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The aim of this paper is to carry out an explicit construction of CAP representations of
over a division quaternion algebra with discriminant two. We first construct cusp forms on such a group explicitly by lifting from Maass cusp forms for the congruence subgroup
. We show that this lifting is nonzero and Hecke-equivariant. This allows us to determine each local component of a cuspidal representation generated by such a lifting. We then show that our cuspidal representations provide examples of CAP (cuspidal representation associated to a parabolic subgroup) representations, and, in fact, counterexamples to the Ramanujan conjecture.
(KxNa1−x)NbO3 films were deposited on Nb-doped (100)SrTiO3 substrates at 240 °C for times between 1 and 6 h by a hydrothermal method. Over this time series, the measured (K + Na)/Nb ratio of the films was found to remain constant, but the bulk K/(K + Na) ratio, x, decreased from an initial value of 0.75–0.56. It was determined that film growth initially proceeded through crystallization of the K-rich phase (K0.75Na0.25)NbO3. For film growth times greater than 3 h, a second perovskite phase with a smaller unit cell volume was detected, with an estimated composition of (K0.36Na0.64)NbO3. As such, the measured bulk composition value x = 0.56 was determined to be the result of a combination of these two phases, as opposed to originating from a single phase. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy analyses of films prepared for 6 h revealed that they consist of two layers in the direction normal to the substrate; this bilayer-type structure, only observed for hydrothermal growth of this material, is considered to arise from the large solubility mismatch between the Nb precursor and KOH and NaOH in the growth solution.
The use of pheromones to disrupt mating behaviours is perhaps the most promising method for controlling the sugarcane pest Dasylepida ishigakiensis Niijima et Kinoshita, also known as the white grub beetle. Herein, based on laboratory observations of mating, oviposition and hatching behaviours in the white grub beetle, we suggest guidelines for the timing and length of sex-pheromone release in the field. In the present study, we collected virgin female adults early in the mating season (4 February) in sugarcane fields in Okinawa, Japan and mated them in the laboratory after different time intervals with males collected at the same time. We investigated the effects of delayed mating on mating success, timing of oviposition, female longevity after mating and progeny hatchability. Mating success – defined as the proportion of mated females that produced progeny – and hatchability were not significantly affected by mating delays of less than 31 days, although further delays dramatically decreased these parameters. Female life span and the time between mating and oviposition were unaffected by mating delay. Similar results were obtained for laboratory-reared adults mated on day 45, 60 or 80 after adult emergence. Based on these findings, we propose that releasing synthetic sex pheromones between mid-January (i.e. shortly before the start of the mating season) and late March would be optimal for disrupting the mating behaviours of this beetle in the field.
Nanopillars and nanocoils fabricated by chemical vapor deposition using a focused ion beam were used to estimate bending and torsional rigidities under infinitesimal deformation and to investigate nonlinear large deformation behaviors. For the pillars, we performed bending tests using a unique double-cantilever specimen, which was made by joining two pillars together using focused electron beam deposition in a scanning electron microscope. The reproducible load–deflection curves, which were not severely disturbed by the ambiguous chuck condition of the specimens, indicated that the pillar deformation resistance decreased after the linear response (called softening), and it was dependent on the pillar diameter and the ratio of diameter to length. However, all pillars became extremely hardened at large deformation. At diameters of less than 300 nm, and at diameter/length ratios of over 10−2, this nanopillar size effect (characterized as softening) was consistently observed.
We present the water column profiles (surface to 2000 m depth) for dissolved inorganic radiocarbon (14CDIC) from 2 stations in the Kuroshio region including the Kuroshio large meander (LM) of 2004–2005. Surprisingly, the Δ14CDIC value varied up to 125‰ in the intermediate layer, especially near 600 m depth. In addition, the Δ14CDIC value was approximately − 150‰ at 200 m depth at the northern station of Kuroshio in August 2005. This value is ∼100‰ less than other Δ14CDIC values for the same depth. In comparison, the Δ14CDIC water column profiles for the southern station of Kuroshio and GEOSECS station 224 decrease down to 600 m depth and were similar below 600 m depth. Our results suggest that strong upwelling associated with the Kuroshio LM has a powerful influence on the Δ14CDIC water column profiles in the study region.
The members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have been pursuing new cooperative security agendas – namely, confidence-building measures (CBMs), preventive diplomacy (PD), conflict resolution and a set of agendas associated with security communities. The ASEAN members' pursuit of these agendas should be seen as a set of instances of their mimetic adoption of external norms for the sake of legitimacy. They have mimetically been adopting a set of norms associated with the collective management of conflicts, which have been practiced by the participant states of the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). They have been doing so, with the intention of securing their identities as legitimate members of the community of modern states, and of enhancing the status of ASEAN and the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) as legitimate cooperative security institutions.
Field and laboratory observations were carried out to understand the significance of prolonged copulation and the male substance transferred from males to females in the white grub beetle Dasylepida ishigakiensis Niijima & Kinoshita. Adults emerged from the soil in the evening and formed mating pairs on sugarcane plants, where copulation lasted for 1–3 h. Mating pairs (30%) observed in the field were accompanied by one or two additional males. Some females mated with one such male after ending copulation with the first male, showing multiple mating. After mating, males dropped to the ground to burrow into the soil earlier than females. Females received a large amount of colloidal secretion from males during mating. The amount and rate of transfer of this secretion from males to females were investigated in this study. Transfer of the secretion from males to females was completed within 30 min, and females that had mated with two males in the laboratory stored a larger amount of male secretion in the bursa copulatrix than those that had mated once. The results of both field and laboratory observations might indicate a possibility that prolonged copulation serves as a post-insemination female guarding behaviour to prevent mating by other conspecific males.
The systematic investigation on the thermal stability of the CoO layer was carried out for various electrode materials. When Pt with higher oxygen potential (Gibbs free energy change of the oxidation reaction) compared to Co is used as electrodes, the resistance of the Pt/CoO/Pt devise was severely decreased by the post deposition annealing (PDA) process and the resistance switching into the high resistance state was observed in the first voltage sweep. This indicants that the reducing Ar ambient induces the quite local reduction of CoO. The reduction of the CoO layer is also expected even with the Co electrode, which is reasonably attributed to the oxygen concentration gradient at the Co/CoO interface in the Co/CoO/Pt device. With the Ti electrode having a much lower oxygen potential than Co, the reduction of CoO by Ti is also indicated electrically in the Pt/CoO/Ti device. On the other hands, W electrodes which is thought to have the solid-solution oxygen can stabilize the CoO layer during PDA although W is more affinitive with oxygen compared with Co. It can be pointed out the oxygen delivery at the electrode/oxide layer interface is a critical factor in designing the thermally stable stacking structure for resistance random access memory.
The present study was carried out to examine the genetic mechanism responsible for reversions to fertile phenotype detected in cytoplasmic male-sterile plants of rice. The cms-bo cytoplasm of Chinsurah boro II gave rise to male-sterility in plants without a gametophytic restorer gene (Rf1). Taichung 65 (T65A) was known to be the maintainer which carries no restorer; however, Taichun 65 preserved in our laboratory (T65B) showed partial fertility (about 8% seed set) when crossed with the male-sterile plants. Unexpectedly, the seed fertility gradually increased with repeated selfings and almost fully fertile plants were obtained in the F6 generation. The cytoplasmic substitution lines revealed that reversions to fertile phenotype resulted from mutational events at the nuclear level. The genetic experiments indicated that the partial fertility observed in the F1 hybrid was controlled by a dominant gene, Ifr1, which was carried by T65B. The results obtained suggested that Ifr1 itself was associated with instability of fertility restoration in the presence of cms-bo cytoplasm since partially fertile plants carrying Ifr1 always showed a tendency for gradual increase in fertility in the later generations. The results are also discussed in relation to a rapid genetic change through intensified gametic selection combined with instability.
Current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of Pt/TiO2-x/Pt has been investigated. The Pt/TiO2-x/Pt devices in the initial state exhibit a rectifying I-V behavior. By applying a pulse voltage, the rectifying polarity could be switched to an opposite direction. The mechanism of the rectifying polarity switch is proposed as the local drift of defects, such as oxygen vacancies (VO), due to applying pulse voltage. It is found that the required pulse voltage height for the polarity switch (Vswitch) exhibits much dependence on the operation temperature and width of applied pulse voltage. With an increase of the pulse voltage width or the measurement temperature (T), Vswitch exhibits a decrease with increase of T. These results suggest that the rectifying polarity switch in the Pt/TiO2-x/Pt is attributed to a thermal and dynamic dependence process, which agree well with the localized migration of VO induced by applied pulse voltage.
Deposition trend of μc-Si was investigated using microwave (2.45GHz) plasma enhanced CVD. μc-Si films with the preferential orientation of (111) and (220) were deposited and compared. Raman scattering results show that the (111) preferentially oriented film has higher crystallinity while ESR measurements result in the fact that the (220) preferentially oriented film has smaller dangling bond density. Bottom gate thin film transistors (TFT's) were fabricated using these μc-Si films as channel layer and evaluated. H2 plasma post-treatment has been found to be effective to improve the TFT characteristics. Mobility of about 1.4cm2/Vsec and on/off ratio of more than 105 have been achieved.
The resistance random access memory is attracting much attention as a high-density and high-speed non-volatile memory, having large resistance switching ration and good affinity with the conventional CMOS technologies. We demonstrate the resistance switching in the NiO thin film without using Pt electrode.
While lognormal distributions have been proposed as useful descriptors
of recruitment variability,
the very nature of the recruitment distributions is still debated.
To account quantitatively for recruitment distributions,
I here propose a Weibull exponential model;
it derives from a simple and natural hypothesis for uncorrelated
recruitment processes of spawning, hatching, growth and survival
through the early life stages to the point of vulnerability to the
The quantification of Weibull exponentials is particularly important
with regards to extrapolations to low recruits that have not yet been
To test the Weibull exponential null-hypothesis, I examine annual
time-series of recruitment in major aquatic stocks.
The Weibull exponential quite describes the bulk (95%) of the
recruitment distributions of widely differing stocks,
while the remaining 5% of the largest recruits are occurring with a
much larger rate than predicted by the Weibull exponential.
Further, I study the inter-event times between unusually high numbers
in recruitment time-series data
and find that intermittent pulses of strong recruitment follow
non-Poisson statistics, which arises from year-to-year persistence of
the magnitude of recruitment:
large (or small) recruits are more likely to be followed by large (or
This recruitment clustering effect is confirmed by the rescaled range
The empirical results imply that individual survivals on recruitment
levels are independent of initial cohort sizes but year-to-year
recruiting events exhibit long-term correlations.
Major late complications, following radiotherapy of head and neck carcinomas, such as laryngeal oedema, perichondritis and chondronecrosis usually occur between three and 12 months after treatment. However, the present case displayed necrosis of the laryngo-tracheal cartilage and ulceration of anterior neck skin with a tracheal fistula 44 years after irradiation. The reasons for the long interval between irradiation and late complications may be explained by long-standing hypovascularity and/or infection of the irradiated area. Histological study revealed chondronecrosis without inflammatory cells in the laryngo-tracheal cartilage and bacterial colonization of subcutaneous tissue. Necrotic tissue was removed and tracheostomy was performed. The fistula was almost completely closed using a delto-pectoral cutaneous flap and the clinical course of patient has been good. This paper demonstrates the possibility of laryngo-tracheal necrosis in cases that had received radiation as long ago as 44 years.
The purpose of this study was to define the histopathological changes in the temporal bone of a fetus with trisomy 18 syndrome, a stillborn due to perosplanchnia. Several anomalies were found including malformation of the auditory ossicles, residual mesenchyme in the middle ear, aberrant tensor tympani muscle, absence of stapedial tendon, aberrant lateral ampullary nerve and wide endolymphatic sinus. The incus body was deformed and separated from the long process by connective tissue and monocrural stapes was noted in the right ear. Three-dimensional reconstruction images provided a clear view of the auditory ossicle malformation. The abnormal findings in our case indicate that ear anomalies in this syndrome might be derived from the component around the first and second branchial arches.
The histopathological and imaging findings of a rhabdomyoma of the base of the tongue were studied. An immunohistochemical examination of the tumour cells showed positiveimmunostaining for myoglobin, desmin, and striated muscle actin, but negative immunostaining for smooth muscle actin. Electron microscopy showed many glycogen granules and mitochondria in the tumour cells. The T2-weighted and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images (MRI) clearly delineated morphological features of this tumour, but T1-weighted MRI and computed tomography (CT) images showed no important features. These findings are typical for an adult extracardiac rhabdomyoma located in the head and neck region, and they will be useful for diagnosis of this tumour.
We initiated surveillance for surgical-site infections (SSIs) in a Japanese hospital using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definitions and the approach of the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System. Patients were observed following clean and clean-contaminated abdominal operations. SSI rates were higher than those of the NNIS System, but there was a trend toward decreased SSI rates in the latter half of the study period.