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This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
Intrinsic stress generation during film deposition can lead to failure by processes such as cracking, delamination and peeling. Crystallite coalescence is a suggested mechanism for intrinsic tensile stress generation during film growth and various analytical models have been proposed to describe this phenomenon. In the past, researchers have not been able to measure this stress precisely because the stochastic nucleation of islands results in coalescence over a range of different times and length scales. We use a technique to control the island geometry using selective growth of films on patterned substrates. Ni films were electrodeposited on patterned Si (001) substrates using the above procedure, and in situ stress measurements were then used to study the tensile coalescence stress as a function of growth rate and island size. In these studies, most of the incremental tensile stress occurs after the initial contact of neighboring islands and the stress reaches steady state as the films planarize. With a fixed island size, increasing the growth rate causes an increase in the steady state stress, until a limiting value is reached at higher growth rates. The stress also shows some decrease with increasing island size. However, we observe a smaller grain size dependence than that predicted by previous theoretical models. To explain our results, a cohesive zone model of grain boundary formation is developed, in conjunction with a finite element analysis of the stress concentrations at the grain boundary cusps. This makes it possible to address both grain boundary phenomena and surface roughness effects.
Host-specific interactions can maintain genetic and phenotypic diversity in parasites that attack multiple host species. Host diversity, in turn, may promote parasite diversity by selection for genetic divergence or plastic responses to host type. The parasitic weed purple witchweed [Striga hermonthica (Delile) Benth.] causes devastating crop losses in sub-Saharan Africa and is capable of infesting a wide range of grass hosts. Despite some evidence for host adaptation and host-by-Striga genotype interactions, little is known about intraspecific Striga genomic diversity. Here we present a study of transcriptomic diversity in populations of S. hermonthica growing on different hosts (maize [Zea mays L.] vs. grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]). We examined gene expression variation and differences in allelic frequency in expressed genes of aboveground tissues from populations in western Nigeria parasitizing each host. Despite low levels of host-based genome-wide differentiation, we identified a set of parasite transcripts specifically associated with each host. Parasite genes in several different functional categories implicated as important in host–parasite interactions differed in expression level and allele on different hosts, including genes involved in nutrient transport, defense and pathogenesis, and plant hormone response. Overall, we provide a set of candidate transcripts that demonstrate host-specific interactions in vegetative tissues of the emerged parasite S. hermonthica. Our study shows how signals of host-specific processes can be detected aboveground, expanding the focus of host–parasite interactions beyond the haustorial connection.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples remain significantly under-represented in higher education systems. There are significant disparities in university completion rates for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students compared with their non-Indigenous counterparts. The poor-retention and high-attrition rates among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students come at significant financial and personal cost for the individual, families, community, universities and governments. Existing evidence in relation to attrition has identified complex and multifaceted reasons including ill health, family and community responsibilities, financial difficulties, lack of social support, academic disadvantage and issues surrounding personal well-being. The current study aimed to add to evidence of the academic, financial, social support and well-being factors affecting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander student's decision to continue or withdraw from their university studies. Contrary to expectation, students' decision to withdraw was not related to academic and social factors. It was found that students between 22 and 25 years old strongly agreed they were likely to withdraw from studies. There was a significant association between withdrawal and type of enrolment. This study provided important insights into the factors that contribute to a students' decision to withdraw from their university studies, with implications for future educational interventions.
The application of x-ray topographic techniques to the measurement of stress in thin, films is discussed. Quantitative measurements of stresses in thin films deposited on semiconductor substrates, such as silicon, are also discussed. Double crystal and single crystal techniques are used for such measurements. Both techniques are applied to the measurements of stress in silicon oxide, silicon nitride and polycrystalline silicon films on silicon. The doubly crystal technique is useful for measurements of stresses as low as 109 dynes/cm2 in films only 1000A thick. The single crystal technique is less sensitive by one order of magnitude. The advantage of the single crystal technique is its simplicity and speed. It is useful for large scale measurements as encountered in the manufacture of silicon integrated circuit.
We offer a cross section of the numerous challenges and
opportunities associated with the integration of large-scale battery
storage of renewable energy for the electric grid. These
challenges range beyond scientific and technical issues, to
policy issues, and even social challenges associated with
the transition to a more sustainable energy
The commissioning on 1 December 2017 of the Tesla-Neoen 100 MW
lithium-ion grid support battery at Neoen’s Hornsdale wind farm in
South Australia, at the time the world’s largest, has focused the
attention of policy makers and energy professionals on the broader
prospects for renewable energy storage. An adequate and resilient
infrastructure for large-scale grid scale and grid-edge renewable
energy storage for electricity production and delivery, either
localized or distributed, is a crucial requirement for transitioning
to complete reliance on environmentally protective human energy
systems. Its realization will require a strong synergy between
technological advances in variable renewable energy storage and the
governance policies that promote and support them. We examine how
existing regulations and governance policies focusing on large-scale
batteries have responded to this challenge around the world. We
offer suggestions for potential regulatory and governance reform to
encourage investment in large-scale battery storage infrastructure
for renewable energy, enhance the strengths, and mitigate risks and
weaknesses of battery systems, including facilitating the
development of alternatives such as hybrid systems and eventually
the uptake of hydrogen fuel and storage.
Extensive areas of tropical forests have been, and continue to be, disturbed as a result of selective timber extraction. Although such anthropogenic disturbance typically results in the loss of biodiversity, many species persist, and their conservation in production landscapes could be enhanced by a greater understanding of how biodiversity responds to forest management practices. We conducted intensive camera-trap surveys of eight protected forest areas in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, and developed estimates of Sunda clouded leopard Neofelis diardi population density from spatially explicit capture–recapture analyses of detection data to investigate how the species’ abundance varies across the landscape and in response to anthropogenic disturbance. Estimates of population density from six forest areas were 1.39–3.10 individuals per 100 km2. Our study provides the first evidence that the population density of the Sunda clouded leopard is negatively affected by hunting pressure and forest fragmentation, and that among selectively logged forests, time since logging is positively associated with abundance. We argue that these negative anthropogenic impacts could be mitigated with improved logging practices, such as reducing the access of poachers by effective gating and destruction of road access points, and by the deployment of anti-poaching patrols. By calculating a weighted mean population density estimate from estimates developed here and from the literature, and by extrapolating this value to an estimate of current available habitat, we estimate there are 754 (95% posterior interval 325–1,337) Sunda clouded leopards in Sabah.
Mass loss from hot stars was first established by Morton (1967). He observed 3 OB supergiants, δ, ε and ζ Orionis, with an ultraviolet spectrograph sent up with a rocket. In the wavelength range of 1200 A to 2000 A he observed 6 resonance lines of highly ionized atoms such as C III, C IV, N V and Si IV. These resonance lines showed a P Cygni type line profile with an absorption component displaced to the blue corresponding to a velocity away from the stars of 1400 km s−1. Since the escape velocity from these stars is about 800 km s−1 these observations indicated the loss of mass from the stars. With rather simple assumptions he deduced a mass loss from the stars of 1 to 3 10−6 M⊙ yr−1. In spite of many more refined satellite observations and interpretations, the accepted value for mass loss from these stars has not changed by more than a factor of 2 or 3.
The Yellow Sea region is of high global importance for waterbird populations, but recent systematic bird count data enabling identification of the most important sites are relatively sparse for some areas. Surveys of waterbirds at three sites on the coast of southern Jiangsu Province, China, in 2014 and 2015 produced peak counts of international importance for 24 species, including seven globally threatened and six Near Threatened species. The area is of particular global importance for the ‘Critically Endangered’ Spoon-billed Sandpiper Calidris pygmaea (peak count across all three study sites: 62 in spring  and 225 in autumn  and ‘Endangered’ Spotted Greenshank Tringa guttifer (peak count across all three study sites: 210 in spring  and 1,110 in autumn ). The southern Jiangsu coast is therefore currently the most important migratory stopover area in the world, in both spring and autumn, for both species. Several serious and acute threats to waterbirds were recorded at these study sites. Paramount is the threat of large-scale land claim which would completely destroy intertidal mudflats of critical importance to waterbirds. Degradation of intertidal mudflat habitats through the spread of invasive Spartina, and mortality of waterbirds by entrapment in nets or deliberate poisoning are also real and present serious threats here. Collisions with, and displacement by, wind turbines and other structures, and industrial chemical pollution may represent additional potential threats. We recommend the rapid establishment of effective protected areas for waterbirds in the study area, maintaining large areas of open intertidal mudflat, and the urgent removal of all serious threats currently faced by waterbirds here.
During winter 1969 the 10 m optical reflector at Mt. Hopkins, Arizona, was used to search for periodic gamma ray emission above 1011 eV from NP 0532. Based on predicted optical period and phase, approximately 57 h of data were summed together. No evidence of pulsed radiation was found.
Today the term ‘vox pop’ most commonly refers to those snippets of opinion from people ‘on the street’ heard and seen on radio and television. We had many of these from those who would turn out to be part of the small majority for leave in the run- up to the Brexit referendum on 23 June 2016. Two main themes often repeated in these snippets were that people wanted to limit levels of immigration seen to be out of control, and that they wanted take back control over the laws by which they were governed. In both cases, behind fears of and resentments towards immigrants and European Union (EU) bureaucracy, lies a fundamental feeling of lack of control, of powerlessness. We need to understand this. The phrase vox populi, vox Dei (the voice of the people is the voice of God), or simply vox plebis (voice of the people) has a long history in English politics, serving the critiques of centralized power offered by medieval archbishops, Levellers and Whigs in turn (Maloy 2013: 124– 126). David Hume famously claimed that ‘it is […] on opinion only that government is founded’ (1985: 32– 33), by which he meant that centralized power can never ultimately force submission of a large mass of people. It relies either on active support or at least willing acquiescence. Either way, the point is that people are ruled through opinion, and opinions matter. The Brexit referendum gave a large portion of the British population that felt its opinions were disregarded, a single, highly constrained opportunity to express their views, and their resentment.
This chapter attempts to place the call for Brexit and what we know about those who voted for and against it in the context of concepts of nationalism, globalization and, most crucially, the evolving balance of power in society. The first two are necessary for framing this event, but the third gives us more analytic purchase on the general course of events. After considering Brexit from these three angles, I return to questions of public opinion and ideology, and their role in misrepresenting that general course of events and facilitating Brexit.