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Extensively revised and updated, this second edition provides, in an A-Z format, an analysis of the most important generalizations that have been made on the unidirectional change of grammatical forms and constructions. Based on the analysis of more than 1,000 languages, it reconstructs over 500 processes of grammatical change in the languages of the world, including East Asian languages such as Chinese, Korean and Japanese. Readers are provided with the tools to discover how lexical and grammatical meanings can be related to one another in a principled way, how such issues as polysemy, heterosemy, and transcategoriality are dealt with, and why certain linguistic forms have simultaneous lexical and grammatical functions. Definitions of lexical concepts are provided with examples from a broad variety of languages, and references to key relevant research literature. Linguists and other scholars will gain a better understanding of languages on a worldwide scale.
In the 2015 review paper ‘Petawatt Class Lasers Worldwide’ a comprehensive overview of the current status of high-power facilities of
was presented. This was largely based on facility specifications, with some description of their uses, for instance in fundamental ultra-high-intensity interactions, secondary source generation, and inertial confinement fusion (ICF). With the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physics being awarded to Professors Donna Strickland and Gerard Mourou for the development of the technique of chirped pulse amplification (CPA), which made these lasers possible, we celebrate by providing a comprehensive update of the current status of ultra-high-power lasers and demonstrate how the technology has developed. We are now in the era of multi-petawatt facilities coming online, with 100 PW lasers being proposed and even under construction. In addition to this there is a pull towards development of industrial and multi-disciplinary applications, which demands much higher repetition rates, delivering high-average powers with higher efficiencies and the use of alternative wavelengths: mid-IR facilities. So apart from a comprehensive update of the current global status, we want to look at what technologies are to be deployed to get to these new regimes, and some of the critical issues facing their development.
Thermal profile modification of an active material in a laser amplifier via optical pumping results in a change in the material’s refractive index, and causes thermal expansion and stress, eventually leading to spatial phase aberrations, or even permanent material damage. For this purpose, knowledge of the 3D spatio-temporal thermal profile, which can currently only be retrieved via numerical simulations, is critical for joule-class laser amplifiers to reveal potentially dangerous thermal features within the pumped active materials. In this investigation, a detailed, spatio-temporal numerical simulation was constructed and tested for accuracy against surface thermal measurements of various end-pumped
-doped laser-active materials. The measurements and simulations show an excellent agreement and the model was successfully applied to a joule-class
-based amplifier currently operating in the POLARIS laser system at the Friedrich-Schiller-University and Helmholtz-Institute Jena in Germany.
Product Service Systems (PSS) are increasingly complex and collaborative. For instance, manufacturing companies, service providers, and other companies collaborate and jointly develop and operate a PSS (ex: smart grid), where its constituent elements are managed and operated independently. Managerial independence and operational independence are commonly considered key characteristics of a System of Systems (SoS). Hence, a collaborative PSS exhibits System of Systems (SoSs) characteristics. These systems have previously been introduced as Product Service Systems of Systems (PSSoSs). In this paper, we propose to identify relevant uncertainties in the PSSoS design process. For this purpose, we go beyond the PSSoS concept definition and propose a comprehensive framework for PSS and PSSoS characterization. Moreover, based on both a literature review and an industrial diagnosis, we identify PSSoSs-specific design uncertainties.
One of the aims of systems engineering is to develop systems with a number of pre-defined configurations, in order to operate effectively and efficiently in different contexts and environments. Early in the design phase, system reconfiguration allows to propose and optimize these configurations. With regard to the literature review and industrial observation, pre-defining the standard configurations without relying on hints from end users has been raised as a major difficulty within the industry. In this paper, we propose a reconfiguration framework which considers data collected from the use phase in order to generate valid and optimized configurations with regard to stakeholders needs.
The aim of the paper is to foster a discussion in the engineering design community about its understanding of the innovation phenomena and the unique contribution that comes from engineering design. The paper reports on the dialouge originating from a series of workshops with participants from different backgrounds in engineering design, systems engineering, industrial design psychology and business.
Definitions of innovation are revisited as used in business, management and engineering design contexts. The role of innovation is then discussed related to product development from (i) the management perspective, (ii) a systems architecture perspective and (iii) in relation to sustainable development as one driver of innovation.
It is argued that engineering design has a central role in how to realise the novelty aspect of innovation and often plays a critical role in maturing these into the valuable products, and there is a need to articulate the role of engineering design in innovation to better resonate with the business and management research.
Breakthrough technologies introduce a radically new capability or a drastic performance improvement. However, the existing engineering design literature does not specifically pay attention to them. In this paper, we present a conceptual framework for breakthrough technologies, aiming for a more detailed characterization of breakthrough technologies. First, based on a literature survey, we reflect on the relationship between breakthrough technology and innovation. In addition, we explore the relationship between breakthrough technologies at the component and system level. Next, we propose a conceptual framework with dimensions in which breakthroughs may occur and the corresponding expansion of concepts and knowledge, drawing from C-K theory. We subsequently apply the framework to the case of a laser sail-propelled interstellar probe. We conclude that the relationship between component and system-level breakthrough technologies requires further exploration. Furthermore, the coupling between the breakthrough technology and market breakthrough in the form of a new business model seems interesting for future work.
The claim that it is possible to overuse the criminal justice system implies a substantive approach rather than a procedural one. In a procedural approach, the question whether the criminal justice system is violating its limits is principally concerned about whether the criminalization of conduct has been reached through proper application of the legislative process and whether prosecutions and adjudication of criminal cases take place in conformity with criminal procedure law. This volume and its chapters are rather based on a substantive approach of overuse of the criminal justice system, more particularly the overuse of criminalization, criminal prosecution and criminal imprisonment.
Overuse of criminalization – or: overcriminalization – may entail an unnecessary widening of criminal liability (conduct is criminalized without sufficient necessity, offences are constructed too broadly, the statute of limitations for crimes entails overly long periods or extraterritorial jurisdiction is claimed unconvincingly) or an unnecessary deepening of criminal liability (the statutory maximum and/or minimum sentence is set too high). As for an unnecessary widening of criminal liability, this may, for example, manifest itself when the legislator aims to prevent or repress certain conduct through criminalization of that conduct, when it would be more effective or useful to repress or control that conduct fully or at least primarily through operational preventive measures or adopting measures that are of an administrative or civil nature. It may also mean that the legislator has criminalized conduct where it is arguably not useful or necessary or in any event not appropriate to criminalize at all.
Overuse of prosecution primarily means that too many violations of criminal law are prosecuted. This can particularly be the case when in certain individual cases or specific categories of cases it would be more effective, fairer, more efficient or otherwise desirable to refrain from prosecution and/or to repress or control that conduct through other means than prosecution, such as negotiating justice, settlement of the case through other means, including restorative justice possibilities, or administrative fines. Overuse of prosecution can, furthermore, occur through overcharging, i.e. when defendants are charged for offences that are formally applicable but which do little justice to the actual behaviour and its consequences.
L'affirmation selon laquelle le recours au système de justice pénale peut s'avérer excessif requiert une approche substantielle plutôt qu'une approche procédurale. Dans une approche procédurale, la question de savoir si le système de justice pénale enfreint ses limites consiste principalement à découvrir si la criminalisation du comportement a été atteinte par une application correcte du processus législatif et si les poursuites et le verdict dans les affaires pénales sont conformes au droit de procédure pénale. Le présent volume et les chapitres qui le composent reposent plutôt sur une approche matérielle du recours excessif au système de justice pénale, plus particulièrement le recours excessif à la criminalisation, aux poursuites pénales et à l'incarcération.
Le recours excessif à la criminalisation (également dénommé surcriminalisation) peut engendrer un élargissement inutile de la responsabilité pénale (le comportement est criminalisé sans nécessité suffisante, les infractions sont définies trop largement, le délai de prescription des infractions est prolongé à l'excès ou une compétence extraterritoriale peu convaincante est invoquée) ou un durcissement inutile de la responsabilité pénale (la peine maximale et/ou minimale prévue par la loi est excessive). À l'instar de l'extension superflue de la responsabilité pénale, cela pourrait par exemple se manifester lorsque le législateur tend à prévenir ou réprimer certains comportements par leur criminalisation, alors qu'il serait plus efficace ou utile de réprimer ou contrôler totalement ou au moins partiellement ce comportement par l'adoption de mesures préventives opérationnelles ou par l'adoption de mesures de nature administrative ou civile. Elle peut également signifier que le législateur a criminalisé un comportement alors que l'utilité ou la nécessité de cette mesure est discutable ou que la criminalisation peut s'avérer tout simplement inappropriée.
Le recours excessif aux poursuites signifie que le nombre d'infractions criminelles poursuivies est excessivement élevé. Cela peut être particulièrement vrai lorsqu'il serait plus efficace, équitable, efficient ou souhaitable, pour certaines affaires individuelles ou catégories d'affaires spécifiques, de ne pas poursuivre et/ou de réprimer ou de contrôler ce comportement par d'autres moyens que des poursuites, par exemple la négociation, le règlement de l'affaire par d'autres moyens, notamment les possibilités de justice réparatrice ou des amendes administratives. Le recours excessif aux poursuites peut en outre passer par la majoration des sanctions, c'est-à-dire lorsque les auteurs d'actes délictueux font l'objet de sanctions applicables sur le plan formel, mais qui ne rendent que peu justice du comportement effectif et de ses conséquences.
The criminal justice system encompasses the most severe instrument at the state's disposal in times of peace. For this and many other reasons, overuse of that system is a serious matter. It may present itself in different forms. Overuse of criminalization may mean that too much conduct is criminalized without necessity. Overuse of prosecution may present itself if too many violations of criminal offences are prosecuted, while in certain individual cases or specific categories of cases it would be more effective, fairer, more efficient or otherwise desirable to refrain from prosecution and/or to apply alternative means, such as negotiating justice or administrative fines. Finally, the criminal justice system can be overused through the application and execution of too many or too severe prison sentences. All these forms of overuse are discussed in this volume. It contains one introductory chapter, seven thematic chapters and sixteen chapters on individual countries around the world. Themes discussed in these chapters are, among others, the principle that criminal law is and must be regarded as a so-called ultima ratio or ultimum remedium, the relevant human rights framework, worldwide statistics, and legal and practical restraints as well as possibilities to solve overuse. Containing an extensive collection of expert knowledge, this volume intends to expose legal possibilities, good practices and the many challenges that lie ahead when attempting to prevent overuse in the criminal justice system.