To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In the international legal order, sanctions are valued for their coercive and stigmatizing functions. Through the imposition of financial or other costs, these measures seek to induce compliance with international law by those who are targeted. They also aim to signal the sender's commitment to the violated norm and stigmatize an actor responsible for wrongful behavior. In light of these functions, this essay examines the factors to assess when evaluating the efficacy of unilateral targeted sanctions in enforcing international law. The issue is relevant not only for political scientists, but also for international lawyers interested in ensuring compliance with international norms.
Copper zinc tin sulfide (Cu2ZnSnS4, CZTS) consists of abundant and cheap elements and is therefore a very promising alternative to semiconductors based on Ga or In as solar absorber material. In addition it displays very beneficial properties like a high optical absorption coefficient and an ideal band gap for photovoltaic applications. In this contribution we present the preparation of CZTS thin films from metal salts (copper(I) iodide, zinc(II) acetate and tin(II) chloride) and thioacetamide as sulfur source by a solution based precursor method. CZTS solar cells based on these films as absorber layer with a simple ITO/CZTS/CdS/Al assembly are fabricated and characterized. Efficiencies up to 0.5% were achieved demonstrating the potential of this precursor method for the preparation of CZTS thin films for photovoltaic applications.
Objectives: Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with impairments in facial emotion and emotional prosody perception during both mood episodes and periods of remission. To expand on previous research, the current study investigated cross-modal emotion perception, that is, matching of facial emotion and emotional prosody in remitted BD patients. Methods: Fifty-nine outpatients with BD and 45 healthy volunteers were included into a cross-sectional study. Cross-modal emotion perception was investigated by using two subtests out of the Comprehensive Affective Testing System (CATS). Results: Compared to control subjects patients were impaired in matching sad (p < .001) and angry emotional prosody (p = .034) to one of five emotional faces exhibiting the corresponding emotion and significantly more frequently matched sad emotional prosody to happy faces (p < .001) and angry emotional prosody to neutral faces (p = .017). In addition, patients were impaired in matching neutral emotional faces to the emotional prosody of one of three sentences (p = .006) and significantly more often matched neutral faces to sad emotional prosody (p = .014). Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that, even during periods of symptomatic remission, patients suffering from BD are impaired in matching facial emotion and emotional prosody. As this type of emotion processing is relevant in everyday life, our results point to the necessity to provide specific training programs to improve psychosocial outcomes. (JINS, 2019, 25, 336–342)
On July 23, 2018, the International Court of Justice (ICJ or Court) issued its Order on Qatar's request for provisional measures in the Qatar v. United Arab Emirates (UAE) case in which Qatar claims the UAE is responsible for violating the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD or the Convention). The Court has previously ordered provisional measures under CERD in the context of the Ukraine v. Russia case and in the Georgia v. Russia proceedings. As is already apparent in the Order and the dissenting and separate opinions, the Qatar v. UAE case raises important issues pertaining to the interpretation of racial discrimination on the basis of “national origin” under Article 1(1) CERD as well as to the reading of the procedural conditions under Article 22 CERD.
We study quantitative easing (QE) policies from a microstructure perspective, drawing on intraday transaction-level data for German bonds (purchased under the Eurosystem’s QE program). An initial analysis of purchase decisions reveals that portfolio managers consider liquidity and the scarcity of securities in repo markets. Suggestive of significant flow effects, we detect price impacts of purchases at high and low frequencies. We find the impact on market liquidity and functioning to be ambiguous. A higher purchase volume lowers transaction costs but has an adverse impact on order-book depth. The price impact varies with market conditions and is higher for more illiquid bonds.
We present a new experimental platform for studying laboratory astrophysics that combines a high-intensity, high-repetition-rate laser with the Large Plasma Device at the University of California, Los Angeles. To demonstrate the utility of this platform, we show the first results of volumetric, highly repeatable magnetic field and electrostatic potential measurements, along with derived quantities of electric field, charge density and current density, of the interaction between a super-Alfvénic laser-produced plasma and an ambient, magnetized plasma.
Texture-engineered ceramics enable access to a vast array of novel texture-property relations leading to property values ranging between those of single crystals and isotropic bulk ceramics. Recently developed templated grain growth and magnetic alignment texturing methods yield high quality crystallographic texture, and thus significant advances in achievable texture-engineered properties in magnetic, piezoelectric, electronic, optical, thermoelectric, and structural ceramics. In this paper, we outline the fundamental basis for these texture-engineered properties and review recent contributions to the field of texture-engineered ceramics with an update on the properties of textured lead-free and lead-based piezoelectrics. We propose that further property improvements can be realized through development of processes that improve crystallographic alignment of the grain structure, create biaxial texture, and explore a wider array of crystallographic orientations. There is a critical need to model the physics of texture-engineered ceramics, and more comprehensively characterize texture, thus enabling testing of texture orientation-property relations and materials performance. We believe that in situ measurements of texture evolution can lead to a more fundamental and comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of texture development.
Objectives: Social cognitive deficits have been discussed to be endophenotypes for schizophrenia and other serious mental illnesses. The current study aimed to assess emotional intelligence (EI) in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients to investigate its potential role as endophenotype for schizophrenia. Methods: EI was measured in 56 schizophrenia patients, 57 unaffected siblings, and 127 healthy control subjects by using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). In addition, non-social cognition was assessed with the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). Linear mixed models with compound symmetric correlation structure were used for of the three groups with respect to EI and non-social cognition. Results: Schizophrenia patients showed significantly lower overall EI and performed significantly worse in three out of four MSCEIT branches compared to unaffected siblings and control subjects, whereas the two latter groups had comparable EI levels. Similar performance patterns (patients<unaffected siblings=control subjects) were found with respect to non-social cognition. Solely in the “Tower of London” test, siblings achieved significantly lower task scores compared to control subjects. Conclusions: Based on our results, EI as measured with the MSCEIT does not seem to represent a marker of risk for schizophrenia. Further investigations should concentrate on other EI measures to reassess this finding. (JINS, 2017, 23, 577–583)
Beam damage is a major limitation in electron microscopy that becomes increasingly severe at higher resolution. One possible route to circumvent radiation damage, which forms the basis for single-particle electron microscopy and related techniques, is to distribute the dose over many identical copies of an object. For the acquisition of low-dose data, ideally no dose should be applied to the region of interest before the acquisition of data. We present an automated approach that can collect large amounts of data efficiently by acquiring images in a user-defined area-of-interest with atomic resolution. We demonstrate that the stage mechanics of the Nion UltraSTEM, combined with an intelligent algorithm to move the sample, allow the automated acquisition of atomically resolved images from micron-sized areas of a graphene substrate. Moving the sample stage automatically in a regular pattern over the area-of-interest enables the collection of data from pristine sample regions without exposing them to the electron beam before recording an image. Therefore, it is possible to obtain data with minimal dose (no prior exposure during focusing), which is only limited by the minimum signal needed for data processing. This enables us to minimize beam-induced damage in the sample and to acquire large data sets within a reasonable amount of time.
A point process is R-dependent if it behaves independently beyond the minimum distance R. In this paper we investigate uniform positive lower bounds on the avoidance functions of R-dependent simple point processes with a common intensity. Intensities with such bounds are characterised by the existence of Shearer's point process, the unique R-dependent and R-hard-core point process with a given intensity. We also present several extensions of the Lovász local lemma, a sufficient condition on the intensity and R to guarantee the existence of Shearer's point process and exponential lower bounds. Shearer's point process shares a combinatorial structure with the hard-sphere model with radius R, the unique R-hard-core Markov point process. Bounds from the Lovász local lemma convert into lower bounds on the radius of convergence of a high-temperature cluster expansion of the hard-sphere model. This recovers a classic result of Ruelle (1969) on the uniqueness of the Gibbs measure of the hard-sphere model via an inductive approach of Dobrushin (1996).
Analyses of atmospheric air extracted from air bubbles in polar glacier ice provide a measure of past CO2 concentrations and their temporal variations. Earlier measurements have shown that the atmospheric CO2 concentration was significantly lower during the late Wisconsin stage and that the change from low to high CO2 concentration occurred in a relatively short time period.
We measured the CO2 concentration of ice samples from the deep ice core recently drilled at Dye 3 (south Greenland). The core section investigated represents ice from about 40 to 30 ka BP. The air extracted from the ice samples shows large variations of CO2 concentration which are correlated with δ18O values of the ice samples. A probable explanation of the results is that corresponding changes of the atmospheric CO2 concentration occurred during that glacial period. These changes could have had a significant influence on the climate. Possible reasons for the variations of the atmospheric CO2 concentration are discussed.
The different patterns of Emotional Intelligence (EI) deficits in schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder are are not yet well understood. This study compares EI levels among these groups and highlights the potential impact of non-social cognition on EI.
Fifty-eight schizophrenia and 60 bipolar outpatients were investigated using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). Analyses of covariance were performed with adjustment for the BACS composite score.
Compared to bipolar subjects, schizophrenia patients showed significantly lower levels in both EI and non-social cognition. After adjustment for the BACS composite score, the difference in EI was lost. The mediation analysis revealed that differences between schizophrenia and bipolar patients in strategic EI are almost fully attributable to the mediating effect of non-social cognition.
Our findings suggest that in both schizophrenia and bipolar patients EI is strongly influenced by non-social cognitive functioning. This has to be taken into account when interpreting MSCEIT data in comparative studies in serious mental illness and emphasizes the importance of cognitive remediation.
Approximately half of the variation in wellbeing measures overlaps with variation in personality traits. Studies of non-human primate pedigrees and human twins suggest that this is due to common genetic influences. We tested whether personality polygenic scores for the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) domains and for item response theory (IRT) derived extraversion and neuroticism scores predict variance in wellbeing measures. Polygenic scores were based on published genome-wide association (GWA) results in over 17,000 individuals for the NEO-FFI and in over 63,000 for the IRT extraversion and neuroticism traits. The NEO-FFI polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction in 7 cohorts, positive affect in 12 cohorts, and general wellbeing in 1 cohort (maximal N = 46,508). Meta-analysis of these results showed no significant association between NEO-FFI personality polygenic scores and the wellbeing measures. IRT extraversion and neuroticism polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction and positive affect in almost 37,000 individuals from UK Biobank. Significant positive associations (effect sizes <0.05%) were observed between the extraversion polygenic score and wellbeing measures, and a negative association was observed between the polygenic neuroticism score and life satisfaction. Furthermore, using GWA data, genetic correlations of -0.49 and -0.55 were estimated between neuroticism with life satisfaction and positive affect, respectively. The moderate genetic correlation between neuroticism and wellbeing is in line with twin research showing that genetic influences on wellbeing are also shared with other independent personality domains.
The number of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) lumens is associated with thrombotic and infectious complications. Because multilumen PICCs are not necessary in all patients, policies that limit their use may improve safety and cost.
To design a simulation-based analysis to estimate outcomes and cost associated with a policy that encourages single-lumen PICC use.
Model inputs, including risk of complications and costs associated with single- and multilumen PICCs, were obtained from available literature and a multihospital collaborative quality improvement project. Cost savings and reduction in central line–associated bloodstream infection and deep vein thrombosis events from institution of a single-lumen PICC default policy were reported.
According to our model, a hospital that places 1,000 PICCs per year (25% of which are single-lumen and 75% multilumen) experiences annual PICC-related maintenance and complication costs of $1,228,598 (95% CI, $1,053,175–$1,430,958). In such facilities, every 5% increase in single-lumen PICC use would prevent 0.5 PICC-related central line-associated bloodstream infections and 0.5 PICC-related deep vein thrombosis events, while saving $23,500. Moving from 25% to 50% single-lumen PICC utilization would result in total savings of $119,283 (95% CI, $74,030–$184,170) per year. Regardless of baseline prevalence, a single-lumen default PICC policy would be associated with approximately 10% cost savings. Findings remained robust in multiway sensitivity analyses.
Hospital policies that limit the number of PICC lumens may enhance patient safety and reduce healthcare costs. Studies measuring intended and unintended consequences of this approach, followed by rapid adoption, appear necessary.