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Sustainable diets are diets with low environmental impacts and high affordability which contribute to food and nutrition security. The present study aimed to develop a healthy, low-cost and environmental-friendly food basket for Iran based on current consumption.
The Households Income and Expenditure Survey data were used. Linear Programming was utilised to obtain the optimal diets, separately, for each goal of the sustainable food basket: (1) Diet with maximum Nutrient Rich Food (NRF) index, (2) Diet with minimum cost, (3) Diet with the minimum water footprint and (4) Diet with the minimum carbon footprint. Goal Programming techniques were used to optimise the sustainable food basket by considering all goals simultaneously.
Households (n 100 500) in urban and rural areas of Iran, nationally representative.
In the ‘optimal model’, compared with the usual consumption, the amount of the ‘bread, cereal, rice, and pasta’, ‘meat, poultry, fish, eggs, legumes, and nuts’ and ‘fats, oils, sugars, and sweets’ groups was decreased. Inside those food groups, cereals, poultry and vegetable oil subgroups were increased. Also, dairy, fruits and vegetable groups were increased. In this model, there was a 14 % reduction in the total water footprint, a 14 % decrease in the total carbon footprint, a 23 % decrease in the cost and a 7 % increase in NRF of diet compared with the usual consumption.
Increasing the consumption of dairy, fruits and vegetables and reducing the consumption of bread, rice, pasta, meat, fish, eggs, legumes, nuts, hydrogenated fats and sugars are required to achieve a sustainable food basket.
Learning a second/foreign language (L2) is a long process and L2 learners certainly will encounter setbacks and discouragements during this process. However, their reactions to these failures might be different based on their perceptions of L2 learning ability and their subsequent effort put into L2 learning. Based on this, the present study aimed at exploring two underresearched constructs within the field of applied linguistics, namely grit (continuous effort and interest for long-term goals) and language mindset (individuals’ perceptions of their language learning ability). We had five main aims: to examine (a) the factor structure of grit, (b) the factor structure of language mindset, (c) whether there are gender differences in grit or language mindset, (d) the relationships between language mindset and grittiness, and (e) the roles of grit and language mindset as predictors of L2 achievement. To address these aims, a total number of 1,178 university students who were taking general English courses took part in our study and completed the questionnaires. Results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the two-factor structure for both grit and language mindset fit the data better than the single-factor structure. We also tested several structural equation models and found that a growth language mindset weakly, but positively, predicted one component of grit (perseverance of effort, or POE), but not the other (consistency of interest, or COI). A fixed language mindset did not predict POE, but did negatively predict COI. Finally, only growth language mindset was a weak, positive predictor of L2 achievement. At the end, theoretical and pedagogical implications regarding the role of grit and language mindset in L2 learning are presented.
Culture conditions have a profound effect on the quality of in vitro-produced embryos. Co-culturing embryos with somatic cells has some beneficial effects on embryonic development. Considering the ability of stem cells to secrete a broad range of growth factors with different biological activities, we hypothesized that bovine amniotic membrane stem cells (bAMSCs) might be superior to bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOECs) in supporting embryonic development and enhancing their cryo-survival. Bovine abattoir-derived oocytes were matured and fertilized in vitro. The resultant presumptive zygotes were then cultured up to the blastocyst stage in the following groups: (i) co-culture with bAMSCs, (ii) co-culture with BOECs, and (iii) cell-free culture (Con). Embryos that reached the blastocyst stage were vitrified and warmed, and their post-warming re-expansion, survival and hatching rates were evaluated after 72 h culture. Results showed that the cleavage, blastocyst, and 2 h post-warming re-expansion rates of embryos did not differ between groups. However, their survival rates in BOEC and bAMSC groups were significantly higher compared with the control (72.7, 75.6 and 37.5%, respectively, P < 0.05). In conclusion, our results showed that the cryo-survivability of IVF-derived bovine embryos could be improved through co-culturing with bAMSCs. Moreover, considering the possibility to provide multiple passages from bAMSCs compared with BOECs, due to their stemness properties and their ability to produce growth factors, the use of bAMSCs is a good alternative to BOECs in embryo co-culture systems.
The paper presents a 1 × 2 B-shaped antenna array for dual-band operation at 4 and 8 GHz. The antenna design consists of a rectangular patch with two annular-strip lines fabricated on the top layer and finite ground plane on the bottom layer. The array is formed by designing an optimum T-shaped microstrip line for impedance matching. The dimensions of the antenna array are 78 × 36 × 1.6 mm3. Full-wave simulations have been conducted and the measured results are in good consent with the simulated results. The measured impedance bandwidth (reference −10 dB) has been observed at 3.84–4.16 and 7.78–8.38 GHz. Measured peak gain and radiation efficiency at 4 and 8 GHz are 8.3, 9.4 dB and 82.5 and 81.2%, respectively.
The face and construct validity of the Iranian version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) was evaluated, and the convergent validity and test–retest reliability of both Iranian and original versions of YFAS for obese women were assessed.
The internal consistency of the YFAS was analysed. Exploratory factor analysis for dichotomous data was performed by varimax rotation, polychoric correlation coefficients and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Convergent validity was established by evaluating the correlation between the original and the Iranian versions of YFAS and the Binge Eating Scale (BES). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was measured between test–retest results.
A weight management clinic in Tehran.
450 obese women.
The single-factor structure indicated that the factor loadings for all the items were > 0·5, except for three items (explained proportion variance = 51 %). Based on CFA, the single factor had a better fit to the data after excluding three items. The Kuder–Richardson-20 coefficient was 0·86 for the total twenty-two items. The symptom count and diagnostic version of both the Iranian (ICC = 0·92 and 0·87, respectively) and original YFAS (ICC = 0·92 and 0·86, respectively) were stable over 2 weeks. Both the symptom count and the diagnostic version of these two scales had significant correlations with the measures of BES (P < 0·001).
The initial reliability and validity of the Iranian version of the YFAS among obese women are supported. Further studies should be conducted on men and normal/overweight samples.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to significant strain on front-line healthcare workers.
In this multicentre study, we compared the psychological outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic in various countries in the Asia-Pacific region and identified factors associated with adverse psychological outcomes.
From 29 April to 4 June 2020, the study recruited healthcare workers from major healthcare institutions in five countries in the Asia-Pacific region. A self-administrated survey that collected information on prior medical conditions, presence of symptoms, and scores on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the Impact of Events Scale-Revised were used. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) relating to COVID-19 was compared, and multivariable logistic regression identified independent factors associated with adverse psychological outcomes within each country.
A total of 1146 participants from India, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia and Vietnam were studied. Despite having the lowest volume of cases, Vietnam displayed the highest prevalence of PTSD. In contrast, Singapore reported the highest case volume, but had a lower prevalence of depression and anxiety. In the multivariable analysis, we found that non-medically trained personnel, the presence of physical symptoms and presence of prior medical conditions were independent predictors across the participating countries.
This study highlights that the varied prevalence of psychological adversity among healthcare workers is independent of the burden of COVID-19 cases within each country. Early psychological interventions may be beneficial for the vulnerable groups of healthcare workers with presence of physical symptoms, prior medical conditions and those who are not medically trained.
African animal trypanosomiasis (AAT) affects the livestock of 12.3 million Somalis and constrains their development and wellbeing. There is missing data on AAT in the country after the civil war of the 1990s. Therefore, this study has aimed to assess the prevalence of Trypanosoma spp. in 614 blood samples from cattle (n = 202), goats (n = 206) and sheep (n = 206) in Afgoye and Jowhar districts, Somalia using parasitological and molecular methods. Twenty-one out of 614 (3.4%; 95% CI: 2.1–5.2%) and 101/614 (16.4%; 95% CI: 13.6–19.6%) ruminants were positive for Trypanosoma spp. by buffy coat technique (BCT) and internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. Using ITS1-PCR, the highest prevalence was observed in cattle (23.8%; 95% CI: 18.4–30.1%) followed by goats (17.5%; 95% CI: 12.9–23.3%) and sheep (8.3%; 95% CI: 5.1–12.9%). A total of 74/101 (73.3%; 95% CI: 63.5–81.6%) ruminants were shown coinfection with at least two Trypanosome species. The four T. brucei-positive samples have tested negative for T. b. rhodesiense, by the human-serum-resistance-associated-PCR. Trypanosoma evansi, T. godfreyi, T. vivax, T. brucei, T. simiae and T. congolense were the Trypanosoma species found in this study. This is the first study on the molecular detection of Trypanosoma sp. in ruminants in Somalia. Further investigations and control measures are needed to manage Trypanosomiasis spreading in the country. Studies should also focus on the detection of T. b. rhodesiense in the country.
BK is a 25-year-old professional male cricketer who plays for an international team. He has been in the squad for the majority of the last four seasons. Twelve months ago he sustained a right hand injury while fielding in the slips, which meant he was out of action for six months. After making a good recovery, he regained his place in the squad. Two weeks ago during an overseas tour, he was hit in the same area while batting in the nets but was expected to be fit to play again in two to three weeks’ time.
The increase in mortality and total prehospital time (TPT) seen in Qatar appear to be realistic. However, existing reports on the influence of TPT on mortality in trauma patients are conflicting. This study aimed to explore the impact of prehospital time on the in-hospital outcomes.
A retrospective analysis of data on patients transferred alive by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and admitted to Hamad Trauma Center (HTC) of Hamad General Hospital (HGH; Doha, Qatar) from June 2017 through May 2018 was conducted. This study was centered on the National Trauma Registry database. Patients were categorized based on the trauma triage activation and prehospital intervals, and comparative analysis was performed.
A total of 1,455 patients were included, of which nearly one-quarter of patients required urgent and life-saving care at a trauma center (T1 activations). The overall TPT was 70 minutes and the on-scene time (OST) was 24 minutes. When compared to T2 activations, T1 patients were more likely to have been involved in road traffic injuries (RTIs); experienced head and chest injuries; presented with higher Injury Severity Score (ISS: median = 22); and had prolonged OST (27 minutes) and reduced TPT (65 minutes; P = .001). Prolonged OST was found to be associated with higher mortality in T1 patients, whereas TPT was not associated.
In-hospital mortality was independent of TPT but associated with longer OST in severely injured patients. The survival benefit may extend beyond the golden hour and may depend on the injury characteristics, prehospital, and in-hospital settings.
To assess the association between patterns of nutrient intake and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a large sample of Iranian adults.
Baseline data from the Shahedieh cohort study were used in the current cross-sectional study. Dietary intakes were assessed through the use of a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. Nutrient patterns (NP) were derived using factor analysis. The MetS was defined according to criteria introduced from the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III, modified for Iranian adults.
A total of 7325 Iranian adults aged between 30 and 75 years.
Three NP were identified. A significant positive association was found between adherence to semi-plant NP (characterised by the high intakes of P; vitamins B1, B3, B6 and B5; Se; Mg; Fe; protein; Cr; Cu; fibre; biotin; Mn; Zn and Na) and odds of MetS (OR 1·68, 95 % CI 1·43, 1·98). However, after adjusting for potential confounders, this association became non-significant. In addition, after taking potential confounders into account, individuals in the highest quintile of the semi-animal NP, rich in Ca; K; vitamins B2, B12, A, D, K and C; SFA; dietary cholesterol and trans-fatty acid, were 26 % more likely to have MetS compared with those in the lowest quintile (OR 1·26, 95 % CI 1·05, 1·51). No significant association was seen between adherence to the high-carbohydrate/low-fat NP and odds of MetS.
We found that adherence to a semi-animal NP was associated with increased odds of MetS.
This report presents the latest data from ongoing excavations at Jebel Moya, Sudan. This year saw the opening of five new trenches and continued excavation of an archaeologically rich trench. We have recovered four individual burials, a mud brick wall and a number of animal and archaeobotanical remains. The excavations also yielded a longer pottery sequence, showing clearly that the site was in use by at least the sixth millennium BC. This season confirms the long and complex history of Jebel Moya and provides the material for future studies on population health and subsistence. This season also saw an increase in community engagement and a more detailed study of the various historical trajectories that make up the biography of Jebel Moya.
The flow over a superhydrophobic and a smooth circular cylinder is investigated using particle image velocimetry-based experiments. The objective is to understand the effect of surface modification on the ensuing flow. The experiments are conducted over a wide range of Reynolds numbers,
, thereby uncovering the effect of superhydrophobicity in various flow regimes of a cylinder wake. Superhydrophobicity is found to substantially affect the flow. An increased recirculation length is observed for the superhydrophobic cylinder in the steady regime. The onset of vortex shedding is delayed for the superhydrophobic cylinder. The superhydrophobic cylinder helps in an early rolling-up of vortices; therefore, the recirculation length reduces in unsteady regimes. The velocity deficit experienced by the superhydrophobic cylinder wake is comparatively less and the effect is more profound in the
range 300–860. A maximum drag reduction of 15 % is observed at
. The Reynolds shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy values are higher for the superhydrophobic cylinder in the unsteady regime. Also, the peaks of the turbulent wake parameters lie closer to the superhydrophobic cylinder compared to the smooth cylinder. The effect of superhydrophobicity on coherent structures is examined using proper orthogonal decomposition, and a considerable difference in the wake structure is noticed at
. A larger number of coherent structures and change in vortex shedding pattern to
are observed in the near wake of the superhydrophobic cylinder. The results of this study show that surface modification can reduce the drag coefficient and have a profound effect on the near wake.
Systems engineering (SE) is a general methodological approach that includes all relevant activities to design, develop and verify a system. This work was based on the need to enhance the integration of the customer needs into the design phases of SE. A joint methodology was proposed integrating the SE approach with the Design Thinking (DT). An analysis was conducted as part of a case study proposed by IBM Corporation for the development of a security system for a building. The results confirm that the insertion of the DT in the SE has a significant impact on the generation of concept solutions.
Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) post-stroke is frequent but may go undetected, which highlights the need to better screen cognitive functioning following a stroke.
We examined the clinical utility of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in detecting cognitive impairment against a gold-standard neuropsychological battery.
We assessed cognitive status with a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests in 161 individuals who were at least 3-months post-stroke. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to identify two cut points for the MoCA to maximize sensitivity and specificity at a minimum 90% threshold. We examined the utility of the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, a processing speed measure, to determine whether this additional metric would improve classification relative to the MoCA total score alone.
Using two cut points, 27% of participants scored ≤ 23 and were classified as high probability of cognitive impairment (sensitivity 92%), and 24% of participants scored ≥ 28 and were classified as low probability of cognitive impairment (specificity 91%). The remaining 48% of participants scored from 24 to 27 and were classified as indeterminate probability of cognitive impairment. The addition of a processing speed measure improved classification for the indeterminate group by correctly identifying 65% of these individuals, for an overall classification accuracy of 79%.
The utility of the MoCA in detecting cognitive impairment post-stroke is improved when using a three-category approach. The addition of a processing speed measure provides a practical and efficient method to increase confidence in the determined outcome while minimally extending the screening routine for VCI.
(i) Describe the development of a multipurpose Cardio-Med survey tool (CMST) comprising a semi-quantitative FFQ designed to measure dietary intake in multicultural patients with or at high risk of CVD and (ii) report pilot evaluation of test–retest reliability and validity of the FFQ in measuring energy and nutrient intakes.
The CMST was developed to identify CVD risk factors and assess diet quality over 1 year using an FFQ. Design of the ninety-three-item FFQ involved developing food portion photographs, and a list of foods appropriate for the Australian multicultural population allowing the capture of adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern. The FFQ was administered twice, 2 weeks apart to assess test–retest reliability, whilst validity was assessed by comparison of the FFQ with a 3-d food record (3DFR).
The Northern Hospital and St Vincent’s Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.
Thirty-eight participants aged 34–81 years with CVD or at high risk.
Test–retest reliability of the FFQ was good: intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) ranged from 0·52 (Na) to 0·88 (alcohol) (mean 0·79), with energy and 70 % of measured nutrients being above 0·75. Validity was moderate: ICC ranged from 0·08 (Na) to 0·94 (alcohol) (mean 0·59), with energy and 85 % of measured nutrients being above 0·5. Bland–Altman plots demonstrated good levels of agreement between the FFQ and 3DFR for carbohydrates, protein, alcohol, vitamin D and Na.
The CMST FFQ demonstrated good test–retest reliability and moderate validity for measuring dietary energy and nutrients in a multicultural Australian cardiology population.
Roman Urdu is an informal form of the Urdu language written in Roman script, which is widely used in South Asia for online textual content. It lacks standard spelling and hence poses several normalization challenges during automatic language processing. In this article, we present a feature-based clustering framework for the lexical normalization of Roman Urdu corpora, which includes a phonetic algorithm UrduPhone, a string matching component, a feature-based similarity function, and a clustering algorithm Lex-Var. UrduPhone encodes Roman Urdu strings to their pronunciation-based representations. The string matching component handles character-level variations that occur when writing Urdu using Roman script. The similarity function incorporates various phonetic-based, string-based, and contextual features of words. The Lex-Var algorithm is a variant of the k-medoids clustering algorithm that groups lexical variations of words. It contains a similarity threshold to balance the number of clusters and their maximum similarity. The framework allows feature learning and optimization in addition to the use of predefined features and weights. We evaluate our framework extensively on four real-world datasets and show an F-measure gain of up to 15% from baseline methods. We also demonstrate the superiority of UrduPhone and Lex-Var in comparison to respective alternate algorithms in our clustering framework for the lexical normalization of Roman Urdu.
Vehicle-to-everything communications (V2X), whose main objective is to improve security and efficiency, are provided by ad hoc vehicle networks that allow communication between vehicles. In the current study, a hexagonal microstrip patch antenna has been developed to cover the navigational frequencies, WiMAX at 3.7 GHz and DSRC/IEEE802.11p at 5.9 GHz to meet the demands of various vehicular applications. The antenna design is based on Cantor fractal slot, partial ground plane, and inset feed which is directly fed through the microstrip line. The proposed antenna shields the frequency band from 3.22 to 6.5 GHz with VSWR
2 within all the frequency bands. The presented antenna can resonate well in the 5.85–5.95 GHz band assigned for DSRC/IEEE802.11p and 3.7 GHz assigned for LTE/V2X. Simulated antenna gain varies from 3.06 to 5.25 dB within the operated frequency range providing an omnidirectional simulated radiation pattern in the most azimuth plane. To prove the validity of the simulation results, the chosen antenna structure has been fabricated and tested using a vector network analyzer MS2630. The measurement shows good results, which make the antenna suitable for wireless applications of interest.