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Nutrition during the first 1000 days of life represents a window of opportunity to reduce the risk of metabolic dysfunctions later in life. Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and adequate introduction of solid foods are essential to promote metabolic and nutritional benefits. We evaluated the association of infant feeding practices from birth to 6 months (M) with adiposity indicators at 12 M. We performed a secondary analysis of 106 healthy term infants born from a cohort of healthy pregnant women. Type of breastfeeding (exclusive or nonexclusive), the start of complementary feeding (CF) (before (<4 M) or after (≥4 M)), and adiposity (body mass index – BMI, body mass index-for-age – BMI/A, waist circumference – WC, and waist circumference–length ratio – WLR) were evaluated at 12 M using descriptive statistics, mean differences, X2, and linear regression models. During the first 6 M, 28.3% (n = 30) of the infants received EBF. Early CF (<4 M) was present in 26.4% (n = 28) of the infants. Children who started CF < 4 M were less breastfed, received added sugars as the most frequently introduced food category, and showed higher BMI, BMI/A, WC, and WLR; those who consumed added sugars early (<4 M) had a higher WC. Starting CF < 4 M was the main factor associated with a higher WC at 12 M. Unhealthy infant feeding practices, such as lack of EBF, early CF, and early introduction of sugars, may be associated with higher adiposity at 12 M.
Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) is a key factor in the creation and development of companies. This study examines the CEO's personal background (personality, proactivity and resistance to change) and its influence on the EO of the organization to determine which factors enhance or weaken EO. We achieve this goal through quantitative research, developing a structural equations model with partial least squares to analyse a sample of 358 Spanish SMEs from different sectors. The results suggest that specific personality dimensions exert substantial influence on the organization's EO. We also analyse individual proactivity and resistance to change as conduits for the effect of personality dimensions on the company's EO.
One of the great challenges in the use of nanomaterials is their production at low costs and high yields. In this work aluminum nanoparticles, from aluminum powder, were produced by wet mechanical milling through a combination of different attrition milling conditions such as ball-powder ratio (BPR) and the amount of solvent used. It was observed that at 600 rpm with a BPR of 500/30 g for 12 h, it was possible to produce nanoparticles with a size close to 20 nm, while at 750 rpm with a BPR of 380/12.6 g for 12 h, nanoparticles of approximately 10 nm were obtained. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the milling product is an agglomeration of nanoparticles with different sizes. These results show the feasibility of obtaining aluminum nanoparticles by mechanical milling using only ethanol as solvent, avoiding hazardous by-products obtained from chemical routes, and the use of complicated methods such as laser ablation and arc discharge.
Previously, we showed the usefulness of the REF scale to assess referential thinking (Rodríguez-Testal et al., 2001; 2009) although it isn’t specific for patients with psychotic disorders (Rodríguez-Testal et al., 2008).
This instrumental work aims to replicate the exploratory factor analysis about the Referential Thinking Scale (REF scale) already developed by Lenzenweger et al. (1997) to examine its multidimensionality.
Participants: The analyzed sample consisted of 193 participants (67.36% women, mean 28.36 years old, SD = 10.35), of whom 131 were patients.
Design, materials and procedure: We used the REF-scale (Lenzenweger et al., 1997) adapted to Spanish language. This questionnaire consists of 34 items that assess the frequency of referential thinking on a dichotomic scale (true/false). We used SPSS 15.0 to conduct a principal-components factor analysis with a varimax and oblimin rotation.
The principal-components factor analysis method led to 5 factors that explain 37.35% of variance for the rotated solution. Because of inter-factors correlations are small, we considered these factors as being independent. The five factors were labeled as: Laughter, Commentaries (it accounted for 8.92% of variance); Guilt (it accounted for 8.77% of variance); Causal Explanations (it accounted for 7.17% of variance); Songs, Newspapers, Books (it accounted for 6.44% of variance); and Attention, Appearance (it accounted for 6.04% of variance).
It's obtained the five factors isolated in previous studies (Lenzenweger et al., 1997; Rodríguez-Testal et al., 2001). However, the multidimensionality of the REF scale must be viewed with caution because of a small percentage of explained variance.
Kernberg's classification of personality disorders (1987) differentiates psychic organization according to the severity: neurotic, borderline and psychotic. Lenzenweger et al. (2001) used a reduced version of IPO with 57 items developed by Kernberg and Clarkin (1995).
Objectives and hypothesis
IPO was applied in a sample of patients and a control group. We expected to find an adequate reliability and validity of the inventory. Scales adequately distinguish content borderline, neurotic and psychotic.
Participants: 288 subjects (64.9% women), 116 patients attended to private clinical practice from February 2007 to September 2009. 172 control subjects matched by sex, social class and sincerity (EPI).
Transversal design, a measure collective in the comparison group and individual in patients ones. A group of patients was selected for the retest (n = 88).
Instruments. We applied IPO, the BPRS, MCMI-II and MIPS. Diagnoses according to DSM-IV-TR.
Internal consistency (Cronbach) was adequate for the three scales: .83; .90 and .89. The testretest reliability was correct for a mean interval of 44 days (.78; .81; .78). The validity analyses differed between diagnostic groups in Axis I (p< .05), but not in the clusters of personality (p>.05). No differences in BPRS with scale of borderline, but yes with neurotic and psychotic ones. The MCMI-II was properly differentiated by the three scales of the IPO.
The IPO is an useful scale with reliability and validity. The main drawback concerns certain aspects of the borderline scale.
Previously (Rodríguez-Testal et al., 2001) we analysed the multidimensionality of Referential Thinking Scale, obtaining similar results to original research of Lenzenweger et al. (1997) but warning about the construction of subscales.
In this study we intended to analyse if the REF Scale is a good indicator to differentiate the two subtypes of paranoia “Bad Me” and “Poor Me” (Trower & Chadwick, 1995).
Participants: We analyzed data from a different sample of previous studies with 326 participants (64.11% women, mean age 30.8, SD = 10.84), of whom 212 were patients.
Design, materials and procedure: We used the REF-scale (Lenzenweger et al., 1997) adapted to Spanish language, of which we deleted two items because of psychometric criteria, resulting 32 dichotomic items. We used SPSS 15.0 to conduct a principal-components factor analysis with a varimax and oblimin rotation, retaining two factors.
Two factors explained 31.32% of the variance (rotated solution). We interpreted factor through factor loadings higher than .42. Factor 1 accounted for 18.28% of the variance and it's associated with referential laughter, commentaries and guilt. Factor 2 accounted for 13.05% of the variance and it's associated with referential concerns related to the media.
Since the inter-factor correlation is moderate (.44) and there are no relevant clinical differences about the content between the two factors, the REF scale is a one-dimensional measure. Therefore, two big factors don’t emerge from the REF scale related to referential concerns about laughter-commentaries and guilt that correspond to “Poor Me” and “Bad Me”, respectively.
In previous works we demonstrated the utility of the REF scale for the assessment referential thinking (Rodríguez-Testal et al., 2001) although it wasn't specific for patients with psychotic disorder (Rodríguez-Testal et al., 2008).
Objectives and hypotheses
We analyzed the psychometric properties of reliability and validity of the REF scale. We compared the differences in referential thinking between subjects with and without psychopathology. In the patient group we will not obtain differences in referential-thinking between diagnosis types of Axis I, Axis II, or patients with diagnoses on both axes.
Participants: 120 subjects, 70 patients attending a private center of clinic psychology, 64.3 % women, mean age = 35.21 (SD = 10.5) and 50 controls selected from the normal population, 54 % women, mean age = 33.48 (SD = 10.83).
It was applied a cross design for a correlation method of comparison between groups. All the analysis were accepted at p< .05.
We reached adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha= .90, split-half reliability= .83 and .82). The test-restest reliability was significant (mean interval of 44 days). There are significant differences in referential thinking between subjects with and without psychopathology (t=3.8; p=.001). There are significant differences in referential thinking between types of diagnoses (F=3.99; p=.001).
The REF scale has adequate psychometric properties (reliability and validity). It discriminated between patients and no-patients, and between the different types of diagnoses, especially for those who suffer psychotic disorders.
Previous studies have suggested structural and physiological changes in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Unfortunately, there isn’t a consensus when defining the neuropathophysiology of depression. Hence, there isn’t a biological measure used in the clinical practice to define the differences between patients with depression and controls.
To test differences in Lempel-Ziv complexity (LZC) values between patients with major depression and controls.
Comparison of spontaneous oscillatory neuromagnetic activity using MEG between groups.
20 patients matching DSM IV-TR criteria for MDD, and 19 sex- and age-matched controls.
We found a significant positive correlation between age and LZC values within controls. This correlation was not found in MDD patients. Depressive subjects showed a tendency of higher LZC values when compared to controls. We found significant differences between groups in anterior and right regions. After six months of treatment with Mirtazapine (30 mg V.O. O.D.), we studied the Hamilton-17 rating scale values and found that this treatment was clinically effective in most patients. The main pharmacological treatment's effect was besides reducing the LZC values in patients, to recuperate the tendency observed in controls.
We could suggest that there is a relationship between a physiological metric and depression as well as symptom relief or remission after an effective treatment. According to our results we found physiological changes in the brain dynamic in depressive patients when compared to controls which means there are neurophysiological changes in depressive patients with time.
In previous works we used the REF scale of referential thinking as criterion of therapeutic evolution (Benítez-Hernández et al., 2006; Rodríguez-Testal et al., 2009).
Objectives and hypotheses
We designed a group therapy of social skills for monitoring and modification of the referential thinking. We predict a decrease of referential thinking (frequency and intensity) both in pretest and posttest measures for each session, as in the progress of the all sessions as a whole.
Participants: 5 women from 24 to 38 years old with the diagnoses: Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia and history of Sexual Abuse; generalized Social Phobia; Avoidance Personality Disorder; Bipolar I Disorder; Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Avoidance Personality Disorder. It's employed a longitudinal design (brief time-series) of REF measurement (frequency and intensity) at a weekly interval. C Young (p < 0.01) was used for the statistical analysis of the data, t (paired samples) and the method of least squares to obtain the trend line.
#1: frequency-posttest (p=.01).
#2: intensity-pretest (p =.01); intensity-posttest, C =.663 (p< .01).
#3: intensity-pretest, C =.772 (p< .01), intensity-posttest, C =.681 (p< .01).
#4: frequency-pretest, C =.695 (p< .01), frequency- posttest, C =.74 (p< .01).
#5: frequency-pretest and frequency-posttest (p>.01).
Preliminary analysis indicates an improvement of referential thinking in the frequency and intensity both intra and inter-sessions. More therapy sessions are needed to reflect a change statistically significant.
In previous works we found that REF scale (Lenzenweger et al., 1997) is a stable and reliable measure (Rodríguez-Testal et al., 2009).
In this study we assess the sensitivity of REF scale to detect the disorganization of patient's mental state longitudinally.
Participants: It's a 35-year-old man diagnosed with Schizotypal Personality Disorder. He had a psychotic breakdown and he is being treated with haloperidol. The psychological intervention is cognitive type.
Design, materials and procedure: We used an experimental adaptation of the REF-scale. This self-applied scale consists of 34 items that evaluate the referential thinking in Likert format. We employed a longitudinal design (brief time-series). C Young (p < 0.01) was used for the statistical analysis of the data and the method of least squares to obtain the trend line. We included 103 measures registered at an interval of 3 days.
It's observed a significant declining trend in the whole of the measures both intensity and frequency from the beginning of therapy. However, we observed a significant declining trend in intensity but not in frequency when we analyzed the data from the 50th measurement, which was the period during which the patient got worse.
It's confirmed again that the REF-scale is a stable and reliable measure. It's able to detect changes in the patient's evolution of the referential thinking from the beginning of therapy. In addition, the REF-scale is sensitive detecting decompensations in patients. Therefore, we conclude REF scale is a useful measure for the subsequent decision-making therapeutic.
We created an experimental adaptation of the REF scale (Lenzenweger et al., 1997), in a Likert format for discriminate between frequency and intensity of referential thinking (Rodríguez-Testal et al., 2008).
Objectives and hypotheses
We try to verify if the Likert format of the REF discriminates between controls and patients, and also in patients with different diagnoses. We predict that there will be differences in frequency and intensity between patients and controls.
Participants: 108 subjects, 40 patients from a private center of clinical psychology, 55% women, mean age = 35.70 (SD = 12.42) and 68 controls selected from the normal population, 50% women, mean age = 36.35 (SD = 12.99).
It was applied a cross design for a correlation method of comparison between groups. All the analysis were accepted at p< .05.
No differences in referential thinking between patients and controls with Likert format in frequency (t = 1.496, P = 1.14), although there were differences in intensity (t = 2.30, p =.023). No significant differences in referential thinking between types of diagnoses with the Likert format (X2 = 6.63, p =. 249).
The Likert format of the REF scale adequately discriminates between patients and controls in intensity but not in frequency. This format doesn't discriminate between different diagnoses. The Likert format induces and overestimates the response.
In previous works, referential thinking was predicted by clinical and dispositional variables such as social anxiety or vulnerability to depression (Rodríguez-Testal, Senín-Calderón & Fernández-Jiménez, submitted to revision).
Objectives and hypotheses
We propose to find personality variables to characterize the emergence of referential thinking. We predict a greater referential thinking in subjects with a high sensitivity to punishment and higher scores on social anxiety.
Participants: 366 subjects selected from the general population, 66.6% women, mean age = 33.18 (SD = 12.79).
We used the REF-scale (Lenzenweger et al., 1997) adapted to Spanish language, GHQ-28 (Goldberg, 1996), SPSRQ (Torrubia et al., 2001) and The Revised Self-Consciousness Scale (Scheier & Carver, 1985).
It was applied a cross-sectional design and a correlation method. All the analysis were accepted at p < .05.
The multiple linear regression analysis showed the importance of the clinical variable of depression, public self-consciousness, and sensitivity to reward and punishment as predictors of referential thinking (34% of the variance explained). The discriminant analysis according to scores in referential thinking was significant (Lambda = .87, p = .001). The combination of the above variables correctly classified 85.1% of cases.
Subjects more concerned about how they are perceived by others tend to a greater presence of self-references, although they don’t show a high score in social anxiety. Susceptibility to reward and high vulnerable to punishment are the personality variables that best predicted referential thinking.
In a previous study (Senín-Calderón et al., 2010) we observed that the REF scale of referential thinking (Lenzenweger et al., 1997) didn’t discriminate among different mental disorders.
Objectives and hypotheses
We try to verify if self-references in various disorders are related to the severity of psychopathology (patients from public hospital and a private clinical). We predict that there will be differences between patients and controls, but not between the clinical samples. Psychotic disorders will be characterized by a significantly greater presence of self-references.
Participants: 287 subjects, 47 patients from a private clinical center, 57.4% women (mean age = 35.02, SD = 12.69), 30 patients from a public hospital, 53.3% women (38.36 years, SD = 9.53), and 210 controls selected from the general population, 50.5% women (33.80 years, SD = 11.79). Cross-sectional design, correlation method. All analysis were accepted at p < .05.
There are significant differences in self-references between patients and controls in frequency (t (285) = 2.33, p = . 021) and intensity (t (83.98) = 3.59, p = . 001). No significant differences between patients groups (p>.05) (REF-intensity without homogeneity, p < .05). No significant differences in self-references between types of diagnoses except psychotic patients versus adjustment disorder (frequency and intensity).
Self-references are highlighted in psychosis but, with the exception of adjustment disorders, doesn’t discriminate between personality, mood or anxiety disorders. Differences are more related to the clinical severity (BPRS) than with referential thinking.
Interest in the premorbid personality of schizophrenic patients is well established in the psychiatric literature. The relationship between personality disorders and acute phase proteins (APP) in schizophrenia is not well known.
Investigating the relationship among acute phase proteins and personality disorders in schizophrenic patients in a sample of adult schizophrenic patients under psychiatric treatment in a general hospital health setting.
Material and Methods:
37 adult paranoid schizophrenics undergoing treatment in the University Hospital of the Canary Islands with DSM-IV diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia are included. Years from onset 9.20 s.d. 6.29, age at onset 19.75 s.d. 4.73. The record of personality disorders as a secondary diagnosis in the medical chart was taking into account. A blood sample as routine standard analysis was carried out in each patient.
In 21 patients (56.7%) a personality disorder, mainly with paranoid and schizotypal traits, was registered. The percentage of each personality disorder is as follows, Schizotypal (16.2%), Paranoid (13.5%), Schizoid (2.7%), Paranoid and Schizotypal (24.3%). The results point to no significant correlation according to APP (C3, C4, alpha2-macroglobulin, alpha1-glicoprotein, ceruloplasmin) in the different diagnostic groups.
Discussion and conclusions:
In our study there is no evidence to support a significant correlation among APP and the different personality disorders in our sample of schizophrenics in spite of a positive correlation of APP and some psychopathology dimensions that has been communicated earlier elsewhere. In order to set some possible specificity of acute phase proteins and other clinical features in schizophrenia further research is required.
Terms such as mark, affront or bad name are usually employed in habitual dictionaries to describe the concept of stigma. Related to the area of mental health, this concept includes also the presence of false myths and negative evaluations towards the mental patient. The consecuence of that are prejudiced behaviours that demage the life of the stigmatized patient. Due to the significant repercussion of this fact, evaluate the level of mental stigmatization become fundamental.
To evaluate the presence of behavioural discrimination among the general public from Madrid city against people with mental health problems.
Material and Methods
This RIBS scale (Reported and Intended Behaviour Scale) was used to evaluate the previously cited discrimination. Different sociodemographic variables were also included to be able to establish the possible Association between them and the scale reults. 100 participants from general population from Madrid completed this questionnaire. A descriptive and analytical analysis were carried out using the statistics programme spss v. 21.
Results and Conclusions
In line with the results from previous studies, this analysis shows a high rate of behavioural discrimination against people with mental health problems. This situation may be a negative condition to the access of mental patients to mental health services. Besides, it may affect in a deleterious way to many others vital areas of the patient. Theese results reinforce the need of encourage anti-stigma programmes.
There is an increasing demand for treatment for dependence on different psychiatric medication like benzodiazepines. The goal is to determine the user's profile that is attended in a mental health center.
We obtained a sample of 30 users, divided into two groups: A) main drug benzodiazepines, B) primary drug others.
Sociodemographic, psychiatric and drug use variables are collected, making a descriptive retrospective analysis, using means for quantitative variables and proportions for categorical variables.
Group A is composed mainly of women (63.6%) of average age 46 years, and the group B of males (75%) with slightly higher average age (48 years). In group A and B the average level of education is primary/secondary education. Overall, they do not work and are single, having more pensioners and separated in group B.
In both groups, more than half have a history of affective disorders, often followed by anxiety disorders, with higher prevalence in group A (54.6% vs 36.8%), and personality disorders (77.3% and 75%).
In reference to group B, the primary drug of abuse is mostly alcohol. In general there is higher prevalence of nicotine dependence.
The profile of group A is a middle-aged woman who presents comorbidity with affective and personality disorders. The profile of group B is a middle-aged man, alcohol dependent, with earlier onset of use and with personality disorder.
Several studies show a high prevalence of stigma related to mental illnes. This implicate the presence of prejudiced behaviours and false beliefs when treating with people with mental disorders. The literature reveals elevated rates of stigmatization in general population. Also, it is documented in general healthcare professionals and even in mental health workers or medicine students. This scene supposes an obstacle in several vital areas. The evaluation of stigma in medicine students become fundamental considering that they will be professionals soon.
To evaluate the attitudes towards mental illness in a sample of medicine students from Madrid.
Material and Methods
The MICA (Mental Illness Clinician’ s Attitudes) scale v4 was used to evaluate the objective. Different sociodemographic variables were also included just like information about the clinical speciality the would like to choose. The posible association between theese variables and the scale reults was evaluated. 100 medical students in their 5°-6° year of the degree completed this questionnaire. The sample was collected from the Universidad Complutense de Madrid. A descriptive and analytical analysis were carried out using the statistics programme spss v. 21.
Results and Conclusions
The results suggest that the rates of stigma between medical students from this sample are higher than desirable. That situation reinforce the need of encourage anti-stigma programmes which probably should include a longer contact between medical students and psychiatric patients.
Lithium has been used in the treatment of bipolar disorder in pregnant women. However, information on the pharmacokinetics of lithium during perinatal period is scarce.
To study pharmacokinetics of lithium during delivery and in the neonatal period.
A prospective, observational and naturalistic study was conducted at the PERINATAL PSYCHIATRY PROGRAM CLÍNIC-BARCELONA, from 2005 to 2012. We included all consecutive cases of pregnant women with bipolar disorder I or II (n = 22), and on maintenance treatment with lithium monotherapy (n = 13) or polytherapy (n = 9) during pregnancy who elected artificial feeding. Lithium plasma concentrations in maternal blood and umbilical cord were detected. Lithium plasma concentrations in infants (n = 16) at delivery and in the neonatal period were obtained to calculate elimination half-life, which was estimated by lineal regression. Technique: AVL 9180 electrolyte analyser using a lithium-selective electrode (detection limit =0.10 mEq/L).
Women did not fulfil diabetes criteria pre-pregnancy and during pregnancy. Attending to neonatal outcomes, infants exposed to polytherapy had a higher weight at birth (percentils) than those exposed to lithium alone [53.38 (33.40) vs. 70.22 (26.25)]. No statistically significant differences were found in umbilical cord:maternal plasma concentration ratio between those treated with lithium monotherapy and women treated with polytherapy (1.05 vs. 1.08). The lithium mean elimination half-life (SD) in infants was 6.73 (9.12) days.
Lithium crosses placental barrier almost completely. Elimination half-life in neonates exposed to lithium in utero was 6.73 days. Moreover, lithium treatment during pregnancy requires therapeutics monitoring in exposed dyads.