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Iron deficiency is common in pregnant and lactating women and is associated with reduced cognitive development of the offspring. Since iron affects lipid metabolism, the availability of fatty acids, particularly the polyunsaturated fatty acids required for early neural development, was investigated in the offspring of female rats fed iron-deficient diets during gestation and lactation. Subsequent to the dams giving birth, one group of iron-deficient dams was recuperated by feeding an iron-replete diet. Dams and neonates were killed on postnatal days 1, 3 and 10, and the fatty acid composition of brain and stomach contents was assessed by gas chromatography. Changes in the fatty acid profile on day 3 became more pronounced on day 10 with a decrease in the proportion of saturated fatty acids and a compensatory increase in monounsaturated fatty acids. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the n-6 family were reduced, but there was no change in the n-3 family. The fatty acid profiles of neonatal brain and stomach contents were similar, suggesting that the change in milk composition may be related to the changes in the neonatal brain. When the dams were fed an iron-sufficient diet at birth, the effects of iron deficiency on the fatty acid composition of lipids in both dam’s milk and neonates’ brains were reduced. This study showed an interaction between maternal iron status and fatty acid composition of the offspring’s brain and suggests that these effects can be reduced by iron repletion of the dam’s diet at birth.
Throughout his career the geographer, and first reader in the ‘new’ geography at the University of Oxford, Halford Mackinder (1861–1947) described his discipline as a branch of physics. This essay explores this feature of Mackinder's thought and presents the connections between him and the Royal Institution professor of natural philosophy John Tyndall (1820–1893). My reframing of Mackinder's geography demonstrates that the academic professionalization of geography owed as much to the methods and instruments of popular natural philosophy and physics as it did to theories of Darwinian natural selection. In tracing the parallels between Tyndall and Mackinder, and their shared emphasis upon the technology of the magic lantern and the imagination as tools of scientific investigation and education, the article elucidates their common pedagogical practices. Mackinder's disciplinary vision was expressed in practices of visualization, and in metaphors inspired by physics, to audiences of geographers and geography teachers in the early twentieth century. Together, these features of Mackinder's geography demonstrate his role as a popularizer of science and extend the temporal and spatial resonance of Tyndall's natural philosophy.
Although audio archives are available for a number of political institutions, the data they provide receive scant attention from researchers. Yet, audio data offer important insights, including information about speakers’ emotional states. Using one of the largest collections of natural audio ever compiled—74,158 Congressional floor speeches—we introduce a novel measure of legislators’ emotional intensity: small changes in vocal pitch that are difficult for speakers to control. Applying our measure to MCs’ floor speeches about women, we show that female MCs speak with greater emotional intensity when talking about women as compared with both their male colleagues and their speech on other topics. Our two supplementary analyses suggest that increased vocal pitch is consistent with legislators’ broader issue commitments, and that emotionally intense speech may affect other lawmakers’ behavior. More generally, by demonstrating the utility of audio-as-data approaches, our work highlights a new way of studying political speech.
Two texts bookend the major phase of literary activity by Creoles of color in New Orleans, the first book of poetry by US citizens of African descent, Les cenelles (1845) and Nos Hommes et Notres Histoires (1911). The first – a collection of poems – evokes sexual and romantic relationships between people of different races, a notion that runs radically counter to the racial politics of the rest of the US South. The second emerged as polemic as the Jim Crow Era gained full ascendance and marginalized nonwhite people in ways that ran counter to long-standing cultural patterns in New Orleans regarding the elite Creoles of color.
This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of delivering a new cognitive behavioural intervention package ‘Emotion-Based Social Skills Training (EBSST) for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Mild Intellectual Disability (ASD + MID)’ in schools. Fourteen school counsellors nominated 75 children (aged 7–13 years) with ASD + MID to receive 16 sessions of EBSST in groups of 3–8 children in their schools. Parent and teacher pre-post ratings of emotional competence (Emotions Development Questionnaire), social skills (Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales) and mental health (Developmental Behaviour Checklist) were collected. Forty-three children received 16 sessions of EBSST and 32 children were allocated to the 9-month waitlist control group. Teachers and parents also received six EBSST training sessions in separate groups at school. Significant improvements in parent and teacher ratings of emotional competence were found at posttreatment among children in the EBSST group relative to controls; however, the results were not significant after the Bonferroni adjustment. Small to medium effect sizes were found. No difference in untrained social skills or mental health was observed. This study provides preliminary support for the utility of EBSST in teaching emotional competence skills for children with ASD + MID in schools and provides valuable pilot data for future research.
To examine key factors influencing the prioritisation of food and nutrition in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health policy during 1996–2015.
A qualitative policy analysis case study was undertaken, combining document analysis with thematic analysis of key informant interviews.
Key actors involved in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health policy between 1996 and 2015 (n 38).
Prioritisation of food and nutrition in policy reduced over time. Several factors which may have impeded the prioritisation of nutrition were identified. These included lack of cohesion among the community of nutritionists, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander leaders and civil society actors advocating for nutrition; the absence of an institutional home for nutrition policy; and lack of consensus and a compelling policy narrative about how priority nutrition issues should be addressed. Political factors including ideology, dismantling of public health nutrition governance structures and missing the opportunities presented by ‘policy windows’ were also viewed as barriers to nutrition policy change. Finally, the complexity and multifaceted nature of nutrition as a policy problem and perceived lack of evidence-based solutions may also have constrained its prioritisation in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health policy.
Future advocacy should focus on embedding nutrition within holistic approaches to health and building a collective voice through advocacy coalitions with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander leadership. Strategic communication and seizing political opportunities may be as important as evidence for raising the priority of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health issues.
This article explores the growing interface between social media and academic publishing. We discuss how the British Journal of Psychiatry (BJPsych) and other scientific journals are engaging with social media to communicate in a digital world. A growing body of evidence suggests that public visibility and constructive conversation on social media networks can be beneficial for researchers and clinicians, influencing research in a number of key ways. This engagement presents new opportunities for more widely disseminating information, but also carries risks. We note future prospects and ask where BJPsych should strategically place itself in this rapidly changing environment.
Declaration of interest
J.R.H., J.F.H. and D.T. are on the editorial board of the BJPsych. D.T. runs its social media arm.
We propose the concept of the “Fish Revolution” to demarcate the dramatic increase in North Atlantic fisheries after AD 1500, which led to a 15-fold increase of cod (Gadus morhua) catch volumes and likely a tripling of fish protein to the European market. We consider three key questions: (1) What were the environmental parameters of the Fish Revolution? (2) What were the globalising effects of the Fish Revolution? (3) What were the consequences of the Fish Revolution for fishing communities? While these questions would have been considered unknowable a decade or two ago, methodological developments in marine environmental history and historical ecology have moved information about both supply and demand into the realm of the discernible. Although much research remains to be done, we conclude that this was a major event in the history of resource extraction from the sea, mediated by forces of climate change and globalisation, and is likely to provide a fruitful agenda for future multidisciplinary research.
Implementing antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) can be challenging due to prescriber resistance. Although barriers to implementing new ASPs have been identified, little is known about how prescribers perceive established programs. This information is critical to promoting the sustainability of ASPs.
To identify how prescribers perceive an established pediatric inpatient ASP that primarily utilizes prior authorization.
We conducted a cross-sectional survey administered from February through June 2017 in a large children’s hospital. The survey contained closed- and open-ended questions. Descriptive statistics and thematic content analysis approaches were used to analyze responses.
Of 394 prescribers invited, 160 (41%) responded. Prescribers had an overall favorable impression of the ASP, believing that it improves the quality of care (92.4% agree) and takes their judgment seriously (73.8%). The most common criticism of the ASP was that it threatened efficiency (26.0% agreed). In addition, 68.7% of respondents reported occasionally engaging in workarounds. Analysis of 133 free-text responses revealed that prescribers perceived that interacting with the ASP involved too many phone calls, caused communication breakdowns with the dispensing pharmacy, and led to gaps between approval and dispensing of antibiotics. Reasons given for workarounds included not wanting to change therapy that appears to be working, consultant disagreement with ASP recommendations, and the desire to do everything possible for patients.
Prescribers had a generally favorable opinion of an established ASP but found aspects to be inefficient. They reported engaging in workarounds occasionally for social and emotional reasons. Established ASPs should elicit feedback from frontline prescribers to optimize program impact.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To translate a behavioral theory–informed, evidence-based, face-to-face health education program into an mHealth lifestyle intervention for African-Americans (AAs). METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This mixed methods study consisted of 4 phases, using an iterative development process to intervention design with the AA community. In Phase 1, we held focus groups with AA community members and church partners (n=23) to gain insight regarding the needs and preferences of potential app end users. In Phase 2, the interdisciplinary research team synthesized input from Phase 1 for preliminary app design and content development. Phase 3 consisted of a sequential 3-meeting series with the church partners (n=13) for iterative app prototyping (assessment, cultural tailoring, final review). Phase 4 was a single group pilot study among AA church congregants (n=50) to assess app acceptability, usability, and satisfaction. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Phase 1 focus groups indicated preferences for general and health related apps: multifunctional; high-quality graphics/visuals; evidence-based, yet simple health information; and social networking capability. Phase 2 integrated these preferences into the preliminary app prototype. Feedback from Phase 3 was used to refine the FAITH! App prototype for pilot testing. Phase 4 pilot testing indicated high acceptability, usability, and satisfaction of the FAITH! App. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This study illustrates the process of using formative and CBPR approaches to design a culturally relevant, mHealth lifestyle intervention to address CV health disparities within the AA community. Given the positive perceptions of the app, our study supports the use of an iterative development process by others interested in implementing an mHealth lifestyle intervention for racial/ethnic minority communities.
This study evaluated the effect of mail non-response on the validity of the results of nasal septal surgery.
Six months post-operatively, questionnaires with both prospective and retrospective ratings were mailed to patients. Patients who did not respond (non-responders) were contacted by telephone. This study compared two cohorts of patients using different interviewers (a nurse and a surgeon). Cohort one consisted of 182 patients (with 67 per cent mail response), and cohort two consisted of 454 patients (with 64.8 per cent mail response).
In both cohorts, the improvement in obstruction scores was significantly better among mail responders than among non-responders (telephone interviewees) using prospective ratings, but worse using retrospective ratings.
Mail responders had better improvement in nasal obstruction after septoplasty than non-responders. Therefore, low response rates may cause an overestimation of the results. The retrospective ratings obtained through telephone interviews are less reliable because they are influenced by memory and the patients’ tendency to give socially acceptable answers.
Following its positive outcomes in a state-wide survey, co-managers of the Queensland Cancer Control Analysis Team commissioned discovery interviews to explore these results. Eleven interviews were analysed by positive organisational scholars who drew on depreciating and appreciating organisational dynamics to make sense of Queensland Cancer Control Analysis Team’s high performance. An initial framework was devised, including appreciative, depreciative, and hybrid dynamics, with the latter representing an extension to an existing taxonomy. Findings revealed mainly appreciative and hybrid dynamics. To further understand these, the framework was expanded by reframing the dynamics as positive institutional work. This extension offers an experiential understanding of positive institutional patterns by incorporating the troika of experiential surfacing, agency as inquiry, and inclusion. The value of this framework is threefold, for it can be used as an analytic, a diagnostic, and an intervention tool to enable scholars and practitioners to operationalise positive organisational scholarship to examine, understand, and promote positive organisational experiences.