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Civil war has been a fact of political life throughout recorded history. However, unlike inter-state wars, international law has not traditionally regulated such conflicts. How then can we explain the post-1945 emergence and evolution of international treaty rules regulating the conduct of internal armed conflict: the 'Civil War Regime'? Negotiating Civil War combines insights derived from Realist, Rationalist, Liberal, and Constructivist approaches to International Relations to answer this question, revisiting the negotiation of the 1949 Geneva Conventions, the 1977 Additional Protocols, and the 1998 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. This study provides a rigorous, critical account of the making of the Civil War Regime. Sophisticated and persuasive, it illustrates the complex interplay of material, ideational, social, and strategic factors in shaping these rules with important lessons for the making and unmaking of international law in a rapidly shifting international political, economic, and security environment.
Although a good deal has been written about Kant's conception of free will in recent years, there has been no serious attempt to examine in detail the development of his views on the topic. This book endeavours to remedy the situation by tracing Kant's thoughts on free will from his earliest discussions of it in the 1750s through to his last accounts in the 1790s. This developmental approach is of interest for at least two reasons. First, it shows that the path that led Kant to view freedom as a transcendental power that is both radically distinct from and compatible with the causality of nature was a winding one. Second, it indicates that, despite the variety of views of free will that Kant held at various times, the concept occupied a central place in his thought, because it was the point of union between his theoretical and practical philosophy.
This book examines an important area of Aristotle's philosophy: the generation of substances. While other changes presuppose the existence of a substance (Socrates grows taller), substantial generation results in something genuinely new that did not exist before (Socrates himself). The central argument of this book is that Aristotle defends a 'hylomorphic' model of substantial generation. In its most complete formulation, this model says that substantial generation involves three principles: (1) matter, which is the subject from which the change proceeds; (2) form, which is the end towards which the process advances; and (3) an efficient cause, which directs the process towards that form. By examining the development of this model across Aristotle's works, Devin Henry seeks to deepen our grasp on how the doctrine of hylomorphism - understood as a blueprint for thinking about the world - informs our understanding of the process by which new substances come into being.
The aim of this study was to test the effective separation of shape indices of otoliths of three species belonging to the family Sciaenidae before and after in vitro digestion. We measured 328 sagittal otoliths and applied six shape indices. Before the experiment, the aspect ratio (otolith height/otolith length%), circularity, ellipticity and relative surface of the sulcus acusticus were suitable for differentiating the species of genera Paralonchurus and Stellifer. Among the species of Stellifer, the aspect ratio and rectangularity were suitable. Otoliths exposed to in vitro digestion showed no significant differences in their morphometry before and after the experiment. After in vitro digestion, the aspect ratio and circularity were effective in separating Paralonchurus and Stellifer. However, none of the indices used in the present study were efficient to separate otoliths of congeneric species after in vitro digestion.
No place was more important to Tennessee Williams than New Orleans, beginning with his first, brief stay as a young man, through the end of his life, some four decades later. He engaged the city through one-act plays, short stories, verse, and, of course, in A Streetcar Named Desire. Williams was able to express his inner conflicts over whether and how to restrain his appetite for sensual experience through the rich array of characters and scenarios he encountered in daily life around the city. As such, the city became something like a mirror in which he discovered his soul, a near perfect fusion of a particular place with a particular artist’s sensibility.
In a world dizzyingly shifted on its axis since 9/11, nothing has aided understanding of the profound twenty-first-century geopolitical slippages more than the revelations from Julian Assange's WikiLeaks site and the actions of whistle-blower Edward Snowden. Much has been written about the pair but little has investigated their persona and pronouncements onscreen. This article sets out to compare and contrast Snowden's and Assange's real as well as fictional cinematic portrayals, therefore. We find that their screen image conforms to notions of star celebrity but at the same time also challenges surveillance activism itself, on film as well as within wider political frames of reference. The movies about them may have deliberately foregrounded reactions towards the politics of surveillance, but that agenda has been conditioned by responses not only towards Assange and Snowden but also to the filmmakers producing these texts. We give resonance, in other words, to a wider discourse that goes beyond the cinematic in contemporary surveillance culture. There is an interlocutory discourse at play that sees cinema as not just a disruptive presence, but now more than ever as an active participant in mapping out the terrain under investigation. The challenge this presence brings to activism, we conclude, affects film's capacity to expose and contest contemporary state surveillance.
Older adults presenting with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have a higher risk of developing dementia and also demonstrate impairments in social cognition. This study sought to establish whether in people with MCI, poorer theory of mind (ToM) was associated with volumetric changes in the amygdala and hippocampus, as well as early changes in behaviour.
One hundred and fourteen people with MCI and fifty-two older adult controls completed the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET), while close informants (e.g., spouse/family member/friend/carer) described any current behavioural changes using the Revised Cambridge Behavioural Inventory (CBI-R). A subsample of participants completed structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
The MCI group showed poorer performance on all neuropsychological tests administered, and moderate reductions on the RMET compared to the control group (d = .44), with greater reduction observed in those with amnestic compared to non-amnestic MCI (p = .03). While a robust correlation was identified between poorer RMET performance and smaller hippocampal volume in the control group (ρ = .53, p = .01), this relationship was not apparent in the MCI group (ρ = .21, p = .11). In the MCI group, poorer RMET performance was associated with poorer everyday skills (ρ = −.26, p = .01) assessed by the CBI-R.
Our findings cross-validate previous reports that social cognitive deficits in ToM are a feature of MCI and also suggest that disruptions to broader neural networks are likely to be implicated. Furthermore, ToM deficits in MCI are associated with a decline in everyday skills such as writing or paying bills.
Bog bodies are among the best-known archaeological finds worldwide. Much of the work on these often extremely well-preserved human remains has focused on forensics, whereas the environmental setting of the finds has been largely overlooked. This applies to both the ‘physical’ and ‘cultural’ landscape and constitutes a significant problem since the vast spatial and temporal scales over which the practice appeared demonstrate that contextual assessments are of the utmost importance for our explanatory frameworks. In this article we develop best practice guidelines for the contextual analysis of bog bodies, after assessing the current state of research and presenting the results of three recent case studies including the well-known finds of Lindow Man in the United Kingdom, Bjældskovdal (Tollund Man and Elling Woman) in Denmark, and Yde Girl in the Netherlands. Three spatial and chronological scales are distinguished and linked to specific research questions and methods. This provides a basis for further discussion and a starting point for developing approaches to bog body finds and future discoveries, while facilitating and optimizing the re-analysis of previous studies, making it possible to compare deposition sites across time and space.
We compared systematic and random survey techniques to estimate breeding population sizes of burrow-nesting petrel species on Marion Island. White-chinned (Procellaria aequinoctialis) and blue (Halobaena caerulea) petrel population sizes were estimated in systematic surveys (which attempt to count every colony) in 2009 and 2012, respectively. In 2015, we counted burrows of white-chinned, blue and great-winged (Pterodroma macroptera) petrels within 52 randomized strip transects (25 m wide, total 144 km). Burrow densities were extrapolated by Geographic Information System-derived habitat attributes (geology, vegetation, slope, elevation, aspect) to generate island-wide burrow estimates. Great-winged petrel burrows were found singly or in small groups at low densities (2 burrows ha−1); white-chinned petrel burrows were in loose clusters at moderate densities (3 burrows ha−1); and blue petrel burrows were in tight clusters at high densities (13 burrows ha−1). The random survey estimated 58% more white-chinned petrels but 42% fewer blue petrels than the systematic surveys. The results suggest that random transects are best suited for species that are widely distributed at low densities, but become increasingly poor for estimating population sizes of species with clustered distributions. Repeated fixed transects provide a robust way to monitor changes in colony density and area, but might fail to detect the formation/disappearance of new colonies.
This essay explores the practices through which a thin stratum of society acquired deep experience with written literature in the early Greek world. Combining a pessimistic view about the popularity of schools with an optimistic view about the stability of institutional patterns, I argue that from an early date elite ideology valorised education through the intensive study of certain written texts. Schools thus worked to institutionalise an enduring and important connection between economic capital and cultural capital acquired through reading and performing poetry. It was in the Classical period, if not before, that the interconnected practices of literate education and literary reading acquired their distinctive social character. Fully understanding the complex interface between orality and literacy in the early Greek world entails understanding some highly literate subcultures on their own terms.
The Whipple Museum holds a collection of prototype and production cameras of a very unusual kind. Equipped with ‘fish-eye’ lenses, these cameras, based on the design of biochemist and amateur meteorologist Robin Hill, were designed to take “whole sky” photographs, capturing in one image cloud cover from horizon to horizon. This essay examines the reception of new photographic perspectives enabled by Hill’s camera. In doing so, it indirectly reveals the imagined futures of meteorological research on clouds shortly after the First World War. The reception of Hill’s camera shows how it coincided with attempts to remake cloud study, namely by considering clouds primarily in relation to weather systems at the scale of the “whole sky” rather than individual specimens. These novel practices entwined new technologies with new regimes of communication and labour between centralized meteorological offices and dispersed, often amateur contributors. By contextualizing the cloud camera’s reception within these social and institutional networks, we can relate its technological capacities to their problems of representation and communication.
The Neolithisation of Europe involved socio-economic and biological adaptations to new environments. The use of seaweed as livestock fodder, for example, was key to the introduction of animal husbandry to the Orkney archipelago, c. 3500 cal BC. Using stable isotope analysis of faunal remains from Skara Brae, this study provides new evidence for, and clarifies the chronology of, the adoption of seaweed consumption by sheep. The results show that sheep consumed moderate amounts of seaweed from the moment of their introduction to Orkney—a practice that facilitated the successful spread of the farming lifeways to the most remote areas of Europe.