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In 1473 Pope Sixtus IV instructed the vicar of the Bishop of Bologna to investigate rumors concerning Carmelite friars who were preaching that summoning demons in order to obtain responses from them was not heretical. Drawing on newly discovered archival sources, this article elucidates the circumstances that led the Franciscan pope to intervene in a conflict between the Bolognese Carmelites and the Dominican inquisitor Simone of Novara. It proposes that the Carmelite affair, which ended with the inquisitor's defeat, constituted a critical juncture in the Dominicans’ relations with other Mendicant orders, and that it shaped inquisitorial activity in Bologna over the next few decades. This paper suggests that the aftermath of the Carmelite affair may also explain why, when the repression of illicit magic was resumed, Inquisitor Giovanni Cagnazzo decided to turn a female necromancer, and not the friars who had taught her demonic rites, into the main target of his prosecution.
is a CM extension of number fields in which the prime
splits completely and every other prime is unramified. Fix a place
. Suppose that
is a continuous irreducible Galois representation such that
is upper-triangular, maximally non-split, and generic. If
is automorphic, and some suitable technical conditions hold, we show that
can be recovered from the
-action on a space of mod
automorphic forms on a compact unitary group. On the way we prove results about weights in Serre’s conjecture for
, show the existence of an ordinary lifting of
, and prove the freeness of certain Taylor–Wiles patched modules in this context. We also show the existence of many Galois representations
to which our main theorem applies.
The evolution of gas and stars in galactic nuclei is reconsidered and numerical models of early evolutionary phases of galactic nuclei are discussed, in particular the evolution of a supermassive gaseous object as a hypothetical precursor of a supermassive black hole.
Prisons/jails are thought to amplify the transmission of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) particularly methicillin-resistant SA infection and colonisation. Two independently pooled cross-sectional samples of detainees being admitted or discharged from two New York State maximum-security prisons were used to explore this concept. Private interviews of participants were conducted, during which the anterior nares and oropharynx were sampled and assessed for SA colonisation. Log-binomial regression and correspondence analysis (CA) were used to evaluate the prevalence of colonisation at entry as compared with discharge. Approximately 51% of admitted (N = 404) and 41% of discharged (N = 439) female detainees were colonised with SA. Among males, 59% of those admitted (N = 427) and 49% of those discharged (N = 393) were colonised. Females had a statistically significant higher prevalence (1·26: P = 0·003) whereas males showed no significant difference (1·06; P = 0·003) in SA prevalence between entry and discharge. CA demonstrated that some strains, such as spa types t571 and t002, might have an affinity for certain mucosal sites. Contrary to our hypothesis, the prison setting did not amplify SA transmission, and CA proved to be a useful tool in describing the population structure of strains according to time and/or mucosal site.
• Enhance appreciation of corporate responsibility reporting (CRRep), its historical development and the different forms it can take.
• Raise critical awareness of rationales advanced to explain the phenomenon of CRRep.
• Impart awareness of possible problems and challenges involved in CRRep.
• Develop knowledge of guidelines and regulatory frameworks which govern CRRep and enable you to critically evaluate their effectiveness in enhancing transparency and accountability.
• Foster understanding of country- and industry-specific developments in CRRep.
Corporate social responsibility refers to the expectation that business is responsible for its impact on society and the environment. Society expects companies to take responsibility for avoiding, reducing or, at best, compensating for negative externalities as well as contributing to social welfare, while also being accountable for these impacts and explaining them in a transparent manner. However, such responsibility is articulated through a complex set of means and is constantly changing. The importance of understanding these complexities and dynamics and the need for transparency and accountability – whether for social responsibility or sustainability – has invited considerable interest in the field of CRRep, the subject of this chapter. CRRep in essence reflects a company's claim to portray – in printed reports or on corporate websites – an account of its ecological, social and economic performance and impacts, and to inform its stakeholders as to what extent and how it can contribute to sustainable development. The number of companies which claim their responsibilities through a dedicated corporate responsibility report has increased considerably in recent decades – as has the criticism of the reluctance and/or incapability of some companies to provide a full and fair account of their performance and impact on society and their stakeholders. This debate reflects the different approaches to regulating CRRep and the roles that society and stakeholders might play in enhanced engagement in and quality of CRRep.
The chapter will be organised as follows: it begins with a general definition of CRRep, an overview of its historic development and the various forms it can take. Then, rationales for and challenges to companies’ engagement in CRRep are outlined. At its core, different alternatives for governing CRRep are explored, distinguishing voluntary standards (e.g. the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines) from legally binding measures introduced by governments (e.g. disclosure regulations in European and other countries) and stock exchanges.
Female monasticism and the conversion of the Jews were both major concerns for the ecclesiastical establishment, as well as for Italian ruling elites, after the Council of Trent (1545–1563). Hence, the monachization of baptized Jewish girls acquired a unique symbolic significance. Moreover, during this period cases of demonic possession were on the rise, and so were witchcraft accusations. This article explores a case from late sixteenth-century Mantua in which Jewish conversion, female monachization, demonic possession and witch-hunting all came into play in a violent drama. Drawing on unpublished documents as well as on chronicles and hagiographies, the article elucidates the mental toll that conversion and monachization took on the Jewess Luina, who later became known as Sister Margherita. It delineates her life, which culminated with her diagnosis as a demoniac, and analyzes the significance that this etiology held for the energumen—whose affliction was attributed to her ongoing contacts with Jews—and for Mantua's Jews. The article argues that the anxiety provoked by suspicions that a formerly Jewish nun reverted to Judaism was so profound, that it led to the burning at the stake of Judith Franchetta, the only Jew ever to be executed as a witch in the Italian peninsula.
Existing approaches to the representation of argument structure in grammar tend to focus either on semantics or on syntax. Our goal in this paper is to strike the right balance between the two levels by proposing an analysis that maintains the independence of the syntactic and semantic aspects of argument structure, and, at the same time, captures the interplay between the two levels. Our proposal is set in the context of the development of a large-scale grammar of Modern Hebrew within the framework of Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG). Consequently, an additional challenge it faces is to reconcile two conflicting desiderata: to be both linguistically coherent and realistic in terms of the grammar engineering effort. We present a novel representation of argument structure that is fully implemented in HPSG, and demonstrate its many benefits to the coherence of our Hebrew grammar. We also highlight the additional dimensions of linguistic generalization that our proposal provides, which we believe are also applicable to grammars of other languages.
To describe compliance with the central line (CL) insertion bundle overall and with individual bundle elements in US adult intensive care units (ICUs) and to determine the relationship between bundle compliance and central line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates.
National sample of adult ICUs participating in National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) surveillance.
Hospitals were surveyed to determine compliance with CL insertion bundle elements in ICUs. Corresponding NHSN ICU CLABSI rates were obtained. Multivariate Poisson regression models were used to assess associations between CL bundle compliance and CLABSI rates, controlling for hospital and ICU characteristics.
A total of 984 adult ICUs in 632 hospitals were included. Most ICUs had CL bundle policies, but only 69% reported excellent compliance (≥95%) with at least 1 element. Lower CLABSI rates were associated with compliance with just 1 element (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64–0.92); however, ≥95% compliance with all 5 elements was associated with the greatest reduction (IRR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.59–0.77). There was no association between CLABSI rates and simply having a written CL bundle policy nor with bundle compliance <75%. Additionally, better-resourced infection prevention departments were associated with lower CLABSI rates.
Our findings demonstrate the impact of transferring infection prevention interventions to the real-world setting. Compliance with the entire bundle was most effective, although excellent compliance with even 1 bundle element was associated with lower CLABSI rates. The variability in compliance across ICUs suggests that, at the national level, there is still room for improvement in CLABSI reduction.
The idea of Asia as a unity has appealed both to Europeans interested in differentiating themselves from a threatening, if inferior, Asiatic ‘other’, and to Asians keen to mark their distance from an alien and alienating Europe and West. For both groups, Asia is a useful term of alterity, although the place of ‘us’ and ‘them’ is reversed. Near the beginning of his lecture Sanjay Subrahmanyam remarks that, ‘in the play between the -emic and the -etic, the insider's and the outsider's perspective, a concept like “Asia” falls decidedly on the side of the -etic’. This point is reinforced by the fact that the European concept of Asia goes back to the Ancient Greeks (as Subrahmanyam notes), whereas the interest of Asian insiders in the concept of a homogeneous Asia is a modern phenomenon, a reaction against the assumption of superiority inherent in Western imperialism and neo-imperialism. In the case of both the European and the Asian conceptions, however, it is the viewpoint of the observer, rather than the empirical features of what is observed, that gives shape and meaning to the concept. I will use this short response to take a look at Asia from a third perspective, one that is neither fully ‘insider’ nor ‘outsider’ in character, namely that of the early modern Armenians, whose travels took them across the length and breadth of Asia, and Europe too.
The physico-chemical and interfacial properties of fat emulsions influence lipid digestion and may affect postprandial responses. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of the modification of the interfacial layer of a fat emulsion by cross-linking on postprandial metabolic and appetite responses. A total of fifteen healthy individuals (26·5 (sem 6·9) years and BMI 21·9 (sem 2·0) kg/m2) participated in a cross-over design experiment in which they consumed two isoenergetic (1924 kJ (460 kcal)) and isovolumic (250 g) emulsions stabilised with either sodium caseinate (Cas) or transglutaminase-cross-linked sodium caseinate (Cas-TG) in a randomised order. Blood samples were collected from the individuals at baseline and for 6 h postprandially for the determination of serum TAG and plasma NEFA, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose and insulin responses. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales. Postprandial TAG and NEFA responses and gastric emptying (GE) rates were comparable between the emulsions. CCK increased more after the ingestion of Cas-TG than after the ingestion of Cas (P< 0·05), while GLP-1 responses did not differ between the two test emulsions. Glucose and insulin profiles were lower after consuming Cas-TG than after consuming Cas (P< 0·05). The overall insulin, glucose and CCK responses, expressed as areas above/under the curve, did not differ significantly between the Cas and Cas-TG meal conditions. Satiety ratings were reduced and hunger, desire to eat and thirst ratings increased more after the ingestion of Cas-TG than after the ingestion of Cas (P< 0·05). The present results suggest that even a subtle structural modification of the interfacial layer of a fat emulsion can alter the early postprandial profiles of glucose, insulin, CCK, appetite and satiety through decreased protein digestion without affecting significantly on GE or overall lipid digestion.
To describe the use of antimicrobial stewardship policies and to investigate factors associated with implementation in a national sample of acute care hospitals.
Infection Control Directors from acute care hospitals participating in the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN).
An online survey was conducted in the Fall of 2011. A subset of hospitals also provided access to their 2011 NHSN annual survey data.
Responses were received from 1,015 hospitals (30% response rate). The majority of hospitals (64%) reported the presence of a policy; use of antibiograms and antimicrobial restriction policies were most frequently utilized (83% and 65%, respectively). Respondents from larger, urban, teaching hospitals and those that are part of a system that shares resources were more likely to report a policy in place (P<.01). Hospitals located in California were more likely to have policy in place than in hospitals located in other states (P=.014).
This study provides a snapshot of the implementation of antimicrobial stewardship policies in place in U.S. hospitals and suggests that statewide efforts in California are achieving their intended effect. Further research is needed to identify factors that foster the adoption of these policies.
US state and territorial laws were reviewed to identify Clostridium difficile infection reporting mandates. Twenty states require reporting either under state law or by incorporating federal Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services’ reporting requirements. Although state law mandates are more common, the incorporation of federal reporting requirements has been increasing.
To determine the association between state legal mandates for data submission of central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) with process and outcome measures.
Participants. National sample of level II/III and III NICUs participating in National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) surveillance.
State mandates for data submission of CLABSIs in NICUs in place by 2011 were compiled and verified with state healthcare-associated infection coordinators. A web-based survey of infection control departments in October 2011 assessed CLABSI prevention practices, ie, compliance with checklist/bundle components (process measures) in ICUs including NICUs. Corresponding 2011 NHSN NICU CLABSI rates (outcome measures) were used to calculate standardized infection ratios (SIRs). Association between mandates and process and outcome measures was assessed by multivariable logistic regression.
Among 190 study NICUs, 107 (56.3%) were located in states with mandates, with mandates in place >3 years in 52 (49%). More NICUs in states with mandates reported ≥95% compliance to at least 1 CLABSI prevention practice (52.3%–66.4%) than NICUs in states without mandates (28.9%–48.2%). Mandates were predictors of ≥95% compliance with all practices (odds ratio, 2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.4–6.1). NICUs in states with mandates reported lower mean CLABSI rates in the ≤750-g birth weight group (2.4 vs 5.7 CLABSIs/1,000 central line–days) but not in others. Mandates were not associated with SIR <1.
State mandates for NICU CLABSI data submission were significantly associated with ≥95% compliance with CLABSI prevention practices, which declined with the duration of mandate but not with lower CLABSI rates.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014;35(9):1133-1139
To identify predictors of good outcome in acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO).
Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) caused by BAO is often associated with a severe and persistent neurological deficit and a high mortality rate.
The set consisted of 70 consecutive AIS patients (51 males; mean age 64.5±14.5 years) with BAO. The role of the following factors was assessed: baseline characteristics, stroke risk factors, pre-event antithrombotic treatment, neurological deficit at time of treatment, estimated time to therapy procedure initiation, treatment method, recanalization rate, change in neurological deficit, post-treatment imaging findings. 30- and 90-day outcome was assessed using the modified Rankin scale with a good outcome defined as a score of 0–3.
The following statistically significant differences were found between patients with good versus poor outcomes: mean age (54.2 vs. 68.9 years; p=0.0001), presence of arterial hypertension (52.4% vs. 83.7%; p=0.015), diabetes mellitus (9.5% vs. 55.1%; p=0.0004) and severe stroke (14.3% vs. 65.3%; p=0.0002), neurological deficit at time of treatment (14.0 vs. 24.0 median of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] points; p=0.001), successful recanalization (90.0% vs. 54.2%; p=0.005), change in neurological deficit (12.0 vs. 1.0 median difference of NIHSS points; p=0.005). Stepwise binary logistic regression analysis identified age (OR=0.932, 95% CI=0.882–0.984; p=0.012), presence of diabetes mellitus (OR=0.105, 95% CI=0.018–0.618; p=0.013) and severe stroke (OR=0.071, 95% CI=0.013–0.383; p=0.002) as significant independent negative predictors of good outcome.
In the present study, higher age, presence of diabetes mellitus and severe stroke were identified as significant independent negative predictors of good outcome.
To assess the prevalence and risk factors for colonization with Staphylococcus aureus in inmates entering two maximum-security prisons in New York State, USA, inmates (N = 830) were interviewed and anterior nares and oropharyngeal samples collected. Isolates were characterized using spa typing. Overall, 50·5% of women and 58·3% of men were colonized with S. aureus and 10·6% of women and 5·9% of men were colonized with MRSA at either or both body sites. Of MSSA isolates, the major subtypes were spa type 008 and 002. Overall, risk factors for S. aureus colonization varied by gender and were only found in women and included younger age, fair/poor self-reported general health, and longer length of prior incarceration. Prevalence of MRSA colonization was 8·2%, nearly 10 times greater than in the general population. Control of epidemic S. aureus in prisons should consider the constant introduction of strains by new inmates.
Over the past decade, large outbreaks of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections have occurred in correctional facilities across the country. Although many have been managed with aggressive interventions, response to standard infection control procedures has been variable, highlighting our incomplete understanding of staphylococcal transmission in this setting. Environmental contamination has recently emerged as a possible target for novel prevention and control strategies. This study sought to characterize the relationship between environmental contamination and clinical infection in this vulnerable population.
We conducted a case-control study of S. aureus environmental contamination at 2 New York State (NYS) maximum security prisons: Sing Sing (men) and Bedford Hills (women).