To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Historically, Parkinson's disease was viewed as a motor disorder and it is only in recent years that the spectrum of non-motor disorders associated with the condition has been fully recognised. There is a broad scope of neuropsychiatric manifestations, including depression, anxiety, apathy, psychosis and cognitive impairment. Patients are more predisposed to delirium, and Parkinson's disease treatments give rise to specific syndromes, including impulse control disorders, dopamine agonist withdrawal syndrome and dopamine dysregulation syndrome. This article gives a broad overview of the spectrum of these conditions, describes the association with severity of Parkinson's disease and the degree to which dopaminergic degeneration and/or treatment influence symptoms. We highlight useful assessment scales that inform diagnosis and current treatment strategies to ameliorate these troublesome symptoms, which frequently negatively affect quality of life.
Healthcare personnel (HCP) were recruited to provide serum samples, which were tested for antibodies against Ebola or Lassa virus to evaluate for asymptomatic seroconversion.
From 2014 to 2016, 4 patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD) and 1 patient with Lassa fever (LF) were treated in the Serious Communicable Diseases Unit (SCDU) at Emory University Hospital. Strict infection control and clinical biosafety practices were implemented to prevent nosocomial transmission of EVD or LF to HCP.
All personnel who entered the SCDU who were required to measure their temperatures and complete a symptom questionnaire twice daily were eligible.
No employee developed symptomatic EVD or LF. EVD and LF antibody studies were performed on sera samples from 42 HCP. The 6 participants who had received investigational vaccination with a chimpanzee adenovirus type 3 vectored Ebola glycoprotein vaccine had high antibody titers to Ebola glycoprotein, but none had a response to Ebola nucleoprotein or VP40, or a response to LF antigens.
Patients infected with filoviruses and arenaviruses can be managed successfully without causing occupation-related symptomatic or asymptomatic infections. Meticulous attention to infection control and clinical biosafety practices by highly motivated, trained staff is critical to the safe care of patients with an infection from a special pathogen.
Mark Twain’s works have been translated into hundreds of languages, a testament to his enduring worldwide popularity. Translation has often posed difficulties, as translators attempt to render his American English and use of dialect and the vernacular into other languages. From the start, Twain had an avid following in Europe, especially in England, where he often published his works before he did in America, to deal with problems with international copyright. He was popular in the Soviet Union during the Cold War, which the government encouraged, seeing in Twain a critic of American capitalism. His reception in China and Japan has always been very strong, despite the challenges of translation to those languages.
To compare federally reimbursable school meals served when competitive foods are removed and when marketing and nudging strategies are used in school cafeterias operating the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). The second objective was to determine how marketing and nudging strategies influence competitive food sales.
In the Healthy Choices School, all competitive foods were removed; the Healthy Nudging School retained competitive foods and promoted the school meal programme using marketing and nudging strategies; a third school made no changes. Cafeteria register data were collected from the beginning of the 2013–2014 school year through the four-week intervention. Outcome measures included daily entrées served; share of entrées served with vegetables, fruit and milk; and total competitive food sales. Difference-in-difference models were used to examine outcome measure changes.
Three high schools in a diverse, Northeast US urban district with universally free meals.
High-school students participating in the NSLP.
During the intervention weeks, the average number of entrées served daily was significantly higher in the Healthy Choices School (82·1 (se 33·9)) and the Healthy Nudging School (107·4 (se 28·2)) compared with the control school. The only significant change in meal component selection was a 6 % (se 0·02) higher rate of vegetable servings in the Healthy Choices School compared with the control school. Healthy Nudging School competitive food sales did not change.
Both strategies – removing competitive foods and marketing and nudging – may increase school meal participation. There was no evidence that promoting school meals decreased competitive food sales.
The cases challenging the European Stability Mechanism in Eurozone creditor states show the concern courts have with protecting and promoting democratic contestation. This Article shows how John Hart Ely’s theory of process-based review provides the theoretical basis for understanding how attention to democratic contestation contributes to the legitimacy of courts reviewing legislation against constitutional norms. By focusing on promoting democratic procedures, Ely argues that courts can avoid substantive decisions that are best left to the legislature. Yet, as my discussion of the constitutional theory of constituent and constituted powers shows, no form of constituted power can avoid some exercise of constituent power. In other words, even a process-based approach cannot avoid substantive judgments. The legitimacy of these decisions depends on the availability of avenues for contestation in the judicial decision-making process itself.
When Ezra Pound launched his writing career in London in 1908, English copyright was governed by an Act of 1844, which required registration of works at Stationers’ Hall in order for copyright to be secured. The Act was soon replaced, however, by the Imperial Copyright Act of 1911, under which copyright protection was extended to works upon creation without the need for registration. Notable among the changes effected by the Act of 1911 was the extension of the term of copyright to life plus fifty years (subject to certain exceptions). Previously, the law fixed the term of copyright at either forty-two years from first publication or the life of the author plus seven years, whichever proved the longer. Two provisions allowed for compulsory licenses as a limitation on copyright.
Policy discourse surrounding Britain’s unusually well-resourced private schools surrounds their charitable status and their relationship with low social mobility, but informative evidence is scarce. We present estimates of the extent to which private and external benefits at age 25 are associated with attendance at private school in England in the 21st century. We find a weekly wage premium of 17 percent, and a 12 percentage point lower chance of downward social mobility. By contrast, private schooling is not significantly associated with participation in local voluntary groups, unpaid voluntary work, or charitable giving and fundraising; this finding casts doubt on claims that private schools deliver ‘public benefit’ in this way.
The chapter traces political developments in Slovakia from its sudden and controversial emergence as an independent state, following the breakup of Czechoslovakia, to the present day. Slovakia’s slow and difficult transition to democracy in the 1990s has been marked by nationalism and ambivalent attitude to liberal democracy and relations with the West. This was followed by a period of successful “Europeanization” and accession to the European Union and a relatively quick and successful joining of the Eurozone. It is argued that, despite the near-permanent political turbulence and the fluctuating party system, Slovakia’s democracy is progressing well, if not without problems. In highlighting problematic issues, it is suggested that they derive mostly from the absence of statehood tradition, the speed of reforms, and the legacy of communism. The misinterpretation of independence as the “ownership” of the state increases nationalist leanings within society, which then tolerates hostility to other ethnicities and immigrants. This negative legacy, when combined with post-communist distortion of history, the economic and social insecurity associated with speedy transition, and the absence of political responsibility, perpetuates corruption. The conclusion, whilst detailing these processes, argues that the democratization process in Slovakia has been perhaps more successful than expected, even if by no means complete.
This chapter focuses primarily on two films that use King Lear to comic and romantic ends: Hobson’s Choice (directed by David Lean, 1954) and Life Goes On (directed by Sangeeta Datta, 2011). In remediating Harold Brighouse’s play about a tyrannical, incontinent Lancastrian boot maker and his three daughters, Lean not only captures its Shakespearean echoes but adds new filmic ones, primarily through his visualization of situations only narrated in the 1915 playtext. Datta’s transference of Lear’s familial discord to a first-generation Bengali family in contemporary London goes even further in quoting Shakespeare’s play at crucial moments in the narrative. In each film, the juxtaposition serves to isolate the unreasonable father to the benefit of the daughters’ narrative fates, while also allowing a dimension of sympathy (comic and sentimental, respectively) for men mentally unmoored from a lost political order. Moreover, the chapter enlarges on these patterns by citing family resemblances with other comic Lear intertexts on both small and large screen. These latter draw further attention to media specificity, format and distribution. The analysis not only illuminates the productions but can also enrich current scholarly conversations about genre, gender and Shakespeare’s movement towards tragicomic romance.
In October 2017, Hollywood producer Harvey Weinstein (once wittily hailed by Tom Stoppard as Shakespeare in Love’s ‘only begetter, Mr. H. W.’)2 was accused of multiple sexual assaults. The weeks and months that followed saw countless women testifying to similar experiences of assault, harassment and silencing. Using the hashtag #MeToo to circulate their stories on social media, those who had endured isolated, isolating acts of violence found the power to speak and – at last – be heard. Dams burst: soon, other powerful sexual abusers were named, and male, trans and gender-nonconforming witnesses added their voices to the chorus.
Trust appears to be falling, if not collapsing. Data from the 2014 General Social Survey, the National Opinion Research Center’s poll of US attitudes, found that only 30 percent of respondents agreed that people could generally be trusted, down from 46 percent in 1972. In his 2000 book Bowling Alone, Robert Putnam documents and laments the fall of civil engagement by US citizens and claims that a consequence of this will be the erosion of trust in our social fabric. Based on polling data, Putnam’s prediction seems to be coming true.
Trust is valuable. We need it to make our lives better. Therefore, trust is something that humans demand. We don’t really care who provides the trust, so long as there is no breakdown in trust. When you walk down a dark street at night, it doesn’t matter whether the security guards are public or private, so long as you can trust that you will not be robbed, or worse. The Chicago Police Department patrols the streets where we live, but so do private police officers of the University of Chicago Police Department, as well as neighbors. All of them make us feel safe to stroll the streets of our Hyde Park neighborhood. (Of course, they aren’t perfect, and crimes do happen. But no system of trust is perfect, and when comparing them, we must not fall prey to the Nirvana fallacy. Humans cannot achieve Nirvana, so we must choose between second-best solutions based on trade-offs. When it comes to social policy, there are no solutions, only trade-offs.)
Self-regulation sounds like an oxymoron. Parents do not go out to the opera and leave their kids alone – they hire a babysitter. But there is a powerful logic to self-regulation in some cases (although not for children). In this chapter, we look at the regulation of stockbrokers, which, since the 1700s, has primarily been accomplished through various self-regulatory organizations (SROs). These SROs, while not perfect, provide an interesting case study for the broader points we are making in this book about the role of non-governmental providers of trust. We do not believe, and do not claim, that these providers can accomplish their trust-creating job without government. We live on planet Earth, not on some libertarian fantasy world. Instead, our goal in this chapter is merely to demonstrate how private trust-creating forces can operate in lieu of, but yet supported by, government regulation.
In this chapter, we look at the three types of trust: government trust, business trust, and personal trust. Our objective is not to exhaustively describe or characterize them or their applications, but rather to introduce the basic features of how these trust providers work. Trust is unique in that it is something that is extremely valuable, but not something that individuals can create at a large scale by themselves. There is a natural limit on the amount of trust we can create ourselves. As a baseline, we may trust our family and our close friends, and this means the number of people we trust is in the tens or maybe as many as a hundred. There simply isn’t time in our days to maintain more friends than this without help. For any interactions beyond this natural limit, we need an intermediary or a technology to expand our trust potential.
We cannot predict the future, but if what’s past is prologue, we are confident that humans will demand increasing amounts of trust. There are billions of humans on the sidelines of the modern economy and bringing them into modernity will require that we trust them and that they trust us. This trust could be supplied by governments, by corporations, by NGOs, by microregulators, or by any number of other technologies or institutions. In all likelihood, it will be provided by a mix of these, operating in what we call the “market for trust.”