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Our pilot study evaluated the feasibility, effectiveness, and implementation of a group-based lifestyle-integrated functional exercise (Mi-LiFE) program for older adults in an interprofessional primary care practice. A physical therapist taught participants how to integrate strength and balance activities into daily routines during one individual and four group sessions, and two follow-up phone calls. Feasibility outcomes were recruitment, adherence, and retention over 6 months. Physical activity (PA) (accelerometer, International Physical Activity Questionnaire [IPAQ]), Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), and health-related quality of life (EuroQol Five-Dimensional Questionnaire with 3 Levels [EQ5D-3L]) were evaluated at baseline and 6 months. Of the 123 eligible individuals, 39 per cent participated and 61 per cent were not interested or unreachable. Forty-eight participants (mean ± standard deviation [SD] age = 81 ± 5 years; body mass index [BMI] = 28 ± 5 kg/m2; 60% women; moderate-to-vigorous PA = 49 ± 87 minutes/week) enrolled. Four participants withdrew prior to intervention. Thirty-two participants (67%) were retained at follow-up. Daily diary-documented adherence was 50 per cent at 6 months, and 77 per cent attended more than four sessions. No statistically significant changes in moderate-to-vigorous PA and SPPB outcomes were observed; yet self-reported strength and balance PA and quality of life significantly improved at follow-up. The Mi-LiFE program is feasible with acceptable recruitment and attendance rates alongside modifications to address retention and adherence challenges. These findings inform the feasibility of future pragmatic exercise programs in primary care for older adults.
Emotional awareness is the ability to recognize, describe, and attend to emotions. A known correlate is emotional processing, the ability to orient to and use inner experiences for information. The goal was to examine emotional awareness during therapy among gynecologic cancer patients, identify baseline predictors, and explore the relationship between in-session emotional awareness and processing.
Psychotherapy and baseline data from a randomized controlled trial comparing a supportive counseling (SC) intervention and a cognitive-behavioral coping and communication (CCI) intervention were used. The sample was patients with gynecologic cancers randomized to either therapy (N = 246). Emotion episode transcripts from the first, middle, and sixth of seven in-person sessions were coded for emotional awareness using the Program for Open-Ended Scoring and emotional processing using the Experiencing Scale. Descriptive and regression analyses were conducted.
Participants had moderate in-session emotional awareness. SC participants exhibited higher levels of awareness in the first (p < 0.001) and sixth (p = 0.002) sessions than CCI participants. Awareness was positively correlated with emotional processing in the first and sixth SC sessions (r = 0.25 and 0.24, respectively) and all CCI sessions (r = 0.29–0.31). Baseline negative emotion expression was associated with awareness during the sixth SC session. Baseline cancer-specific distress was associated with awareness during the sixth CCI session.
Significance of results
SC may facilitate emotional awareness. Greater emotional awareness in therapy may facilitate emotional processing, which is an important component of most psychotherapies. Patients who are psychologically distressed may exhibit more awareness than others. Similarly, greater emotional awareness may signal greater patient distress.
This study determines the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes consumed by long-term care (LTC) residents. This cross-sectional study was completed in thirty-two LTC homes in four Canadian provinces. Weighed and estimated food and beverage intake were collected over 3 non-consecutive days from 632 randomly selected residents. Nutrient intakes were adjusted for intra-individual variation and compared with the Dietary Reference Intakes. Proportion of participants, stratified by sex and use of modified (MTF) or regular texture foods, with intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or Adequate Intake (AI), were identified. Numbers of participants that met these adequacy values with use of micronutrient supplements was determined. Mean age of males (n 197) was 85·2 (sd 7·6) years and females (n 435) was 87·4 (sd 7·8) years. In all, 33 % consumed MTF; 78·2 % (males) and 76·1 % (females) took at least one micronutrient pill. Participants on a MTF had lower intake for some nutrients (males=4; females=8), but also consumed a few nutrients in larger amounts than regular texture consumers (males=4; females =1). More than 50 % of participants in both sexes and texture groups consumed inadequate amounts of folate, vitamins B6, Ca, Mg and Zn (males only), with >90 % consuming amounts below the EAR/AI for vitamin D, E, K, Mg (males only) and K. Vitamin D supplements resolved inadequate intakes for 50–70 % of participants. High proportions of LTC residents have intakes for nine of twenty nutrients examined below the EAR or AI. Strategies to improve intake specific to these nutrients are needed.
In recent decades, a diverse community of dairy farmers, consumers and nutrition advocates has campaigned amidst considerable government opposition, to secure and expand the right of individuals to produce, sell and consume fresh unprocessed milk, commonly referred to as ‘raw milk’. This advocacy shares important parallels with battles fought in the organic food movement over the past century. Both the raw milk and organic food movements originated with farmers and consumers who sought to replace industrialized food production and processing practices with more traditional ones. Both movements equate the preservation of natural integrity in farming and food handling with more wholesome, nutritious food and environmental conservation. Both movements have had to work diligently to overcome a false perception that their practices are anachronistic, notably with regard to productive output of organic agriculture and the safety of fresh unprocessed milk. There is also the failure of opponents to acknowledge a growing body of scientific evidence for health benefits associated with drinking of fresh unprocessed milk. The raw milk movement has the potential to economically benefit family farmers, much as organic agriculture has done. Building soil fertility, a foundational principle of organic farming, would benefit from having numerous small pasture-based dairies spread across the land providing fresh unprocessed milk. Agricultural universities and the Cooperative Extension System could seize a real leadership opportunity by promoting and participating in this reinvention of dairy farming, and restoring the ecology of this traditional food and farming system.
Hemiparasitic plants obtain water and solutes from their hosts, but much remains to be learned about these transfers. We used a forest girdling experiment to investigate how leaf gas exchange, carbon and nitrogen cycling in the root hemiparasite Melampyrum lineare Desr. responded to disturbance and changes in physiology of potential host trees. By preventing belowground C allocation by 35% of the canopy, girdling decreased the starch and soluble sugar contents of bulk forest floor fine roots. Photosynthetic rates of M. lineare were statistically significantly lower in the girdled plot, but their hypothesized drivers (foliar N, stomatal conductance and transpiration) had no statistically significant differences between girdled and non-girdled plots. However, M. lineare in the girdled plot had higher foliar C concentrations and Δ14C than in the control plot, suggesting possible photosynthetic down-regulation in the girdled plot due to influx of older (e.g., host-derived) C into the leaves of M. lineare. Within the girdled plot (but not the control plot), M. lineare foliar C concentrations were positively correlated with foliar Δ14C and δ15N, suggesting that M. lineare may respond to changes in both C and N biogeochemistry during the decline of dominant canopy species.
It has been known since the IRAS mission that there exist galaxies with far-infrared luminosities of 1011–1012Lo, and LFTR/LB = 10–100. Through extensive modelling and observations of HII-region/molecular cloud complexes in the Galaxy, this infrared radiation is believed to be thermal emission from heated dust grains (c.f. review by Stein and Soifer 1983). While starburst models are consistent with the data over a large range in wavelength, direct evidence for sizeable populations of young stars is scarce, and in many cases the presence of an active nucleus either cannot be ruled out, or is required on the basis of energy considerations. In order to better understand the energy source responsible for heating the dust, we have undertaken a spectroscopic survey of galaxies chosen to have far-infrared spectral energy distributions similar to the prototypical class members Arp 220, NGC 6240, NGC 3690, and Mrk 231. It was required that between 25μ and 60μ, α ≤ −1.5, and that between 60μ and 100μ, α ≥ −0.5, where Sv α vα.
Starburst galaxies are ideal laboratories to study both the physics of massive stars and processes important in galaxy formation and evolution. Observations of starburst galaxies at UV wavelengths are crucial because only in this spectral regime can we directly observe the spectroscopic signatures of the hot, massive stars that power the emission at other wavebands. UV signatures from massive stars are mainly broad spectral features (e.g. P Cygni profiles of SiIVλ1400, and CIVλ1550) formed in the stellar winds.
We present data for Seyfert and normal galaxies in the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog. The type 2 Seyferts are stronger CO and Far-IR emitters (by factors of 2–4) than either normal galaxies or type 1 Seyferts. The Seyfert CO line-widths correlate with both the 21cm HI and [OIII]5007 line-widths. Interferometer maps show that in many Seyferts the CO emission is strongly concentrated within radii of 100–1000pc of the nucleus. The implications of these results are briefly discussed.
LINER's (Low-Ionization Nuclear Emission-line Regions) are found in the majority of early-type (Sb or earlier) galaxies, and in some late-type and peculiar galaxies as well. Because they are so common but are not energized by normal stars, their nature is critical to our understanding of both the active galactic nucleus phenomenon and the evolution of normal galactic nuclei. After briefly reviewing the spectroscopic basis of the LINER classification, I summarize four alternative models for LINER's: 1) LINER's as “mini-Seyferts” in which the emission-line gas is photoionized by a more dilute version of the high-energy nonstellar continuum found in Seyfert nuclei. 2) LINER's as accretion flows of cooling gas originating in the halos of galaxies and/or in the intra-cluster medium. 3) LINER's as starburst-driven winds. 4) LINER's as colliding, shock-heated galaxies. After reviewing the evidence, I conclude that it is very likely that several (and possibly all) of the above models are needed to account for the diverse properties of LINER's. While LINER's would then not have a single unified explanation, they would have a direct bearing on many issues in extragalactic astronomy.
In this study, a comparison of the tensile behavior of fully nanotwinned Cu–6 wt.%Al, Cu–2 wt.%Al, and Cu–10 wt.%Ni with stacking fault energies (SFEs) of 6, 37, and 60 mJ/m2, respectively is presented. The samples displayed yield strengths ranging from 830 to 1340 MPa, varying with both alloy content and microstructural parameters. All samples showed low ductility, even though there are tilted twin boundaries present in Cu–10 wt.%Ni. The influence of varying grain width is presented for each alloy and related to both the activation volume and SFE [Figs. 3(a)–3(c)].
Our aim was to compare changes in emotional processing by women newly diagnosed with gynecological cancer enrolled in either a coping and communication skills intervention (CCI) or a supportive counseling (SC) intervention. We examined the association between in-session emotional processing and patient-rated therapeutic progress.
Three therapy sessions with 201 patients were rated for the depth of emotional processing (peak and mode) during emotion episodes (EEs) using the Experiencing Rating Scale (EXP). Participants completed measures of dispositional emotional expressivity, depressive symptoms, and cancer-related distress before treatment began, as well as ratings of perceived progress in therapy after each session.
Peak EXP ratings averaged between 2.7 and 3.1, indicating that women discussed events, their emotional reactions, and their private experiences in sessions. A small proportion of patients had high levels of processing, indicating deeper exploration of the meaning of their feelings and experiences. Women in SC were able to achieve a higher level of emotional processing during the middle and later sessions, and during cancer-related EEs in the later session. However, emotional processing was not significantly associated with a patient's perceived therapeutic progress with SC. In the CCI group, higher levels of emotional processing were associated with greater session progress, suggesting that it may play an important role in patient-rated treatment outcomes.
Significance of results:
Newly diagnosed gynecological cancer patients are able to attend to their emotions and personal experiences, particularly when discussing cancer-related issues during both short-term SC and prescriptive coping skills interventions.
Heart failure (HF) affects up to 20 per cent of residents in long-term care (LTC) and is associated with substantial morbidity, mortality, and health service utilization. Our study objective was to formulate recommendations on implementing HF care processes in LTC. A three-phase and iterative stakeholder consultation process, guided by expert panel input, was employed to develop recommendations on implementing care processes for HF in LTC. This article presents the results of the third phase, which consisted of a series of interdisciplinary workshops. We developed 17 recommendations. Key elements of these recommendations focus on improving interprofessional communication and improving HF-related knowledge among all LTC stakeholders. Engaging frontline staff, including personal support workers, was stated as an essential component of all recommendations. System-level recommendations include improving communication between LTC homes and acute care and other external health service providers, and developing facility-wide interventions to reduce dietary sodium intake and increase physical activity.
Far-infrared (FIR), ultraviolet (UV), and soft X-ray observations are easily degraded by dust and gas between the source and the telescope. They must be made from space, where they are still affected by the interstellar medium (ISM) of our Galaxy. Fortunately the ISM is quite patchy, with several “cosmic windows” covering ∼ 100 deg2 of sky having exceptionally low interstellar extinction and cirrus emission. Since the universe is nearly isotropic, these windows contain representative samples of cosmologically distant sources and will be the targets of deep multiwavelength studies including SWIRE, GALEX/DIS, and XMM-LSS. Overlapping optical and radio surveys provide essential source identifications, redshifts, morphologies, and continuum spectra. The prototype VLA survey (see http://www.cv.nrao.edu/sirtf_fls/) covers the 5 deg2 SIRTF First-Look Survey (FLS) and is being used to identify the expected FIR sources in advance. Most will be star-forming galaxies obeying the very tight far-infrared/radio correlation and thus continuum radio sources stronger than S ≈ 100 μJy at 1.4 GHz. Proposed VLA surveys covering the remaining “cosmic windows” will be useful for studying the evolution of obscured AGNs, clusters, and other uncommon objects.
Images of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 5929 and its interacting companion NGC 5930 have been obtained with HST's Planetary Camera. This interacting pair is also known as Arp 90. Each galaxy was imaged in the wavelength regions of [O III] λλ 4959, 5007, Hα+[N II] λλ 6548, 6583, and the green and red continua. The nuclei of both galaxies contain emission line gas, enhanced in the images by using the appropriate continuum image to remove the contribution of the continuum light in the on-band images.
We report preliminary results from high-resolution UV spectroscopy of the super star cluster 1 in the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 1705, using HST-stis. These new observations can help us to quantify accurately the stellar content in this super cluster. Together with high quality spectra from SMC stars and the evolutionary synthesis code starburst99, we estimate an age for this cluster of 12±3 Myr, in agreement with previous studies. The measured dynamical mass and the theoretical L/M ratio suggest a normal IMF down to the hydrogen-burning limit.
We have generated far-UV stellar libraries using spectra of hot stars in the Galaxy and the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. These libraries were implemented into the stellar population synthesis codes starburst99 and lavalsb and used to compute synthetic spectra of star-forming galaxies. Model spectra for galaxies are presented and variations of the hot star photospheric and wind profiles are discussed. This poster summarizes the work of Robert et al. (2002).
In this contribution we present a few selected examples of how the latest generation of space-based instrumentation — NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) — are finally answering old questions about the influence of massive star feedback on the warm and hot phases of the ISM and IGM. In particular, we discuss the physical origin of the soft thermal X-ray emission in the halos of star-forming and starburst galaxies, its relationship to extra-planar Hα emission, and plasma diagnostics using FUSE observations of O vi absorption and emission.
We present results from a Chandra X-ray observation of the dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 4214, a galaxy containing several young star forming regions. Starburst regions are known to be associated with diffuse X-ray emission, and in this case X-ray emission from the galaxy shows an interesting morphological structure with a bright X-ray ring of emission within the galaxy.