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The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant occurred following the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, and led to the release of volatile radionuclides, which were deposited on the environment in the Fukushima prefecture and the neighbouring areas. After the short-lived I-131, radiocaesium such as Cs-134 and Cs-137 have controlled radiation dose rate. The authors derived the apparent diffusion coefficients (Da) of some radionuclides such as Cs-134 and Cs-137 based on time variation of the depth distributions of respective radionuclides in soil obtained in field investigations in earlier studies. Almost all Da-values were of order 10-14 (m2·s−1) and well consistent with distribution coefficients (Kd) obtained from batch experiments. Whilst, field investigations for the relaxation mass depths of Cs-137 in soil by a scraper plate method were conducted at totally 85 locations over a period of nearly 6 years from December 2011 in the Fukushima prefecture and the neighbouring prefectures, and time variation of the effective relaxation mass depths was recently reported. Consequently, the effective relaxation mass depths of Cs-137 showed a tendency to linearly increase with increasing time. This indicates that radiocaesium gradually moves to the deeper part of soil with time. In this study, Da based on Fick’s diffusion equation was derived based on time variation of the effective relaxation mass depths of Cs-137 in soil. In order to calculate the Da based on Fick’s law, correlation between relaxation depth and square root of elapsed time was derived from the correlation between effective relaxation mass depth and elapsed time (where, relaxation depth is defined as the depth of 1/e of radionuclide concentration at the ground surface and can calculate by relaxation mass depth/soil density). The calculated Da of Cs-137 was of order 10-12 (m2·s−1) , which was about 2 orders of magnitude higher than Da-values that the authors previously reported as described above. Considering that almost all relaxation depths of Cs-137 were shallow within 2cm in depth from the ground surface and near the surface layer of soil is unsaturated, it is considered that Da estimated in this analysis includes the effect of dispersion by advection (by flow in the vertical direction of rainwater).
Data on the combination of foods consumed simultaneously at specific eating occasions are scarce, primarily due to a lack of assessment tools. We applied a recently developed meal coding system to multiple-day dietary intake data for assessing its ability to estimate food and nutrient intakes and characterise meal-based dietary patterns in the Japanese context. A total of 242 Japanese adults completed sixteen non-consecutive-day weighed dietary records, including 14 734 eating occasions (3788 breakfasts, 3823 lunches, 3856 dinners and 3267 snacks). Common food group combinations were identified by meal type to identify a range of generic meals. Dietary intake was calculated on the basis of not only the standard food composition database but also the substituted generic meal database. In total, eighty generic meals (twenty-three breakfasts, twenty-one lunches, twenty-four dinners and twelve snacks) were identified. The Spearman correlation coefficients between food group intakes calculated based on the standard food composition database and the substituted generic meal database ranged from 0·26 to 0·85 (median 0·69). The corresponding correlations for nutrient intakes ranged from 0·17 to 0·82 (median 0·61). A total of eleven meal patterns were established using principal components analysis, and these accounted for 39·1 % of total meal variance. Considerable variation in patterns was seen in meal type inclusion and choice of staple foods (bread, rice and noodles) and drinks, and also in meal constituents. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the usefulness of a meal coding system for assessing habitual diet, providing a scientific basis towards the development of simple meal-based dietary assessment tools.
The stability of stably stratified vortices is studied by local stability analysis. Three base flows that possess hyperbolic stagnation points are considered: the two-dimensional (2-D) Taylor–Green vortices, the Stuart vortices and the Lamb–Chaplygin dipole. It is shown that the elliptic instability is stabilized by stratification; it is completely stabilized for the 2-D Taylor–Green vortices, while it remains and merges into hyperbolic instability near the boundary or the heteroclinic streamlines connecting the hyperbolic stagnation points for the Stuart vortices and the Lamb–Chaplygin dipole. More importantly, a new instability caused by hyperbolic instability near the hyperbolic stagnation points and phase shift by the internal gravity waves is found; it is named the strato-hyperbolic instability; the underlying mechanism is parametric resonance as unstable band structures appear in contours of the growth rate. A simplified model explains the mechanism and the resonance curves. The growth rate of the strato-hyperbolic instability is comparable to that of the elliptic instability for the 2-D Taylor–Green vortices, while it is smaller for the Stuart vortices and the Lamb–Chaplygin dipole. For the Lamb–Chaplygin dipole, the tripolar instability is found to merge with the strato-hyperbolic instability as stratification becomes strong. The modal stability analysis is also performed for the 2-D Taylor–Green vortices. It is shown that global modes of the strato-hyperbolic instability exist; the structure of an unstable eigenmode is in good agreement with the results obtained by local stability analysis. The strato-hyperbolic mode becomes dominant depending on the parameter values.
We will report the activities of the VERA single-dish observations. We are carrying out single-dish observations with two purposes. The first purpose is the monitoring of known H2O maser sources. At present, we are carrying out monitoring observations for 312 H2O maser sources at intervals of two months. The second purpose is the search for new water maser sources. We selected 901 target sources from the AKARI FIS Bright Source Catalogue. We found 61 new H2O maser sources.
We present observational results of the submillimeter H2O and SiO lines toward a candidate high-mass young stellar object Orion Source I using ALMA. The spatial structures of the high excitation lines at lower-state energies of >2500 K show compact structures consistent with the circumstellar disk and/or base of the northeast-southwest bipolar outflow with a 100 au scale. The highest excitation transition, the SiO (v=4) line at band 8, has the most compact structure. In contrast, lower-excitation transitions are more extended than 200 au tracing the outflow. Almost all the line show velocity gradients perpendicular to the outflow axis suggesting rotation motions of the circumstellar disk and outflow. While some of the detected lines show broad line profiles and spatially extended emission components indicative of thermal excitation, the strong H2O lines at 321 GHz, 474 GHz, and 658 GHz with brightness temperatures of >1000 K show clear signatures of maser action.
Despite their importance in the formation and evolution of stellar clusters and galaxies, the formation of high-mass stars remains poorly understood. We recently started a systematic observational study of the 22 GHz water and 44 GHz class I methanol masers in high-mass star-forming regions as a four-year KaVA large program. Our sample consists of 87 high-mass young stellar objects (HM-YSOs) in various evolutionary phases, many of which are associated with two or more different maser species. The primary scientific goals are to measure the spatial distributions and 3-dimensional velocity fields of multiple maser species, and understand the dynamical evolution of HM-YSOs and their circumstellar structures, in conjunction with follow-up observations with JVN/EAVN (6.7 GHz class II methanol masers), VERA, and ALMA. In this paper we present details of our KaVA large program, including the first-year results and observing/data analysis plans for the second year and beyond.
In this proceeding paper, we introduce the recent results of Galactic maser astrometry by mainly focusing on those obtained with Japanese VLBI array VERA. So far we have obtained parallaxes for 86 sources including preliminary results, and combination with the data obtained with VLBA/BeSSeL provides astrometric results for 159 sources. With these most updated results we conduct preliminary determinations of Galactic fundamental parameters, obtaining R0 = 8.16 ± 0.26 kpc and Θ0 = 237 ± 8 km/s. We also derive the rotation curve of the Milky Way Galaxy and confirm the previous results that the rotation curve is fairly flat between 5 kpc and 16 kpc, while a remarkable deviation is seen toward the Galactic center region. In addition to the results on the Galactic structure, we also present brief overviews on other science topics related to masers conducted with VERA, and also discuss the future prospect of the project.
We initiated a long-term and highly frequent monitoring project toward 442 methanol masers at 6.7 GHz (Dec >−30 deg) using the Hitachi 32-m radio telescope in December 2012. The observations have been carried out daily, monitoring a spectrum of each source with intervals of 9–10 days. In September 2015, the number of the target sources and intervals were redesigned into 143 and 4–5 days, respectively. This monitoring provides us complete information on how many sources show periodic flux variations in high-mass star-forming regions, which have been detected in 20 sources with periods of 29.5–668 days so far (e.g., Goedhart et al. 2004). We have already obtained new detections of periodic flux variations in 31 methanol sources with periods of 22–409 days. These periodic flux variations must be a unique tool to investigate high-mass protostars themselves and their circumstellar structure on a very tiny spatial scale of 0.1–1 au.
We have started survey observations of the 22 GHz water maser sources associated with high-mass young stellar objects (HM-YSOs) as a part of the KaVA (KVN and VERA Array) large program (LP). The aim of our LP is to understand dynamical evolution of jets/outflows from HM-YSOs by analyzing 3D velocity structures of water maser features. In the first year (2016-2017), an imaging survey toward 25 HM-YSOs has been conducted and the 22 GHz water masers are detected toward 21 sources. Spatial distributions of maser features for individual sources are mapped. To complement physical properties in the vicinity of HM-YSOs, we have carried out ALMA cycle 3 observations of thermal molecular lines and continuum emissions toward 11 selected samples. Summary of the KaVA first year observations and the initial results from the ALMA toward one of our targets, G25.82-0.17, are reported.
Our 2015-2016 ALMA 1.3 to 0.87 mm observations (resolution ~200 au) of the massive protocluster NGC6334I revealed that an extraordinary outburst had occurred in the dominant millimeter dust core MM1 (luminosity increase of 70×) when compared with earlier SMA data. The outburst was accompanied by the flaring of ten maser transitions of three species. We present new results from our recent JVLA observations of Class II 6.7 GHz methanol masers and 6 GHz excited OH masers in this region. Class II masers had not previously been detected toward MM1 in any interferometric observations recorded over the past 30 years that targeted the bright masers toward other members of the protocluster (MM2 and MM3=NGC6334F). Methanol masers now appear both toward and adjacent to MM1 with the strongest spots located in a dust cavity ~1 arcsec (1300 au) north of the MM1B hypercompact HII region. In addition, new excited OH masers appear on the non-thermal source CM2. These data reveal the dramatic effects of episodic accretion onto a deeply-embedded high mass protostar and demonstrate its ongoing impact on the surrounding protocluster.
We report on interferometric observations of a face-on accretion system around the high mass young stellar object, G353.273+0.641. The innermost accretion system of 100-au radius was resolved in a 45-GHz continuum image taken with the Jansky Very Large Array. Our SED analysis indicated that the continuum could be explained by optically-thick dust emission. 6.7 GHz CH3OH masers associated with the same system were also observed with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The masers showed a spiral-like, non-axisymmetric distribution with a systematic velocity gradient. The line-of-sight velocity field is explained by an infall motion along a parabolic streamline that falls onto the equatorial plane of the face-on system. The streamline is quasi-radial and reaches the equatorial plane at a radius of 16 au. The physical origin of such a streamline is still an open question and will be constrained by the higher-resolution thermal continuum and line observations with ALMA long baselines.
To evaluate water and anion movement in an agricultural field in different frost conditions, a paired-plot field experiment was conducted at an agricultural site in northern Japan where a significant decrease in the frost depth has occurred during the past 20 years. Snow cover was removed to enhance soil freezing in one plot (treated plot), whereas natural conditions were maintained in a control plot. The maximum frost depth was 0.43 m in the treated plot and 0.11 m in the control plot, which induced substantial differences in water movement throughout the winter. A substantial amount of water moved upward before the onset of snowmelt. However, nitrate did not move markedly before the snowmelt period in either plot. The amount of snowmelt infiltration in the control plot was larger than in the treated plot. Correspondingly, the peak of nitrate content in the control plot was deeper than that in the treated plot after the snowmelt period. Soil freezing, snow accumulation and snowmelt processes were simulated reasonably well using a one-dimensional numerical model: Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW). Nevertheless, the model performed poorly for simulating soil thawing and soil water movement, suggesting a need for improvement.
Observationally measuring the location of the H2O snowline is crucial for understanding the planetesimal and planet formation processes, and the origin of water on Earth. The velocity profiles of emission lines from protoplanetary disks are usually affected by Doppler shift due to Keplerian rotation and thermal broadening. Therefore, the velocity profiles are sensitive to the radial distribution of the line-emitting regions. In our work (Notsu et al. 2016, 2017), we found candidate water lines to locate the position of the H2O snowline through future high-dispersion spectroscopic observations. First, we calculated the chemical composition of the disks around a T Tauri star and a Herbig Ae star using chemical kinetics. We confirmed that the abundance of H2O gas is high not only in the hot midplane region inside the H2O snowline but also in the hot surface layer and the photodesorption region of the outer disk. The position of the H2O snowline in the Herbig Ae disk exists at a larger radius from the central star than that in the T Tauri disk. Second, we calculated the H2O line profiles and identified that H2O emission lines with small Einstein A coefficients (∼10−6 − 10−3 s−1) and relatively high upper state energies (∼ 1000K) are dominated by emission from the hot midplane region inside the H2O snowline, and therefore their profiles potentially contain information which can be used to locate the position of the H2O snowline. The wavelengths of the H2O lines which are the best candidates to locate the position of the H2O snowline range from mid-infrared to sub-millimeter, and the total line fluxes tend to increase with decreasing wavelengths. We investigated the possibility of future observations using the ALMA and mid-infrared high-dispersion spectrographs (e.g., SPICA/SMI-HRS). Since the fluxes of those identified lines from a Herbig Ae disk are stronger than those of a T Tauri disk, the possibility of a successful detection is expected to increase for a Herbig Ae disk.
This study presents the results of carbon and nitrogen isotopic analyses of six human skeletons excavated from the Tochibara rockshelter (Nagano, Japan). The human skeletons were reported to be accompanied by “Oshigata-mon” type pottery dating to the Earliest Jomon period (8900 BP ≃ 6600 BP). A radiocarbon determination from charcoal associated with the human remains was reported to be 8650 ± 180 BP (GaK-1056). However, the depositional context of human skeletons was uncertain because they were recovered by excavations that were dug by prescribed levels. Our results indicated that these skeletons date to the Earliest Jomon period; the 14C determinations place these remains between 8260 ± 100 BP (TERRA-b030799ab38) and 8580 ± 100 BP (TERRA-b011300a35). This coincides with the archaeological evidence that these specimens are some of the oldest Jomon skeletal materials. Furthermore, δ13C and δ15N values provide evidence for the first reconstruction of the diet of an inland Earliest Jomon population. Although the distribution of data indicated a possibility that they had exploited small amounts of seafood, the isotopic data point to this group having relied heavily on a terrestrial ecosystem based on C3 plants.
Faunal remains originating from terrestrial and marine mammals, and belonging to the same archaeological deposits were compared to evaluate the marine radiocarbon reservoir ages around the Hokkaido island, Japan. From five shell middens of different ages from the Jomon period (4900 BP) to the Ainu cultural period (800 BP), 107 animal bone samples were selected for radiocarbon measurements. The apparent age differences between Japanese deer and northern fur seal showed the clear effect of deep-water upwelling in this region. Our data showed relatively stable age differences from 4500 BP to 800 BP, with an estimated ΔR values around 380 14C yr. Results are consistent with previous estimation based on simulation models and oceanographic properties.
Compound-specific radiocarbon analysis of five fatty-acid biomarkers was conducted for marine sediments collected from the western North Pacific. The fatty acids (C12 to C34) showed a typical bimodal distribution pattern with two maxima at C16 and C26. Their carbon isotopic compositions ranged from −25.1‰ (C16) to −31.8‰ (C28), suggesting that they derived from terrestrial higher plants and marine organisms. A large variations of 14C ages were found among the fatty acids detected in the same sedimentary horizon of the core, ranging from 530 BP (C18) to 3250 BP (C28). The results of 14C analysis of fatty acids could be divided into two groups, i.e., lower molecular weight (LMW) fatty acids (C16, C18) derived from marine organisms and higher molecular weight (HMW) fatty acids (C24, C26, C28) derived from terrestrial higher plants. The HMW fatty acids showed older ages, ranging from 2550 BP (C24) to 3250 BP (C28), than LMW fatty acids (530 BP [C18] to 1,820 years BP [C16]). On the other hand, bulk-phase total organic matter (TOM) showed the age of 2260 BP that is between those two groups, suggesting that it was likely a mixture of organic matter derived from marine and terrestrial sources. The compound specific 14C ages and δ13C data of sedimentary fatty acids presented here could provide useful information to decipher the fate and transport process of terrestrial organic matter to marine sediments.
Knowledge of the groundwater age is indispensable for understanding groundwater flow in crystalline rocks. The present study is the first to discuss the radiocarbon ages of groundwater in Abukuma granite, Fukushima Prefecture, northeast Japan. The vertical profiles of 14C dates and δ13C are obtained from 3 boreholes (depths of 140, 230, and 306 m). Chemical and carbon isotopic compositions suggest that dead-carbon contamination of groundwater occurred during groundwater storage in the fractures. 14C concentration was corrected by using isotopic mass balance in which dead-carbon contamination of the groundwater was considered. The 14C dates ranged from modern to ≃16 ka. The relationship between tritium and 14C data in 1 borehole suggests the simultaneous inflow of shallow groundwater to deeper levels occur for the depths between 60 and 100 m. The vertical profiles of 14C dates indicate a relatively constant age of 10–16 ka for groundwater deeper than 100 m, which may have been influenced by rapid sea-level changes after the glacial period.