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The Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) has previously been used to depict the hierarchy between visual, tactile and perceptual stimuli. Studies on schizophrenia inpatients (SZs) have found mixed results in the ability to first learn the illusion, and have yet to explain the learning process involved. This study's aim was two-fold: to examine the learning process of the RHI in SZs and healthy controls over time, and to better understand the relationship between psychotic symptoms and the RHI.
Thirty schizophrenia inpatients and 30 healthy controls underwent five different trials of the RHI over a two-week period.
As has been found in previous studies, SZs felt the initial illusion faster than healthy controls did, but their learning process throughout the trials was inconsistent. Furthermore, for SZs, no correlations between psychotic symptoms and the learning of the illusion emerged.
Healthy individuals show a delayed reaction to first feeling the illusion (due to latent inhibition), but easily learn the illusion over time. For SZs, both strength of the illusion and the ability to learn the illusion over time are inconsistent. The cognitive impairment in SZ impedes the learning process of the RHI, and SZs are unable to utilize the repetition of the process as healthy individuals can.
There is increasing demand for psychiatric expert testimony in criminal proceedings. A person is responsible for his actions unless he is subject to the penal code, Section 34 h, insanity. Mental illness is not sufficient to determine insanity; it must be proven that the patient did not understand what he had done, did not comprehend the inappropriateness of his actions: or could not have avoided performing the deed. Opponents argue that the expert testimony is not scientific and not professional and alternatively that the mentally ill avoid responsibility even when there is no connection between the illness and the offense.
The polygraph examination is an important instrument for confirming credibility of the testimony but it has not yet been investigated in the field of forensic psychiatry.
To examine the validity of a polygraph examination in psychotic patients. To compare polygraph tests with psychiatric examinations.
Patients were tested with a polygraph examination on there misjudged psychotic behavior.
24 patients signed a consent form, but not all eventually participated. all patients received antipsychotic medications. in general valid polygraph examination can be performed to patients with the psychotic illnesses (i.e. schizophrenia). Agitated or cognitive deprived patients tests were not reliable. the psychiatric examinations or the expert testimonies were in accord with the polygraph examination.
Preliminary data indicate that polygraph examinations are valid in patients with the psychotic illnesses. But not in agitated or cognitive deprived patients. Expert testimonies were found reliable in determining insanity.
This article presents an up-dated analysis of synthetic optical and UV emission lines of simulated galaxies over cosmic time. The strong emission lines are derived from self-consistently coupling novel spectral models accounting for nebular emission from young stars, AGN and Post-AGB stars to cosmological zoom-in as well as large-scale simulations. Investigating the evolution of optical line-ratios in the BPT diagrams, the simulations can successfully reproduce the observed trend of [OIII]/Hβ ratio increasing from low to high redshifts, due to evolving star formation rate and gas metallicity. Standard selection criteria in the BPT diagrams can appropriately distinguish the main ionising source(s) of galaxies at low redshifts, but they are less reliable for metal-poor galaxies, dominating the early Universe. To robustly classify the ionising radiation of such metal-poor galaxies, diagnostic diagrams based on luminosity ratios of UV lines are discussed. The novel interface between simulations and observations is potentially important for the interpretation of high-quality spectra of very distant galaxies to be gathered by next-generation telescopes, such as the James Webb Space Telescope.
This article considers Mary Wollstonecraft as a theorist of freedom for women through the lens of social constructivism. Previous republican readings of Wollstonecraft as promoting a vision of freedom as independence or non-domination are compromised by their underpinnings in liberal individualism. Instead, we suggest her theory displays elements of positive liberty and particularly what we call “subjectivity freedom.” Reading Wollstonecraft as an early social constructivist, we show her grappling with how women's subjectivity is constructed in patriarchal societies such that they desire the conditions of their own subordination. This troubles the very notion of domination and its putative opposite, freedom-as-independence. Paradoxically, while noting how women's sense of self was profoundly and intimately shaped by the patriarchal structures they inhabited, Wollstonecraft's own argument was limited by these same constructions. Nonetheless, she struggled to conceive a radically emancipatory vision of women's lives, aspirations, and desires from within the confines of a context and discourse premised on their devaluation. A social constructivist approach shows that Wollstonecraft sought not simply to change women or specific structures of male dominance, but rather the processes within which men and women defined gender, the family, and personal identity: in short, their subjectivity.
Human rights violations committed by international organisations (IOs) have raised demands that IOs should be held accountable for their decisions, policies, and actions. However, traditional forms of accountability have often failed in the context of global governance. This article introduces pluralist accountability as a form of accountability whereby third parties hold IOs and their implementing partners accountable for human rights violations. In pluralist accountability, third parties set the standards for IOs’ actions in relation to human rights, review their behaviour and impose normative or material sanctions in case of misbehaviour. The article further reveals two conditions that foster the development of pluralist accountability, namely the competition among third parties and the degree of vulnerability of the implementing actors or the mandating authority with regard to human rights demands. This argument is illustrated with empirical insights from peace operations in Bosnia and Kosovo, which were accused of human trafficking and the violation of the rights of detainees.
Human rights violations by international organisations (IOs) are a possible side effect of their growing authority. Recent examples are the cases of sexual exploitation by UN peacekeepers and violations caused by IMF austerity measures. In response, IOs increasingly develop safeguards to protect human rights from being violated through their policies to regain legitimacy. We argue that this development can be accounted for by a mechanism we call ‘authority-legitimation mechanism’. We test this theoretical expectation against ten case studies on UN and EU sanctions policies, UN and NATO peacekeeping and World Bank and IMF lending. Next, we demonstrate inductively that the authority-legitimation mechanism can evolve through different pathways, depending on which actors get engaged. We label these pathways legislative institution-building if parliaments in member states put pressure on their governments to campaign for human rights safeguards in IOs, judicial institution-building if courts demand human rights safeguards, like-minded institution-building if civil society organisations, middle powers and IO bodies with little formal power push for human rights safeguards, or anticipatory institution-building if IOs adopt such safeguards from other IOs without having violated human rights themselves. Finally, we argue that which of these pathways are activated and how effective they are depends on specific conditions.
In the first edition of the encyclopaedia Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart the article on ‘opera’ by Anna Amalie Abert (1962) began with a clear-cut definition of the term:
Eine Oper im weitesten Sinne des Begriffs ist eine wie immer geartete Bühnenhandlung, die entweder ganz oder in wesentlichen Teilen in Musik gesetzt ist; dabei muß diese Handlung von vornherein auf die Mitwirkung der Musik hin erfunden bzw. im Hinblick auf sie bearbeitet sein.
An opera in the broadest sense of the word is a stage play of whatever kind which is entirely or substantially set to music; the play must either be invented from the outset for the involvement of music or be revised for this purpose.
In the Supplement of the second edition of the same encyclopaedia a new article on ‘opera’ appeared. The authors of this article, Silke Leopold and Dörte Schmidt (2008), emphasise the point that no explicit definition of opera can be given and that the term has been dissolved in a flood of different uses during the history of European music:
Oper ist kein Gattungsbegriff, sondern ein diffuser Name für unterschiedliche Formen des europäischen bzw. europäisch geprägten musikalischen Theaters ab ca. 1600, in zweiter Linie auch für die zu dessen Aufführung bestimmten Bauwerke. Die Verwendung des Begriffs ist weniger durch terminologische Stringenz und spezifische Definitionen gekennzeichnet als durch pragmatischen, zuweilen auch polemischen Sprachgebrauch. Daher lässt sich seine Bedeutung historisch eher über die Kontexte solchen Gebrauchs als durch definitorische Setzungen oder von einer normativen Gattungspoetik her erschließen.
Opera is not a generic term but a diffuse designation for various forms of European musical theatre from 1600 on and also, in a secondary sense, for the buildings intended for their performance. The application of the word is characterised less by terminological consistency or specific definitions than by a pragmatic and sometimes polemical usage. Therefore its meaning throughout history should be reconstructed rather from the contexts of its use than from definitions or from a normative poetics of genre.
If this is the case, what we should do before deciding whether to label a phenomenon an opera is to reconstruct as exactly as possible the historical situations in which the term was originally used.