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Previous research showed that automatic emotion regulation is associated with activation of subcortical areas and subsequent feedforward processes to cortical areas. In contrast, cognitive awareness of emotions is mediated by negative feedback from cortical to subcortical areas. Pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) is essential in the modulation of both affect and alexithymia. We considered the interplay between these two mechanisms in the pgACC and their relationship with alexithymia.
In 68 healthy participants (30 women, age = 26.15 ± 4.22) we tested associations of emotion processing and alexithymia with excitation/inhibition (E/I) balance represented as glutamate (Glu)/GABA in the pgACC measured via magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 7 T.
Alexithymia was positively correlated with the Glu/GABA ratio (N = 41, p = 0.0393). Further, cognitive self-awareness showed an association with Glu/GABA (N = 52, p = 0.003), which was driven by a correlation with GABA. In contrast, emotion regulation was only correlated with glutamate levels in the pgACC (N = 49, p = 0.008).
Our results corroborate the importance of the pgACC as a mediating region of alexithymia, reflected in an altered E/I balance. Furthermore, we could specify that this altered balance is linked to a GABA-related modulation of cognitive self-awareness of emotions.
Determining decision-making capacity is part of everyday business for health care professionals working with older adults. We used a modified Delphi approach to develop an inclusive curriculum for a capacity education e-tool with global application and clinical relevance to a range of disciplines. The tool comprised: (i) 25 questions forming a “pre-test” for the adaptive and personalized e-Learning platform; (ii) a learning module based on the participant’s response to the “pre-test”; (iii) a “post-test” (the same baseline 25 questions) to test knowledge translation. The tool was tested on 31 health care professionals across Israel (8), Canada (15), and Australia (8) from the following disciplines: General Practitioners (GP) (19), Internal Medicine (1), Palliative Care GP (2); Palliative Care Physician (2), Geriatrician (2); and one of each: Psychologist, Occupational Therapist, Psychiatrist, Aged Care Researcher, and Aged Care Pharmacist. The mean baseline pre-test score was 19.1/25 (S.D. =1.61; range 15–22) and post-test score 21.7/25 (S.D.= 1.42; range 18–24); with a highly significant improvement in test scores (paired t-test P < 0.0001; t=10.81 on 30 df). This is the first such pilot study to demonstrate that generic capacity principles can be taught to health care professionals from different disciplines regardless of jurisdiction.
The dichotomy of radical and incremental innovation has been discussed in numerous literature sources and a great amount of advices on how to handle them in design processes has been provided. Nevertheless, only a minority of literature sources addresses the perception of radicalism from a user's perspective, meaning that there is less research on how users or, in other words, consumers perceive a radical degree of novelty of products. Furthermore, there is little research on how this perception can be measured.
This paper discusses the aforementioned user's perception and proposes a way to derive criteria which users take into account when they decide whether an idea or an innovation is radical or incremental. A concept for an investigative model was developed and applied by using it in the field with 49 test subjects. Consequently, a set of criteria was derived which concretises the decision whether a product was radical or not. The criteria were analyzed statistically and can be used by designers planning to develop a radical innovation in order to check whether the criteria people use to differentiate between radical and incremental products are fulfilled.
The initial classic Fontan utilising a direct right atrial appendage to pulmonary artery anastomosis led to numerous complications. Adults with such complications may benefit from conversion to a total cavo-pulmonary connection, the current standard palliation for children with univentricular hearts.
A single institution, retrospective chart review was conducted for all Fontan conversion procedures performed from July, 1999 through January, 2017. Variables analysed included age, sex, reason for Fontan conversion, age at Fontan conversion, and early mortality or heart transplant within 1 year after Fontan conversion.
A total of 41 Fontan conversion patients were identified. Average age at Fontan conversion was 24.5 ± 9.2 years. Dominant left ventricular physiology was present in 37/41 (90.2%) patients. Right-sided heart failure occurred in 39/41 (95.1%) patients and right atrial dilation was present in 33/41 (80.5%) patients. The most common causes for Fontan conversion included atrial arrhythmia in 37/41 (90.2%), NYHA class II HF or greater in 31/41 (75.6%), ventricular dysfunction in 23/41 (56.1%), and cirrhosis or fibrosis in 7/41 (17.1%) patients. Median post-surgical follow-up was 6.2 ± 4.9 years. Survival rates at 30 days, 1 year, and greater than 1-year post-Fontan conversion were 95.1, 92.7, and 87.8%, respectively. Two patients underwent heart transplant: the first within 1 year of Fontan conversion for heart failure and the second at 5.3 years for liver failure.
Fontan conversion should be considered early when atrial arrhythmias become common rather than waiting for severe heart failure to ensue, and Fontan conversion can be accomplished with an acceptable risk profile.
This article deals with technology transfer from science to agriculture with pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.)R.Br.) in central Tanzania as example. The major question is which validity recommendations from different types of field experiments have and how geo-information (i.e. soil and landscape position) can lead to more site-specific recommendations. Tied ridging and reduced amounts of placed fertilizer during sowing were tested to increase yields on researcher-managed plots on-station, demonstration plots in villages, and farmer-managed plots on-farm. While on-station trials provided potential yield effects, physical distance to the station and differing conditions led to a higher informational value of village plots that mirror the context of local farmers. The treatments often resulted in significant yield increase. Soil and relief information and distance to settlements (i.e. gradient of management intensity) are key factors for data variability in on-farm trials. Unexplained variability is introduced through leaving degrees of freedom with respect to management to the farmer. Apart from soil and physiographic information, the latter should be part of a detailed data collection procedure in agronomic trials in large numbers addressing Sub-Saharan smallholder farming. Balanced data sets with dispersed trials on crucial soil and relief units are essential for future research.
Culture, mainly defined as values and beliefs, has recently attracted much attention in economics. Cultural practices receive less attention, as emphasized in anthropology. We argue that the notion of ‘ritual’ can enrich economic research on culture as a specific form of socially standardized interactions that create shared contexts and emotions to build mutual trust and community. China is an important case in point, because ritual is a central concern in common interpretations of traditional Chinese culture. We look at practices of Chinese entrepreneurs that activate rituals in various settings. We conclude that these phenomena can be analytically condensed in the cultural complex of a ‘ritual economy’.
Geophysical survey and excavations from 2010–2016 at Lawrenz Gun Club (11CS4), a late pre-Columbian village located in the central Illinois River valley in Illinois, identified 10 mounds, a central plaza, and dozens of structures enclosed within a stout 10 hectare bastioned palisade. Nineteen radiocarbon (14C) measurements were taken from single entities of wood charcoal, short-lived plants, and animal bones. A site chronology has been constructed using a Bayesian approach that considers the stratigraphic contexts and feature formation processes. The village was host to hundreds of years of continuous human activity during the Mississippi Period. Mississippian activity at the site is estimated to have begun in cal AD 990–1165 (95% probability), ended in cal AD 1295–1450 (95% probability), and lasted 150–420 yr (95% probability) in the primary Bayesian model with similar results obtained in two alternative models. The palisade is estimated to have been constructed in cal AD 1150–1230 (95% probability) and was continuously repaired and rebuilt for 15–125 yr (95% probability), probably for 40–85 yr (68% probability). Comparison to other studies demonstrates that the bastioned palisade at Lawrenz was one of the earliest constructed in the midcontinental United States.
High resolution Bragg-case X-ray double and triple axis diffractometry and Laue-case white beam synchrotron X-ray topography experiments have been performed on undoped  oriented float-zone GaAs crystals have been grown under microgravity conditions in space on the D2 mission. Near the seed, excellent anomalous transmission was achieved and a clear cellular structure of dislocations observed. The double and triple axis rocking curves were comparable with those from semi-insulating terrestrial material. Following a heater failure, the molten zone height dropped and reciprocal space maps revealed a long ridge of scatter transverse to the diffraction vector direction. This corresponds to the presence of a distribution of sub-grains containing little internal strain. Continued growth resulted in twin formation.
Building on an overview of dual systems theories in behavioural economics, the paper presents a methodological assessment in terms of the mechanistic explanations framework that has gained prominence in philosophy of the neurosciences. I conclude that they fail to meet the standards of causal explanations and I suggest an alternative ‘dual functions’ view based on Marr’s methodology of computational neuroscience. Recent psychological and neuroscience research undermines the case for a categorization of brain processes in terms of properties such as relative speed. I defend an interpretation of dualities as functional, without assigning them to specific neurophysiological structures.
With the destruction of the Third Reich and subsequent establishment of two separate and sovereign German states, different perspectives on society and class have resulted in differences in German-Jewish affairs. The Jewish communities in the Federal Republic of Germany, while predicated on the principles of religious corporations, became oriented toward the World Zionist Organization and the State of Israel. Indeed, Jewish life in West Germany soon represented expatriate Israeli existence, and the religious, cultural and political organizations of West-German Jews have become largely extensions of Zionist and Israeli purposes.
Thermodynamic data for the arsenates of various metals are necessary to calculate their solubilities and to evaluate their potential as arsenic storage media. If some of the less common arsenate minerals have been shown to be less soluble than the currently used options for arsenic disposal (especially scorodite and arsenical iron oxides), they should be further investigated as promising storage media. Furthermore, the health risk associated with arsenic minerals is a function of their solubility and bioavailability, not merely their presence. For all these purposes, solubilities of such minerals need to be known. In this work, a complete set of thermodynamic data has been determined for mansfieldite, AlAsO4·2H2O; angelellite, Fe4(AsO4)2O3; and kamarizaite, Fe3(AsO4)2(OH)3·3H2O, using a combination of high-temperature oxide-melt calorimetry, relaxation calorimetry, solubility measurements, and estimates where possible and appropriate. Several choices for the reference compounds for As for the high-temperature oxide-melt calorimetry were assessed. Scorodite was selected as the best one. The calculated Gibbs free energy of formation (all data in kJ·mol–1) is –1733.4 ± 3.5 for mansfieldite, –2319.2 ± 7.9 for angelellite and –3056.8 ± 8.5 for kamarizaite. The solubility products for the dissolution reactions are –21.4 ± 0.5 for mansfieldite, –43.4 ± 1.5 for angelellite and –50.8 ± 1.6 for kamarizaite. Available, but limited, chemical data for the natural scorodite–mansfieldite solid-solution series hint at a miscibility gap; hence the non-ideal nature of the series. However, no mixing parameters were derived because more data are needed. The solubility of mansfieldite is several orders of magnitude higher than that of scorodite. The solubility of kamarizaite, on the other hand, is comparable to that of scorodite, and kamarizaite even has a small stability field in a pH-pε diagram. It is predicted to form under mildly acidic conditions in acid drainage systems that are not subject to rapid neutralization and sudden strong supersaturation. The solubility of angelellite is high, and the mineral is obviously restricted to unusual environments, such as fumaroles. Its crystallization may be enhanced via its epitaxial relationship with the much more common hematite. The use of the scorodite–mansfieldite solid solution for arsenic disposal, whether the solid solution is ideal or not, is not practical. The difference in solubility products of the two end-members (scorodite and mansfieldite) is so large that almost any system will drive the precipitation of essentially pure scorodite, leaving the aluminium in the aqueous phase.
The stress associated with care of patients with dementia has led to high nursing staff turnover. This study aims to explore patient factors that are related to nursing burden.
The present study examined nursing care burden related to 55 institutionalized dementia patients using the Modified Nursing Care Assessment Scale (M-NCAS). Cognition was assessed with the Severe Impairment Battery (SIB), activities of daily living (ADLs) were measured with the Alzheimer's Disease Functional Assessment of Change Scale (ADFACS), aggression was measured with the Aggressive Behavior Scale (ABS), and the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was used to assess medical comorbidity. Finally, the Dementia Cognitive Fluctuation Scale (DCFS) was used to assess the presence and severity of cognitive fluctuations (CFs). Linear regression models were used to assess their relationships with nursing care burden.
The mean age of the patients was 90.41 years (SD=2.84) and 89.10% were males. ADFACS total score (B = 0.36, β = 0.42, p = 0.002) and ABS score (B = 2.933, β = 0.37, p = 0.002) significantly predicted the M-NCAS Attitude score. ABS score was the only significant predictor of M-NCAS Strain score (B = 2.57, β = 0.35, p = 0.009).
In the long-term care setting, aggressive behavior plays an important role in both subjective and objective nursing burden, while impaired ADLs increase the objective burden for nursing staff.
We discuss the cobordism type of spin manifolds with non-negative sectional curvature. We show that in each dimension 4k ⩾ 12, there are infinitely many cobordism types of simply connected and non-negatively curved spin manifolds. Moreover, we raise and analyse a question about possible cobordism obstructions to non-negative curvature.