technologies permit monitoring of an increasing number of physiological parameters in real time by multiple stakeholders in diverse environments. Combined with dramatic improvements in data analytics, this allows us to glean boundless information from our monitors. Miniaturization and nanotechnology make monitors more portable and also let us measure previously unobtainable parameters. The convergence of these factors moves us toward a seamless connection of providers to patients who are free to ambulate while monitored continuously and accurately. Smartphones, smartwatches, e-textiles, and consumer wearables have expanded the reach of physiological monitoring beyond the hospital and produced an explosion in the quantity of data produced. The convergence of all of these technologies allows tracking, analysis, and the production of predictive analytics. As these technologies improve and become more accurate and reliable for healthcare use, they present a myriad of integration challenges that include privacy, dependability, cost, infrastructure maintenance, and even ethical considerations.
Cognitive dysfunction is increasingly considered to be the strongest clinical predictor of poor long-term outcome in schizophrenia. Associations have been found between the severity of cognitive deficits and social dysfunction, impairments in independent living, occupational limitations, and disturbances in quality of life (QOL).
In this cross-sectional study, the relationships of cognitive deficits and treatment outcomes in terms of QOL, needs, and psychosocial functioning were examined in 60 outpatients with schizophrenia who had a duration of illness over 2 years and had been treated with either clozapine or olanzapine for at least 6 months.
The present study suggests that cognitive functioning might be a predictor of work functioning/independent living outcome in stabilized patients with schizophrenia: deficits of visual memory and working memory were negatively associated with occupational functioning, and older patients lived independently and/or in a stable partnership more often. The patients' assessments of QOL and needs for care did not show any significant associations with cognitive functioning.
These findings suggest that cognitive functioning is a key determinant of work functioning/independent living for stable outpatients with schizophrenia.
The present cross-sectional study examined the relationships of psychopathology, side effects, and sociodemographic factors with treatment outcomes in terms of patients' quality of life (QOL), functioning, and needs for care.
Sixty outpatients with chronic schizophrenia who had been treated with either clozapine or olanzapine for at least 6 months were investigated.
Most psychopathological symptoms as well as psychic side effects, weight gain, and female sex were associated with lower QOL, while cognitive symptoms correlated with better QOL. Female sex, cognitive symptoms, and parkinsonism negatively influenced occupational functioning, and negative symptoms determined a lesser likelihood of living independently. Age, education, depression/anxiety, negative symptoms, and psychic side effects were predictors of patients' needs for care.
Our results highlight the complex nature of patient outcomes in schizophrenia. They reemphasize the need of targeting effectiveness, i.e. both symptomatic improvement as well as drug safety, in such patients.
Outcome in schizophrenia is multidimensional and consists of clinical and psychosocial domains. Difficulties in affect recognition are a hallmark of schizophrenia, but there is little research investigating the consequences of this deficit on patients’ psychosocial status. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship of facial affect recognition and treatment outcomes in terms of psychopathology, quality of life (QOL), and psychosocial functioning.
We investigated 40 regular attendees of a specialized schizophrenia outpatient clinic who had been stable both from a symptomatic and a medication perspective for a minimum of 6 months and 40 healthy volunteers who were chosen to match patients in age, sex, and education. Affect recognition was positively associated with patients’ level of education and negatively with increasing age. Deficits in this area corresponded to the severity of negative and affective symptoms as well as to poor work and global functioning. These findings suggest that affect recognition is an important aspect of psychosocial functioning in stable outpatients with schizophrenia.
Alcohol dependence is a complex psychiatric disorder.
To investigate the role of temperament on the course of alcohol dependence.
To further investigate the role of temperaments in alcohol dependent patients and to analyse the differences in relevant clinical features in correlation with the different temperament distributions.
The patients‘case files of 116 alcohol dependent patients, according to ICD-10 and DSM-IV-TR, admitted to the Vienna General Hospital between 02/08 and 03/09, were examined retrospectively. The brief-TEMPS-M auto-questionnaire was used to assess the temperamental distribution. The dimensions of alcohol dependence have been assessed using the Lesch Alcoholism Typology, a computerized structured interview. The potential effect of temperamental scores on various outcomes describing the course of illness is investigated using multi-variable regression models.
Cyclothymic score was the only temperament which significantly influenced the age of onset of alcohol abuse and age of onset of alcohol dependence. Backward selection among temperaments exhibits depressive temperament as most important effect regarding the likelihood of suicide-attempts in the patient‘s case history and anxious temperament as most important effect regarding having psychiatric treatment focusing on alcohol dependence prior to current in- or outpatient stay.
Dominant cyclothymic, but also depressive and anxious temperament, seem to be negative predictors for the course of illness in alcohol dependence.
Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is significantly affected in individuals with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder (BD-I). The current study investigated whether symptomatic remission and resilience might differently impact HRQOL in these patients.
Fifty-two patients with schizophrenia and 60 patients suffering from BD-I from outpatient mental health services as well as 77 healthy control subjects from the general community were included into a cross-sectional study. HRQOL and resilience were assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF and the Resilience Scale. In patients, psychopathology was quantified by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale or the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale and the Young Mania Rating Scale, respectively.
Notably, both patient groups showed lower HRQOL and resilience compared to control subjects, non-remitted patients indicated lower HRQOL than remitted ones. The effect of remission on HRQOL was significantly larger in patients with BD-I than in those with schizophrenia but did not explain the difference in HRQOL between groups. Resilience predicted HRQOL in all three groups. When accounting for the effect of resilience among remitted patients, only the difference in HRQOL between schizophrenia patients and control subjects was significant.
These findings demonstrate the impact of symptomatic remission and resilience on HRQOL of both patients suffering from schizophrenia and BD-I and indicate that these factors are especially relevant for HRQOL of patients with BD-I.
It is a widely held view that “nobody knows you better than yourself.” However, the low validity of self-estimates of intelligence and other abilities indicated by a considerable body of research does not support this notion. Individuals overestimate themselves and do so particularly for domains in which they perform poorly (the so-called Dunning-Kruger effect). Interestingly, intelligence estimates given by others are equally accurate or sometimes even more accurate than self-estimates. This chapter provides an overview of research on self- and other-estimates of intelligence and potential moderators of their accuracy. It also aims to bring the research lines on self- and other-estimates of intelligence together within the framework of the self-other knowledge asymmetry (SOKA) model proposed by Simine Vazire. The ability to predict for which intelligence subfactors one of the two perspectives might provide more accurate estimates has implications for both research and practical fields like vocational counseling.
Inscriptional evidence suggests that the Phnom Kulen plateau to the north-east of Angkor in Cambodia was the location of Mahendraparvata—an early Angkorian capital city and one of the first capitals of the Khmer Empire (ninth to fifteenth centuries AD). To date, however, archaeological evidence has been limited to a scatter of small and apparently isolated shrines. Here, the authors combine airborne laser scanning with ground-based survey to define an extended urban network dating from the ninth century AD, which they identify as Mahendraparvata. This research yields new and important insights into the emergence of Angkorian urban areas.
Objectives: Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with impairments in facial emotion and emotional prosody perception during both mood episodes and periods of remission. To expand on previous research, the current study investigated cross-modal emotion perception, that is, matching of facial emotion and emotional prosody in remitted BD patients. Methods: Fifty-nine outpatients with BD and 45 healthy volunteers were included into a cross-sectional study. Cross-modal emotion perception was investigated by using two subtests out of the Comprehensive Affective Testing System (CATS). Results: Compared to control subjects patients were impaired in matching sad (p < .001) and angry emotional prosody (p = .034) to one of five emotional faces exhibiting the corresponding emotion and significantly more frequently matched sad emotional prosody to happy faces (p < .001) and angry emotional prosody to neutral faces (p = .017). In addition, patients were impaired in matching neutral emotional faces to the emotional prosody of one of three sentences (p = .006) and significantly more often matched neutral faces to sad emotional prosody (p = .014). Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that, even during periods of symptomatic remission, patients suffering from BD are impaired in matching facial emotion and emotional prosody. As this type of emotion processing is relevant in everyday life, our results point to the necessity to provide specific training programs to improve psychosocial outcomes. (JINS, 2019, 25, 336–342)
In the international legal order, sanctions are valued for their coercive and stigmatizing functions. Through the imposition of financial or other costs, these measures seek to induce compliance with international law by those who are targeted. They also aim to signal the sender's commitment to the violated norm and stigmatize an actor responsible for wrongful behavior. In light of these functions, this essay examines the factors to assess when evaluating the efficacy of unilateral targeted sanctions in enforcing international law. The issue is relevant not only for political scientists, but also for international lawyers interested in ensuring compliance with international norms.
On July 23, 2018, the International Court of Justice (ICJ or Court) issued its Order on Qatar's request for provisional measures in the Qatar v. United Arab Emirates (UAE) case in which Qatar claims the UAE is responsible for violating the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD or the Convention). The Court has previously ordered provisional measures under CERD in the context of the Ukraine v. Russia case and in the Georgia v. Russia proceedings. As is already apparent in the Order and the dissenting and separate opinions, the Qatar v. UAE case raises important issues pertaining to the interpretation of racial discrimination on the basis of “national origin” under Article 1(1) CERD as well as to the reading of the procedural conditions under Article 22 CERD.
We study quantitative easing (QE) policies from a microstructure perspective, drawing on intraday transaction-level data for German bonds (purchased under the Eurosystem’s QE program). An initial analysis of purchase decisions reveals that portfolio managers consider liquidity and the scarcity of securities in repo markets. Suggestive of significant flow effects, we detect price impacts of purchases at high and low frequencies. We find the impact on market liquidity and functioning to be ambiguous. A higher purchase volume lowers transaction costs but has an adverse impact on order-book depth. The price impact varies with market conditions and is higher for more illiquid bonds.