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There are different sorts of dictionaries used within a language community. Monolingual dictionaries usually play the most significant role in the standardization of a (young) language, while bilingual ones mostly foster interlingual communication following situations of language contact. Monolingual dictionaries are usually large; they are aimed at the standard variety of a language and are usually available in different editions for different users; they are almost always written by native speakers. Bilingual wordlists at an earlier stage in history are written by persons not belonging to the language community. Later on, when the monolingual standard dictionary has been established, bilingual lexicography often yields another type of dictionary. These are written from inside the language community and are meant to promote comprehension in situations of language contact with other communities.
The present study aimed to examine the effectiveness of two different implementation forms of the EU School Fruit and Vegetable Scheme (SFVS).
A quasi-experimental design was applied including a thrice as well as a twice weekly intervention group. Repeated 24 h dietary recalls were used to measure children’s fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake. Effects were analysed on days with and without F&V deliveries using hierarchical linear regression models.
Twelve primary schools in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Third and fourth graders (n 664).
Average daily F&V intake at pre-intervention was 0·84 frequencies in the thrice weekly intervention group, 0·90 frequencies in the twice weekly intervention group and 1·25 frequencies in the control group. Providing children thrice weekly with F&V increased children’s F&V intake on average by 0·96 (P<0·001) frequencies/d. The effects were higher on days with (1·07; P<0·001) than on days without (0·75; P<0·001) F&V deliveries. Distributing F&V twice weekly resulted in an increase of 0·75 (P<0·001) frequencies/d on average, again with higher effects on days with (1·30; P<0·001) than without (0·48; P<0·003) F&V deliveries. Subgroup analysis revealed some indications for differential effectiveness only in the twice weekly intervention group.
The SFVS with thrice or twice weekly deliveries of F&V led to a significant increase in children’s F&V intake on days with and without deliveries. The latter might provide an indication of positive long-term effects of the scheme. The scheme shows equal efficiency for almost all subgroups.
The corticogeniculate circuit is an evolutionarily conserved pathway linking the primary visual cortex with the visual thalamus in the feedback direction. While the corticogeniculate circuit is anatomically robust, the impact of corticogeniculate feedback on the visual response properties of visual thalamic neurons is subtle. Accordingly, discovering the function of corticogeniculate feedback in vision has been a particularly challenging task. In this review, the morphology, organization, physiology, and function of corticogeniculate feedback is compared across mammals commonly studied in visual neuroscience: primates, carnivores, rabbits, and rodents. Common structural and organizational motifs are present across species, including the organization of corticogeniculate feedback into parallel processing streams in highly visual mammals.
This essay is an examination of the relationship between phenomenology and analytic method in the philosophy of law. It proceeds by way of a case study, the requirement of compliance in Raz’s theory of mandatory norms. Proceeding in this way provides a degree of specificity that is otherwise neglected in the relevant literature on method. Drawing on insights from the philosophy of art and cognitive neuroscience, it is argued that the requirement of compliance is beset by a range of epistemological difficulties. The implications of these difficulties are then reviewed for method and normativity in practical reason. A topology of normativity emerges nearer the end of the paper, followed by a brief examination of how certain normative categories must satisfy distinct burdens of proof.
An outbreak of invasive Mycobacterium chimaera infections associated with heater-cooler devices (HCDs) has now affected patients in several countries on different continents. Clinical infections are characterized by delayed diagnosis, inadequate treatment response to antimicrobial agents, and poor prognosis. Outbreak investigators found M. chimaera in HCD water circuits and air samples while HCDs were running, suggesting that transmission from the HCD to the surgical site occurs via the airborne route. New HCDs at the manufacturing site were also contaminated with M. chimaera, and recent whole-genome sequencing data suggest a point source. Some guidance on screening for M. chimaera colonization in HCD water and exhaust air is available. In contrast, reliable disinfection procedures are not well described, and it is not yet known whether eradication of M. chimaera from a contaminated HCD can be achieved. Meanwhile, strict separation of the HCD from operating room air is necessary to ensure patient safety, and these efforts may require engineering solutions. While our understanding of the causes and the extent of the M. chimaera outbreak is growing, several aspects of patient management, device handling, and risk mitigation still require clarification.
Objectives: Parkinson’s disease (PD) results in a range of non-motor deficits that can affect mood, cognition, and language, and many of these issues are unresponsive to pharmacological intervention. Aerobic exercise can improve mood and cognition in healthy older adults, although only a few studies have examined exercise effects on these domains in PD. The current study assesses the effects of aerobic exercise on aspects of cognition, mood, and language production in people with PD. Methods: This study compares the effects of aerobic exercise to stretch-balance training and a no-contact control group in participants with idiopathic PD. The aerobic and stretch-balance groups trained three times a week for 16 weeks, while controls continued normal activities. Outcome measures included disease severity, mood, cognition (speed of processing, memory, and executive function), and language production (picture descriptions). Cognition and language were assessed in single and dual task conditions. Results: Depressive symptoms increased only in the control group (p<.02). Executive function improved in the aerobic exercise group only in the single task (p=.007) and declined in controls in the dual task. Completeness of picture descriptions improved significantly more in the aerobic group than in the stretch-balance group (p<.02). Conclusions: Aerobic exercise is a viable intervention for PD that can be protective against increased depressive symptoms, and can improve several non-motor domains, including executive dysfunction and related aspects of language production. (JINS, 2016, 22, 878–889)
The effect of differential diffusion of two passive scalars having Schmidt numbers of unity and 0.25, respectively, is investigated using direct numerical simulation of a temporally evolving jet. The objective of the research is twofold: (i) to compare the turbulent/non-turbulent (T/NT) interface position using the scalar criterion between the unity- and low-Schmidt-number scalar; and (ii) to determine the impact of the T/NT interface on differential diffusion. For the latter, the T/NT interface is detected using the vorticity criterion. To quantify the effect of differential diffusion, a normalised differential diffusion parameter is analysed, clearly showing the dominance of differential diffusion at the T/NT interface. A transport equation for the scalar differences is then evaluated, which shows that differential diffusion originates at the interface. Further, the separation between the passive scalars, arising due to differential diffusion, is studied using conventional and conditional statistics with respect to the interface distance. Since differential diffusion is known to be present at large and small scales, the connection between them is analysed using the scalar dissipation rate. Moreover, the physical mechanism responsible for the departure of the two scalars is analysed using the scalar gradient alignment, the ratio of the diffusive fluxes and by a transport equation for the scalar gradients.
Since the Last Glacial Maximum, ice has retreated through the fjords of the South Shetland Islands leaving a valuable record of submarine landforms behind. In this study, glacial landforms and sub-bottom characteristics have been mapped to investigate the late Holocene retreat behaviour of the Fourcade Glacier and to delineate past environmental processes in Potter Cove, King George Island. The comprehensive datasets include high-resolution swath bathymetry, shallow seismic profiling and one sediment core. Moraines, moraine incisions and glacial lineations were mapped on the sea floor in the inner part of the cove, whereas pockmarks, ice scour marks and channel structures were identified in the outer part. Sub-bottom characteristics have been assigned to different acoustic facies types indicating different depositional settings. The results reveal glacial recessions as well as stillstands and potential readvances during the late Holocene. Furthermore, the sediment record indicates that the Fourcade Glacier was situated inside the inner cove during the Little Ice Age (500–100 cal yr bp).
New morphometric data gathered from cross-sections of two Lower Devonian land plants (Rhynia gwynne-vaughanii and Asteroxylon mackiei) are interpreted in terms of the evolution of the function of vascular bundles in early land plants. The following conclusions can be drawn from these new data: (1) The ratio of the cross-sectional area of the xylem (representing the conducting volume supplying the axis with water) to the xylem perimeter (representing the “contact area” between xylem and parenchyma through which water leaves the xylem and enters the parenchyma) is not constant for Rhynia axes, almost constant for Asteroxylon axes, and different between Rhynia and Asteroxylon. Thus, Bowers hypothesis that the ratio of cross-sectional area of the xylem to xylem perimeter is constant during ontogenetic development is true for Asteroxylon. That this ratio is constant during phylogeny, however, is not supported by our data. (2) The ratio between cross-sectional area of xylem to parenchyma is higher in Asteroxylon than in Rhynia. (3) As predicted by previous computer simulations, the ratio of the xylem perimeter to the axis perimeter plays a major role in determining water transport performance of the transpiring axis. This ratio is constant within ontogeny but is different in Asteroxylon and Rhynia. In Asteroxylon axes, this ratio is about twice as large as in Rhynia axes. (4) Contrary to the expectations, the distance between the outermost layer of the xylem and the transpiring surface, which represents the low-conductivity pathway through the parenchyma, appears not to be a limiting factor for the water transport in axes of Rhynia and Asteroxylon. (5) From the analysis of the geometric parameters, it is evident that Rhynia and Asteroxylon with their distinct stelar geometries represent two different constructional types for which no transitional stages are known.
I was someone who worried a lot about my footy and what everyone thought. I would go home and lie awake at night and having meetings in my head, so now I try to live more day-by-day and be in the present moment.
Brett Kirk, past player and captain, Sydney Swans (Kirk, 2007)
This chapter focuses on mindfulness, well-being, engagement, and smartphone applications in the context of the Australian Football League (AFL). It starts with an introduction to AFL, the role of the AFL Players’ Association (AFL Players), and the current state of mind and well-being science in the AFL. We consider mindfulness and well-being research outcomes in nonclinical populations and then explore the use of mobile technology to engage people in the practice of mindfulness. Finally, we describe how AFL Players have approached integrating mindfulness as part of a broader well-being program for players. The mindfulness program implemented at AFL Players was developed by the first author (JM) and informed by the research and applied work of the second author (CH).
The AFL and AFL Players’ Association
AFL refers to the elite Australian Rules football competition known as the Australian Football League. The origins of Australian Rules football can be traced back to 1858, when a game was invented in Melbourne to help cricket players remain fit in the winter months. It is a full-contact, free-flowing, and fast game with players passing the ball by foot and hand, and played on a field the size of a cricket oval (450 to 500 feet in diameter). The AFL was officially formed in 1997 when the Victorian Football League (VFL) expanded to include a number of interstate clubs. Today it is Australia's premier sporting code in terms of participation and viewing (see Appendix A for a more detailed description).
The AFL Players’ Association (originally called the Victorian Football League Players’ Association) was created by the players in 1973 to protect and enhance the collective interests of all football players, current and past. There are approximately more than eight hundred players across the league in a season, and more than five thousand past players. Every current AFL player is a member (plus more than 2,500 alumni members) and contributes to the running of the Association, by paying yearly fees and also by directing a portion of the funding allocation under the Collective Bargaining Agreement to the organization.
The following is taken from Colonel Willis De Hass, ‘The Battle of Shiloh,’ Annals of the War Written by Leading Participants North and South, ed. Alexander Kelly McClure (Philadelphia: Times Publishing Co., 1979). The pieces in this collection were originally published in the Philadelphia Weekly Times. In the introduction, the editor declares that the Annals will ‘furnish the most valuable contributions to the future historian which have yet given to the world.’
Gradually the firing ceased. The Sabbath closed upon a scene which had no parallel on the Western Continent. The sun went down in a red halo, as if the very heavens blushed and prepared to weep at the enormity of man's violence. Night fell upon and spread its funereal pall over a field of blood where death held unrestrained carnival! Soon after dark the rain descended in torrents, and all through the dreary hours of that dismal night it rained unceasingly. The groans of the dying, and the solemn thunder of the gunboats came swelling at intervals high above the peltings of the pitiless storm.
The dead were buried on the spot; the wounded removed to camp; the rebel camp destroyed, with a large amount of property, and this was the last of the fighting at Shiloh. The losses sustained by both armies exceeded the frightful number of twenty-five thousand men. Four years after the battle, a writer, visiting Shiloh and Corinth, gave a hideous picture of the condition of things. He stated that twelve thousand Confederate soldiers lay unburied on the two fields! After the battle of Shiloh, General Grant ordered the dead of both armies to be buried. The inhumation, however, consisted of little more than a thin covering of earth, which the heavy rains have long since washed off, and the remains of brave men, who periled all for their country's sake, he exposed to the elements. This fact is disgraceful to the government and the people, and should be remedied with the least possible delay. Instead of squandering means over idle parades, it should be our duty and pleasure to give the bleaching bones of our gallant dead the rites of decent burial.
Most medieval thinkers assume that the human soul has several faculties or powers: basic faculties such as digestion or growth, more elaborate faculties such as movement, vision, or imagination, and the characteristically human faculties of will and intellect. This was the mainstream position, but it was not left unquestioned in the later Middle Ages and in early modern philosophy. Several nominalists, for instance, argue that the powers of the soul are nothing but different names for the soul itself, as it is active in different ways. Later, in the seventeenth century, mechanistic philosophers such as René Descartes claim that there is no real distinction between power and act, nor between soul and powers. Descartes reserves the term ‘soul’ for the mind, and so reduces the number of powers drastically; he claims that all lower powers, such as sense perception or imagination, are equivalent either to the mind or certain powers of the body. Even Thomistic authors of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, who usually defend the theory of the faculties, at times question the traditional set of faculties and reduce their number. Francisco Suárez, for example, holds that common sense, imagination, estimation, and memory are in fact one power, because all these functions can be attributed to one faculty.
Nevertheless, in spite of the criticisms voiced by nominalist and early modern philosophers, medieval faculty psychology itself was well supported by arguments that have their origin in Greek philosophy. In the Republic, for example, Plato proposes a threefold division of the soul into reason, spirit, and desire. He bases this theory on the fact that there are conflicts in the soul: we may desire an object and at the same time reject it, as when we desire to drink something but reject it because we think it is bad for us. This can be explained, he believes, only by assuming that the soul has distinct parts that can come into conflict with each other (435e–439d).