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The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
Celebrity scandals are a useful tool to reveal the pervasiveness of expected ways of behaving within a particular culture or society. Italy of the early 1960s was particularly marked by these kinds of scandals, including that of singer Mina’s pregnancy by Corrado Pani in 1963. This article takes this scandal as a case study to explore how star image in this period in Italy was influenced by the established ideologies that governed social convention, morality, and traditional gender roles. It examines in detail the ways in which the popular press reported on this scandal, using the reports that covered the announcement of the pregnancy and then the birth to cast light on the extent to which the mainstream social values and ideas regarding the status quo and expected ways of behaving for women in Italy during the early 1960s were destabilised and/or reasserted through the star persona of Mina.
Reviews of the 2008 film adaptation of ‘jukebox’ stage musical Mamma Mia! ranged from wild enthusiasm to outright embarrassment, with many critics expressing confusion at the film's unusual mixture of slick professionalism and cheery, improvisatory exuberance. Despite this lack of critical consensus, Mamma Mia! was a huge commercial success, performing well in US and European markets and becoming one of the highest-grossing films of all time at the UK box office. The film's success points towards its broad audience demographics, a mainstream appeal that is often partially attributed to the trio of women at its helm: screenwriter Catherine Johnson, producer Judy Craymer and director Phyllida Lloyd. But this particular understanding of authorship and appeal is of course only half the story in a film structured around the music of Swedish superstars ABBA, and with leading roles performed by recognisable A-list stars in a cinematic, and musical, environment that is often far outside their usual context.
The potential for simultaneous pleasure and discomfort engendered by the film's pedigree of musical and personal celebrity is a key way in which Mamma Mia! destabilises conventional registers of ‘quality’. It embraces ideas of performativity and literal role-play whilst also fostering the appearance of genuine and unfiltered (although sometimes uncomfortable) realism. The film intensifies the musical's oft-noted juxtaposition of artifice and transparency, using the shimmering Europop of ABBA's familiar hits as a backdrop to the ‘imperfections’ of highly personal vocal performance. Its deliberate aesthetic of enthusiastic amateurism provides a forum in which individualised modes of engagement are actively fostered: musical performance is an axis around which shifting character, star and audience subjectivities can be both constructed and celebrated.
Behavioral traits generally show moderate to strong genetic influence, with heritability estimates of around 50%. Some recent research has suggested that trust may be an exception because it is more strongly influenced by social interactions. In a sample of over 7,000 adolescent twins from the United Kingdom's Twins Early Development Study, we found broad sense heritability estimates of 57% for generalized trust and 51% for trust in friends. Genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML) estimates in the same sample indicate that 21% of the narrow sense genetic variance can be explained by common single nucleotide polymorphisms for generalized trust and 43% for trust in friends. As expected, this implies a large amount of unexplained heritability, although power is low for estimating DNA-based heritability. The missing heritability may be accounted for by interactions between DNA and the social environment during development or via gene–environment correlations with rare variants. How these genes and environments correlate seem especially important for the development of trust.
The Protoplanetary Discussions conference—held in Edinburgh, UK, from 2016 March 7th–11th—included several open sessions led by participants. This paper reports on the discussions collectively concerned with the multi-physics modelling of protoplanetary discs, including the self-consistent calculation of gas and dust dynamics, radiative transfer, and chemistry. After a short introduction to each of these disciplines in isolation, we identify a series of burning questions and grand challenges associated with their continuing development and integration. We then discuss potential pathways towards solving these challenges, grouped by strategical, technical, and collaborative developments. This paper is not intended to be a review, but rather to motivate and direct future research and collaboration across typically distinct fields based on community-driven input, to encourage further progress in our understanding of circumstellar and protoplanetary discs.
A project to enhance access to architectural drawings and manuscripts has recently begun at the Victoria and Albert Museum (V&A) in London. Two major collections of designs - those in the V&A’s Prints, Drawings and Paintings Collection and those in the Special Collections of the British Architectural Library at the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) - will be housed together at the Museum from 2003. In this article two of the V&A’s curators outline the planning for the move, which involves modifying existing space to provide new accommodation for staff, storage and consultation by the public, and describe the broader partnership between the two institutions, which promises much for the study and appreciation of architecture.
Stressful life events (SLEs) are associated with psychotic experiences. SLEs might act as an environmental risk factor, but may also share a genetic propensity with psychotic experiences.
To estimate the extent to which genetic and environmental factors influence the relationship between SLEs and psychotic experiences.
Self- and parent reports from a community-based twin sample (4830 16-year-old pairs) were analysed using structural equation model fitting.
SLEs correlated with positive psychotic experiences (r = 0.12–0.14, all P<0.001). Modest heritability was shown for psychotic experiences (25–57%) and dependent SLEs (32%). Genetic influences explained the majority of the modest covariation between dependent SLEs and paranoia and cognitive disorganisation (bivariate heritabilities 74–86%). The relationship between SLEs and hallucinations and grandiosity was explained by both genetic and common environmental effects.
Further to dependent SLEs being an environmental risk factor, individuals may have an underlying genetic propensity increasing their risk of dependent SLEs and positive psychotic experiences.
The magnitude and pace of terrestrial plant extinction and macroecological change associated with the Triassic/Jurassic (Tr/J) mass extinction boundary have not been quantified using paleoecological data. However, tracking the diversity and ecology of primary producers provides an ideal surrogate with which to explore patterns of ecosystem stability, collapse, and recovery and to explicitly test for gradual versus catastrophic causal mechanisms of extinction.
We present an analysis of the vegetation dynamics in the Jameson Land Basin, East Greenland, spanning the Tr/J extinction event, from a census collected paleoecological data set of 4303 fossil leaf specimens, in an attempt to better constrain our understanding of the causes and consequences of the fourth greatest extinction event in earth history. Our analyses reveal (1) regional turnover of ecological dominants between Triassic and Jurassic plant communities, (2) marked structural changes in the vegetation as reflected by potential loss of a mid-canopy habit, and (3) decline in generic-level richness and evenness and change in ecological composition prior to the Tr/J boundary; all of these findings argue against a single catastrophic causal mechanism, such as a meteorite impact for Tr/J extinctions. We identify various key ecological and biological traits that increased extinction risk at the Tr/J boundary and corroborate predictions of meta-population theory or plant ecophysiological models. These include ecological rarity, complex reproductive biology, and large leaf size.
Recovery in terms of generic-level richness was quite rapid following Tr/J extinctions; however, species-level turnover in earliest Jurassic plant communities remained an order of magnitude higher than observed for the Triassic. We hypothesize, on the basis of evidence for geographically extensive macrofossil and palynological turnover across the entire Jameson Land Basin, that the nature and magnitude of paleoecological changes recorded in this study reflect wider vegetation change across the whole region. How exactly these changes in dominance patterns of plant primary production affected the entire ecosystem remains an important avenue of future research.
We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited evidence was found that birth order influenced variances of height or BMI. The results were similar among boys and girls and also in MZ and DZ twins. Overall, the differences in height and BMI between first- and second-born twins were modest even in early childhood, while adjustment for birth weight reduced the birth order differences but did not remove them for BMI.
This article explores the workings of genre in experimental electronic musics. Predominantly sociological in orientation, it has three main foci. First, it addresses practitioners’ and theorists’ resistances to the concept of genre in experimental musics. Drawing on recent developments in genre theory, it discusses the problems of agency, mediation and scale that any discussion of genre calls forth, pitting them alongside theories that emphasise genre’s necessity and inevitability in communication. The second section examines the politics of genre as they play out in practice, focusing on the Prix Ars Electronica festival and the controversy that ensued from the decision to change the name of the Computer Music category in 1999. The analysis focuses on issues of institutional mediation, historicity, genre emergence and the politics of labelling as they come into view when two broad spheres – electroacoustic art music and ‘popular’ electronic music – are brought into the same field together in competition. The third section deepens the analysis of Ars Electronica by zooming in on one of the represented genres, microsound, to examine how it is shaped and negotiated in practice. Using digital methods tools developed in the context of Actor-Network Theory, I present a view of the genre as fundamentally promiscuous, overlapping liberally with adjacent genres. Fusing Derrida’s principle of ‘participation over belonging’ with ANT’s insistence on the agency of ‘non-human actors’ in social assemblages, the map provides a means to analyse the genre through its mediations – through the varied industries, institutions and social networks that support and maintain it.
The previous chapter described the spaces for cycling with a focus on on-road facilities and safety issues, including the interface between off-road paths and the road. This chapter moves from the roadway to examine the types of off-road spaces for cycling; who uses them and why; and the influences of these spaces on both cycling participation and safety.
Disagreements abound in the literature regarding spaces for off-road riding. The first level of disagreement relates to what spaces should be included under the term ‘off-road’. In this chapter, a practical approach is taken, with off-road spaces encompassing all those which are beyond the roadside kerbs. Under this definition, bicycle lanes with painted (but not physical separators) are classified as on-road spaces, while footpaths (sidewalks in North America) are classified as off-road, whether they are specifically marked for bicycle use or not. In terms of the New Zealand lexicon of cycling facilities introduced in the previous chapter (Lieswyn et al., 2012), the off-road spaces considered in this chapter include:
1. cycle paths — whether Danish cycle tracks or cycle paths at footpath level, called cycle tracks in the European Cycling Lexicon (European Economic and Social Commission, 2011)
2. exclusive or shared paths (beside a road or in a park)
Trails (mountain bike [MTB] tracks and shared-use trails) belong to the general category of off-road spaces but are not discussed in this chapter because of the focus of this book on urban cycling.
Disagreements also exist regarding the role and function of on-road versus off-road spaces for cycling. Some cycling advocates argue that all roads should be made safe and convenient for cycling and that there should be no real need or advocacy for off-road spaces. In contrast, some road safety advocates propose that on-road cycling should be allowed in only very restricted circumstances. For example, in describing the Swedish Vision Zero road safety philosophy, Johansson (2009) states that vulnerable road users (cyclists and pedestrians) should be separated from motorised vehicles whose speeds exceed 30 km/h.
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.