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The administrative state is a powerful tool because it can control the population and, in moments of crisis, help leaders put down popular threats to their rule. But a state does not act; bureaucrats work through the state to carry out a leader's demands. In turn, leaders attempt to use their authority over the state to manage bureaucrats in a way that induces bureaucratic behavior that furthers their policy and political goals. Focusing on Kenya since independence, Hassan weaves together micro-level personnel data, rich archival records, and interviews to show how the country's different leaders have strategically managed, and in effect weaponized, the public sector. This nuanced analysis shows how even states categorized as weak have proven capable of helping their leader stay in power. With engaging evidence and compelling theory, Regime Threats and State Solutions will interest political scientists and scholars studying authoritarian regimes, African politics, state bureaucracy, and political violence.
Verified by current World Health Organization and country-specific classifications, this comprehensive single volume effectively engages with the diagnosis and management of viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic diseases that affect women in pregnancy. This comprehensive book provides focused, relevant information on newer viruses causing epidemics, including Dengue, Chikungunya and the Zika virus. With today's ease of world migration, this text covers infections found in both tropical and temperate climates, highlighting newer and rapid diagnostic methods, particularly for resource-poor settings, and clinicians working in remote and diverse locations. Designed for professionals with busy schedules, this guide provides efficient solutions and relevant information regarding investigation, diagnosis and treatment of common maternal infections, worldwide.
In the scope of this work, a micromechanical model based on the crystal plasticity finite element method is proposed and applied to describe the nucleation and growth of microstructurally short fatigue cracks in polycrystalline materials under cyclic loads. The microstructure is generated in the form of a representative volume element of a polycrystalline material with equiaxed grains having columnar structure along thickness and random crystallographic texture. With this model, we investigate the influence of loading amplitude on the crack growth behavior. It is shown that for smaller strain amplitudes, a single crack nucleates and propagates, while for larger strain amplitudes several independent crack nucleation sites form, from which microcracks start propagating. It is also observed that the global plastic strain amplitude decreases from the initial to the final cycle, during total strain-controlled loading. However, this can even increase the crack growth rate because the crack advance is governed by the local plastic slip which accumulates at the crack tip over the number of cycles. With this work, it is shown that micromechanical modeling can strongly improve our understanding of the mechanisms of short-crack nucleation and growth under fatigue loading.
Much of the literature on politics in Pakistan starts with the assumption that the country is characterised by clientelistic politics. Such politics can be defined as the politics that comes into being when powerful patrons drawn from the ruling elite perpetuate their hold on power through the use of their official position and access to the state, to provide voters and constituents with goods and services in exchange for the latter's continued support. Whether it is landlords in Punjab (Javid 2011; Martin 2014; Mohmand 2014) or criminal networks aligned with political parties in Karachi (Gayer 2014), the proposition that citizens support politically connected elites capable of providing them with patronage amidst the existence of a broadly undemocratic and dysfunctional system of governance, what Akhtar (2008) has referred to the as the ‘politics of common sense’, is one that has achieved the status of conventional wisdom. However, despite a broad consensus on the existence of patronage politics in Pakistan, comparatively little work has been done on outlining the precise mechanisms through which this form of politics operates; while it is acknowledged that patron–client politics exists, and ethnographic work on the subject has demonstrated the everyday forms of negotiation and contestation that characterise it at the local level, there is a corresponding lack of focus on the institutional framework of patronage politics, particularly in terms of how legislation, political parties and the formal apparatuses of the state shape and determine the receipt and disbursement of patronage.
The lack of attention paid to the actual institutional moorings of patronage politics in Pakistan is compounded by an absence of analytical work focusing on the changes and opportunities generated by the country's recent transition to democracy. While there is a considerable body of scholarly work that has examined the impact of colonialism and military authoritarianism on the structure of Pakistan's political institutions, less has been said about the ways in which almost a decade of uninterrupted, if often flawed, democracy has begun to transform the country's politics into something arguably akin to what Chandra (2004) has called a ‘patronage democracy’, in which the public sector remains an essential provider of employment and services,1 and in which those charged with distributing state resources can exercise considerable discretion in doing so.
Foodborne salmonellosis causes approximately 1 million illnesses annually in the United States. In the summer of 2017, we investigated four multistate outbreaks of Salmonella infections associated with Maradol papayas imported from four Mexican farms. PulseNet initially identified a cluster of Salmonella Kiambu infections in June 2017, and early interviews identified papayas as an exposure of interest. Investigators from Maryland, Virginia and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) collected papayas for testing. Several strains of Salmonella were isolated from papayas sourced from Mexican Farm A, including Salmonella Agona, Gaminara, Kiambu, Thompson and Senftenberg. Traceback from two points of service associated with illness sub-clusters in two states identified Farm A as a common source of papayas, and three voluntary recalls of Farm A papayas were issued. FDA sampling isolated four additional Salmonella strains from papayas sourced from Mexican Farms B, C and D. In total, four outbreaks were identified, resulting in 244 cases with illness onset dates from 20 December 2016 to 20 September 2017. The sampling of papayas and the collaborative work of investigative partners were instrumental in identifying the source of these outbreaks and preventing additional illnesses. Evaluating epidemiological, laboratory and traceback evidence together during investigations is critical to solving and stopping outbreaks.
The present study was performed on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) of Theileria annulata transformed dendritic cells (TaDCs) and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) to compare differences in antigen presentation and stimulation of T lymphocyte proliferation. Antigen presentation for T lymphocyte proliferation was analysed by flow cytometry. Additionally, the level of mRNA transcription of small GTPases of the Rab family expressed in the TaDC cell line was analysed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR). The endocytosis rate of TaDCs was significantly (P < 0.01) lower than in MoDCs. In contrast, when T lymphocytes were co-cultured with TaDC-APCs T cell proliferation was similar, while co-culture with MoDC-APC stimulated proliferation of CD4+ cells to a greater degree than CD8+ cells. However, the efficacy of TaDC-APCs to stimulate T lymphocytes dropped as the number of passages of TaDC-APC increased. Likewise, the transcription level of Rab family genes also significantly (P > 0.001) declined with progressive passages (>50) of the TaDC cell line. We conclude that initially the TaDC cell line efficiently presents antigen to stimulate T lymphocyte proliferation to produce a cellular immune response against the presented antigen.
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) E4 is the main genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Due to the consistent association, there is interest as to whether E4 influences the risk of other neurodegenerative diseases. Further, there is a constant search for other genetic biomarkers contributing to these phenotypes, such as microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) haplotypes. Here, participants from the Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative were genotyped to investigate whether the APOE E4 allele or MAPT H1 haplotype are associated with five neurodegenerative diseases: (1) AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), (2) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, (3) frontotemporal dementia (FTD), (4) Parkinson’s disease, and (5) vascular cognitive impairment.
Genotypes were defined for their respective APOE allele and MAPT haplotype calls for each participant, and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the associations with the presentations of neurodegenerative diseases.
Our work confirmed the association of the E4 allele with a dose-dependent increased presentation of AD, and an association between the E4 allele alone and MCI; however, the other four diseases were not associated with E4. Further, the APOE E2 allele was associated with decreased presentation of both AD and MCI. No associations were identified between MAPT haplotype and the neurodegenerative disease cohorts; but following subtyping of the FTD cohort, the H1 haplotype was significantly associated with progressive supranuclear palsy.
This is the first study to concurrently analyze the association of APOE isoforms and MAPT haplotypes with five neurodegenerative diseases using consistent enrollment criteria and broad phenotypic analysis.
Sediment transport in rivers consists, at moderate discharge stage, of individual grains that undergo a series of step movements and rest periods (bed-load). Following a large number of grain trajectories in time and space is difficult and the results are affected by bias due to censorship of the time-spatial window. Therefore, the data sets available for the description of the statistics of resting-times, travel-time and lengths of the steps, are still insufficient. In this paper, an innovative experimental methodology has been designed and applied to get data representing the evolution of a bed surface and to support a robust statistical analysis of sediment transport. The methodology is based on image sequences taken of a flat bed made of well-sorted (mono-dispersed) particles. The acquired data are interpreted analytically through equations that describe the effects of grain entrainment and deposition. We show that grains’ displacement have a mean value independent of bed-load rate under low to moderate transport intensity for a given sediment type and bed-slope. Hence, we provide a strong validation of the seminal conjecture of Einstein in his theoretical statistical description of sediment transport. Finally, we describe the probability density functions of the resting-time for a few values of the sediment discharge.
To explore the dietary habits, nutrient adequacies and dietary change experiences of immigrant and refugee children.
Mixed-methods cross-sectional design. Children completed three 24 h dietary recalls to determine nutrient inadequacies. Parents and service providers were interviewed to capture dietary practices.
Healthy Immigrant Children study, Saskatchewan, Canada.
Three hundred immigrant and refugee children aged 3–13 years and twenty-two parents who lived in Regina or Saskatoon for less than 5 years; twenty-four newcomer services providers.
Immigrant children had higher mean intakes of meat and alternatives, milk and alternatives, and whole grains; and consumed more vitamin B12, folate, Ca, vitamin D, Fe and Zn compared with refugee children. Refugee children were at higher risk of having inadequate intakes of folate (37 %) and Fe (18 %). Both immigrant and refugee children were at high risk of inadequate vitamin D (87 and 93 %, respectively) and Ca intakes (79 and 80 %), and a substantial portion were at risk for inadequate Zn intake (21 and 31 %). Participants mentioned challenges with maintaining a healthy traditional diet in the midst of a busy schedule, while responding to their children’s demands for foods high in fat and sugar.
Newcomer children are at risk for inadequate intakes of vitamin D, Ca and Zn, while refugee children are at additional risk for inadequate folate and Fe intakes. Newcomers to Canada may experience subtle or drastic changes in their food environment leading to dietary acculturation that includes increased consumption of foods high in sugar, salt and fat.
We theoretically study small-amplitude oscillations of permeable cylinders immersed in an unbounded fluid. Specifically, we examine the effects of oscillation frequency, permeability and shape on the effective mass and damping coefficients, the latter of which is proportional to the power required to sustain the vibrations. Cylinders of circular and elliptical cross-sections undergoing transverse and rotational vibrations are considered. The dynamics of the fluid flow through porous cylinders is assumed to obey the unsteady Brinkman–Debye–Bueche equations. We use a singularity method to analytically calculate the flow field within and around circular cylinders, whereas we introduce a Fourier-pseudospectral method to numerically solve the governing equations for elliptical cylinders. We find that, if rescaled properly, the analytical results for circular cylinders provide very good estimates for the behaviour of elliptical ones over a wide range of conditions. More importantly, our calculations indicate that, at sufficiently high frequencies, the damping coefficient of oscillations varies non-monotonically with the permeability, in which case it maximizes when the diffusion length scale for the vorticity is comparable to the penetration length scale for the flow within the porous material. Depending on the oscillation period, the maximum damping of a permeable cylinder can be many times greater than that of an otherwise impermeable one. This might seem counter-intuitive at first, since generally the power it takes to steadily drag a permeable object through a fluid is less than the power needed to drive the steady motion of the same, but impermeable, object. However, the driving power (or damping coefficient) for oscillating bodies is determined not only by the amplitude of the cyclic fluid load experienced by them but also by the phase shift between the load and their periodic motion. An increase in the latter is responsible for the excess damping coefficient of vibrating porous cylinders.
Childbearing intentions among women in high-fertility contexts are usually classified into those wanting to have a baby, those wanting to ‘space’ a birth and those wanting to ‘limit’ their family size. However, evidence from Africa increasingly suggests that women’s intentions are more complex than this classification suggests, and that there is fluidity in these intentions. This research explores women’s accounts of their childbearing intentions and decisions in order to examine how this fluidity plays out in a low-fertility context in urban Africa. Six focus group discussions were conducted in April and May 2012 with women of reproductive age in Nairobi, Kenya. Participants were recruited using random and purposive sampling techniques. The focus group discussions had an average of seven participants each. Data were coded thematically and analysed using Nvivo software. The analysis explored the factors that women consider to be influential for childbearing and found that the health of the mother and child, costs of raising a child and relationships were commonly reported to be important. Evidence of intentions to space births and limit family size was found. However, the data also showed that there is fluidity in women’s family planning intentions, driven by changes in relationships or household finances, which often result in a desire to avoid pregnancy in the present moment. The fluidity observed in women’s childbearing intentions cannot be accounted for by the concepts of either ‘spacing’ or ‘limitation’ but is best explained by the concept of ‘postponement’. The research reveals the need for family planning clinics to provide a full method mix, as well as high-quality counselling, to enable women to choose a method that best suits their needs.
The aspirations of religious minorities in Iraq for becoming recognized ethnonationalist entities have rarely been investigated from a historical perspective, particularly in the case of the Yazidis. This article addresses changing attitudes about the Yazidi religious minority identity across different historical periods. Yazidi identity is examined as an ancillary undercurrent to the ethnonationalist identity conflict between the central government of Iraq and the Kurdish movement. This contrasts with identity as a religious minority in prior eras, when religious minorities preserved their distinct core identities based on their own social and religious customs and idiosyncrasies, making them self-defining communities bound together by coherent religious identities. In the case of the Yazidi minority, despite the multiplicity of theories and hypotheses about the origins of the Yazidi people and their national and ethnic affiliations and increasing rumors about Yazidis related to their existence as a potential sub-ethnicity or ethno-religion, the important truth is that Yazidis consider themselves religiously, culturally, and historically distinct from other ethnonationalist groups and communities in Iraq.
After MRI studies suggested the efficacy of ethyl-EPA in reducing the progressive brain atrophy in Huntington disease (HD), trials were conducted to test its efficacy as a treatment for HD. Trials that continued for 6 months did not find any significant improvement, urging discontinuation of the drug. However, trials that continued for 12 months indicated improvement of motor functions in these patients.
We searched 12 electronic databases to find randomised clinical trials relevant to our inclusion criteria. After screening, only five papers were included. Continuous and binary variables were analysed to compute the pooled mean difference (MD) and risk ratio (RR), respectively. Quality effect model meta-analysis was used as a post hoc analysis for studies at 12 months.
Meta-analysis indicated that ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has no significant effect on any scale of HD at 6 months. At 12 months, two studies suggested significant improvements of the Total Motor Score and Total Motor Score–4 in both fixed and quality effect models [MD = −2.720, 95% CI (−4.76, –.68), p = 0.009; MD = −2.225, 95% CI (−3.842, −0.607), p = 0.007], respectively. Maximal chorea score showed significant results [MD = −1.013, 95% CI (−1.793, −0.233), p = 0.011] in only fixed-effect model, while no improvement was detected for Stroop colour naming test or symbol digit modality.
Meta-analysis indicated a significant improvement of motor scores only after 12 months. These results should be interpreted cautiously because only two studies had assessed the efficacy of ethyl-EPA after 12 months with one of them having a 6-month open-label phase.
The archaeological site of Saruq al-Hadid, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, presents a long sequence of persistent temporary human occupation on the northern edge of the Rub’ al-Khali desert. The site is located in active dune fields, and evidence for human activity is stratified within a deep sequence of natural dune deposits that reflect complex taphonomic processes of deposition, erosion and reworking. This study presents the results of a program of radiocarbon (14C) and thermoluminescence dating on deposits from Saruq al-Hadid, allied with studies of material remains, which are amalgamated with the results of earlier absolute dating studies provide a robust chronology for the use of the site from the Bronze Age to the Islamic period. The results of the dating program allow the various expressions of human activity at the site—ranging from subsistence activities such as hunting and herding, to multi-community ritual activities and large scale metallurgical extraction—to be better situated chronologically, and thus in relation to current debates regarding the development of late prehistoric and early historic societies in southeastern Arabia.
Nanoindentation is commonly used to determine the mechanical properties of the engineering materials. Young’s modulus of a bulk material can be extracted from the load–depth data obtained from an indentation test with a prescribed Poisson’s ratio that is unknown for a new material. The effect of Poisson’s ratio on material’s mechanical property characterization remains unknown. In this paper, finite element analysis was used to simulate nanoindentation testing on specimens of low-carbon steel AISI1018, steel alloy AISI4340, and aluminum alloy 6061T6 with a cylindrical flat-tip indenter. The effects of Poisson’s ratio on measurements of indentation load versus depth curves, Young’s modulus, hardness, and pile-up of the specimens were investigated and formulated. The Poisson ratio ranging from 0 to 0.49 was considered. It was found that the linear part at the beginning of the indentation loading process from the load versus depth curve was proportional to the Young’s modulus and significantly affected by the Poisson’s ratio. The indentation pile-up was also sensitive to the Poisson’s ratio. Combining the formulas from this work with the Hertzian contact equation, the Young’s modulus and the Poisson’s ratio can be determined simultaneously.