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Metallic palladium (Pd) is used for hydrogen storage and detection. Fabrication of a nanoporous (NP) Pd structure can increase the specific surface area leading to a significant improvement in the sensitivity. In our previous study, we succeeded in forming a NP-Pd film by dealloying an Al-Pd alloy film using citric acid as a chelating agent. This method was environmentally friendly but had a long reaction time and a considerable amount of Al remained after dealloying; hence, the Pd purity was reduced. In this study, we succeeded in forming a higher purity NP-Pd film faster by dealloying the nitrogen-containing Al-Pd (Al-Pd-N) film using ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic-acid (EDTA) as a chelating material.
A series of direct numerical simulations of a fully developed turbulent channel flow is conducted in order to clarify the effects of travelling wave-like wall blowing and suction on dissimilar heat transfer enhancement. While the wave form is kept sinusoidal and its amplitude is set to be 5 % of the bulk mean velocity, the wavelength and phase speed of the travelling wave are systematically changed in a wide parameter space. As a result, the global optimum of the parameter set for maximizing the analogy factor, which is defined as the ratio between the Stanton number and the skin-friction coefficient, is identified. Interestingly, the obtained globally optimal mode agrees well with that predicted from the optimal control theory taking into account the future dynamics within a limited time horizon by Yamamoto et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 733, 2013, pp. 189–220). The instantaneous velocity and thermal fields are decomposed into coherent and random components in order to evaluate the contribution from each component to dissimilar heat transfer enhancement. The detailed mechanisms of dissimilarity are explained by the budget analyses of the coherent and random contributions. Also, their relationships with the near-wall turbulent structures modified by the applied control are discussed through flow visualization. It is found that the random component makes a dominant contribution to dissimilarity, and this can be explained by an indirect effect through the modification of the coherent field by the applied control. Based on the above mechanisms, we propose a simple unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS) approach, where the phase-averaged velocity and thermal fields are solved directly whereas the effects of the random component are modelled by the Boussinesq eddy viscosity and diffusivity hypothesis. It is shown that the present URANS can capture the overall trend of dissimilar heat transfer enhancement in a wide parameter range. The present results also explain why the optimal control theory with a limited time horizon succeeds in predicting the globally optimal control mode.
Urban policy in Japan gained greater significance in the late 1960s. In 1968, a new City Planning Law was enacted, and urban policy was a prominent issue in that year's House of Councillors election. Scholars have regarded the ruling conservative party's fear of a threat to its hegemony as the primary force driving this increased attention to urban policy. This article examines the political factors surrounding the reforms enacted, concluding that politicians actually underestimated the degree of public interest in urban policy and made largely empty political gestures to appease urban dwellers while responding more readily to agricultural interests.
A Vaisman manifold is a special kind of locally conformally Kähler manifold, which is closely related to a Sasaki manifold. In this paper, we show a basic structure theorem of simply connected homogeneous Sasaki and Vaisman manifolds of unimodular Lie groups, up to holomorphic isometry. For the case of unimodular Lie groups, we obtain a complete classification of simply connected Sasaki and Vaisman unimodular Lie groups, up to modification.
A crucial target in the printed electronics technologies is to realize all-printed thin-film transistors (TFTs), as being applicable to the industry. Here, the authors report printed polymer TFTs through the integration of the SuPR-NaP technique, a promising way for manufacturing ultrafine printed silver electrodes, with printed polymer semiconductor layers. The authors used a class of donor–acceptor-type copolymer, PDVT-10, and found that the devices exhibit excellent TFT characteristics. The devices allow the transfer length method measurements with high accuracy, where the estimated contact resistance is considerably small (4.7 kΩ cm) among the bottom-contact TFTs using printed silver electrodes, with also showing short-channel effects.
Flux waveforms of aluminum cluster beams supplied from a laser-ablation cluster source were precisely investigated under various source conditions such as background pressure, ablation laser intensity, and nozzle structure. A time-of-flight mass spectroscopy revealed that aluminum clusters with sizes up to 200 were generated and the amount of the clusters could be maximized by choosing a proper background pressure (~2 MPa) and an ablation laser fluence (~40 mJ/cm2). Flux waveforms of clusters having specific sizes were carefully reconstructed from the observed mass spectra. It is found that the pulse widths of the aluminum cluster beams were typically about 100 µs and much smaller than that of the monoatomic aluminum beam, indicating that the cluster formation was limited in a relatively small volume in the laser-ablated vapor. Introducing a conical nozzle having a large open angle was also found to enhance the cluster beam velocity and reduce its pulse width. A velocity measurement of particles in the cluster beam was conducted to examine the velocity spread of the supplied clusters. We found that the aluminum clusters were continuously released from the source for about 100 µs and this release time mainly determined the pulse width of the cluster beam, suggesting that controlling the behavior of an ablated vapor plume in the waiting room of the cluster source holds the key to drastically improving the cluster beam flux.
Mammalian Pou5f1 encodes the POU family class V (POU-V) transcription factor which is essential for the pluripotency of embryonic cells and germ cells. In vertebrates, various POU-V family genes have been identified and classified into the POU5F1 family or its paralogous POU5F3 family. In this study, we cloned two cDNAs named CpPou5f1 and CpPou5f3, which encode POU-V family proteins of the Japanese red bellied newt Cynops pyrrhogaster. In the predicted amino acid sequence encoded by CpPou5f1, the typical MAGH sequence at the N-terminus and deletion of arginine at the fifth position of POU-homeodomain were recognized, but not in the sequence encoded by CpPou5f3. Phylogenetic analysis using Clustal Omega software indicated that CpPou5f1 and CpPou5f3 are classified into the clade of the POU5F1 and POU5F3 families, respectively. In a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, the marked gene expression of CpPou5f1 was observed during oogenesis and early development up to the tail-bud stage, whereas weak gene expression of CpPou5f3 was detected only in the early stages of oogenesis and gastrula. In adult organs, CpPou5f1 was expressed only in the ovary, while gene expression of CpPou5f3 was recognized in various organs. A regeneration experiment using larval forelimb revealed that transient gene expression of CpPou5f1 occurred at the time of wound healing, followed by gene activation of CpPou5f3 during the period of blastema formation. These results suggest that CpPou5f1 and CpPou5f3 might play different roles in embryogenesis and limb regeneration.
We apply two methods to estimate the 21-cm bispectrum from data taken within the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) project of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). Using data acquired with the Phase II compact array allows a direct bispectrum estimate to be undertaken on the multiple redundantly spaced triangles of antenna tiles, as well as an estimate based on data gridded to the uv-plane. The direct and gridded bispectrum estimators are applied to 21 h of high-band (167–197 MHz; z = 6.2–7.5) data from the 2016 and 2017 observing seasons. Analytic predictions for the bispectrum bias and variance for point-source foregrounds are derived. We compare the output of these approaches, the foreground contribution to the signal, and future prospects for measuring the bispectra with redundant and non-redundant arrays. We find that some triangle configurations yield bispectrum estimates that are consistent with the expected noise level after 10 h, while equilateral configurations are strongly foreground-dominated. Careful choice of triangle configurations may be made to reduce foreground bias that hinders power spectrum estimators, and the 21-cm bispectrum may be accessible in less time than the 21-cm power spectrum for some wave modes, with detections in hundreds of hours.
In Japan, with the revision of the Nuclear Emergency Response Guidelines in 2015, nuclear emergency medical assistance teams responsible for the medical treatment in the acute phase of nuclear disaster have been developed nationwide. The purpose of this research is to develop active learning materials for the education of medical staff, to confirm the educational effect of the materials, and to identify the gaps in nuclear disaster risk reduction in Japan.
We established a working group and created active learning materials. We trained members of the nuclear emergency medical assistance team using the developed active learning materials and then conducted a questionnaire survey for trainees who participated in the training.
Regarding the developed teaching materials, out of 33 trainees, 33 (100%) answered “easy to understand” or “a little understandable” to the item dealing with how to use the radiation detectors and attaching/detaching personal protective equipment. Regarding the simulation about practicing hospital support and medical provision, 3 (8%) answered “a little confusing.”
The study demonstrated that the developed materials have an educational effect. Additionally, the results of the trainee questionnaire showed the necessity for improvement in the triage system and new protocols to help both the patients and responders.
Identifying the source of passive scalar transported in a turbulent environment from remote measurements is an ill-posed problem due to the irreversibility of diffusive processes. A significant difficulty of the source reconstruction is due to different potential source locations generating very highly correlated signals at the sensor. A variational algorithm is formulated, which utilizes high-fidelity simulations to reconstruct the spatial distribution of the source. A cost functional is defined based on the difference between the true measurements and their prediction from the simulations with the estimated source. Using forward–adjoint looping, the gradient of the cost functional with respect to the source distribution is evaluated, and the estimate of the source is updated. The adjoint-variational approach naturally accommodates measurements from multiple sensors, with essentially the same computational cost. The algorithm is evaluated for scalar dispersion in turbulent channel flow. When a single sensor is placed directly downstream of the source, the reconstruction is accurate in the cross-stream directions and is elongated in the streamwise direction. The estimated source, however, can reproduce the measurements and the scalar plume downstream of the sensor location. In the channel centre and log layer, the scalar fields are dominated by dispersion, and therefore the reconstruction is better than in the near-wall regions, where the scalar fields are dominated by diffusion. When a sensor is placed near the wall, the accuracy of the source recovery deteriorates due to diffusive effects. By using more sensors that span the plume cross-section, improvement of performance can be demonstrated despite an enlarged domain of dependence.
The second-order structure functions (SFs) of the velocity field, which characterize the velocity difference at two points, are widely used in research into non-reacting turbulent flows. In the present paper, the approach is extended in order to study the influence of combustion-induced thermal expansion on turbulent flow within a premixed flame brush. For this purpose, SFs conditioned to various combinations of mixture states at two different points (reactant–reactant, reactant–product, product–product, etc.) are introduced in the paper and a relevant exact transport equation is derived in the appendix. Subsequently, in order to demonstrate the capabilities of the newly developed approach for advancing the understanding of turbulent reacting flows, the conditioned SFs are extracted from three-dimensional (3-D) direct numerical simulation data obtained from two statistically 1-D planar, fully developed, weakly turbulent, premixed, single-step-chemistry flames characterized by significantly different (7.53 and 2.50) density ratios, with all other things being approximately equal. Obtained results show that the conditioned SFs differ significantly from standard mean SFs and convey a large amount of important information on various local phenomena that stem from the influence of combustion-induced thermal expansion on turbulent flow. In particular, the conditioned SFs not only (i) indicate a number of already known local phenomena discussed in the paper, but also (ii) reveal a less recognized phenomenon such as substantial influence of combustion-induced thermal expansion on turbulence in constant-density unburned reactants and even (iii) allow us to detect a new phenomenon such as the appearance of strong local velocity perturbations (shear layers) within flamelets. Moreover, SFs conditioned to heat-release zones indicate a highly anisotropic influence of combustion-induced thermal expansion on the evolution of small-scale two-point velocity differences within flamelets, with the effects being opposite (an increase or a decrease) for different components of the local velocity vector.
Dog treats might be contaminated with Salmonella. In Canada and the USA, outbreaks of human salmonellosis related to exposure to animal-derived dog treats were reported. Consequently, surveillance data on Salmonella contamination of dog treats have been gathered in many countries, but not in Japan. In the current study, we investigated whether dog treats in Japan were contaminated with Salmonella. Overall, 303 dog treats (of which 255 were domestically produced) were randomly collected and the presence of Salmonella investigated. Seven samples were positive for Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica. Among these isolates, three were identified as serovar 4,5,12:i:–; two were serovar Rissen; and two were serovar Thompson. All serovar 4,5,12:i:– and Thompson isolates were resistant to one or more drugs. Two serovar Rissen isolates were fully susceptible to all tested antimicrobial agents. All Salmonella isolates were susceptible to cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid. The gene blaTEM was detected in two serovar 4,5,12:i:– isolates. The blaCTX−M and blaCMY genes were not detected in any isolates. This study demonstrated that dog treats in Japan could constitute a potential source of dog and human Salmonella infections, including multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates.
We devote this paper to proving non-existence and existence of stable solutions to weighted Lane-Emden equations on the Euclidean space ℝN, N ⩾ 2. We first prove some new Liouville-type theorems for stable solutions which recover and considerably improve upon the known results. In particular, our approach applies to various weighted equations, which naturally appear in many applications, but that are not covered by the existing literature. A typical example is provided by the well-know Matukuma's equation. We also prove an existence result for positive, bounded and stable solutions to a large family of weighted Lane–Emden equations, which indicates that our Liouville-type theorems are somehow sharp.
This paper addresses the integral energy fluxes in natural and controlled turbulent channel flows, where active skin-friction drag reduction techniques allow a more efficient use of the available power. We study whether the increased efficiency shows any general trend in how energy is dissipated by the mean velocity field (mean dissipation) and by the fluctuating velocity field (turbulent dissipation). Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of different control strategies are performed at constant power input (CPI), so that at statistical equilibrium, each flow (either uncontrolled or controlled by different means) has the same power input, hence the same global energy flux and, by definition, the same total energy dissipation rate. The simulations reveal that changes in mean and turbulent energy dissipation rates can be of either sign in a successfully controlled flow. A quantitative description of these changes is made possible by a new decomposition of the total dissipation, stemming from an extended Reynolds decomposition, where the mean velocity is split into a laminar component and a deviation from it. Thanks to the analytical expressions of the laminar quantities, exact relationships are derived that link the achieved flow rate increase and all energy fluxes in the flow system with two wall-normal integrals of the Reynolds shear stress and the Reynolds number. The dependence of the energy fluxes on the Reynolds number is elucidated with a simple model in which the control-dependent changes of the Reynolds shear stress are accounted for via a modification of the mean velocity profile. The physical meaning of the energy fluxes stemming from the new decomposition unveils their inter-relations and connection to flow control, so that a clear target for flow control can be identified.
Although thiamine deficiency (TD) and Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) are not rare in cancer patients, the cases reported to date developed TD and/or WE after treatment had started.
From a series of cancer patients, we report a patient diagnosed with TD without the typical clinical symptoms of WE at the preoperative psychiatric examination.
A 43-year-old woman with ovarian cancer was referred by her oncologist to the psycho-oncology outpatient clinic for preoperative psychiatric evaluation. Her tumor had been growing rapidly before the referral. Although she did not develop delirium, cerebellar signs, or eye symptoms, we suspected she might have developed TD because of her 2-month loss of appetite as the storage capacity of thiamine in the body is approximately 18 days. The diagnosis of TD was supported by abnormally low serum thiamine levels.
Significance of results
Cancer therapists need to be aware that thiamine deficiency may occur even before the start of cancer treatment. In cases with a loss of appetite of more than 2 weeks’ duration, in particular, thiamine deficiency should be considered if the tumor is rapidly increasing, regardless of the presence or absence of delirium.
7-Decyl-2-phenylbenzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (Ph-BTBT-C10) is a soluble organic semiconductor that can afford high mobility organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). The material exhibits inherent high layered crystallinity due to the formation of bilayer-type layered-herringbone packing that involves nearly independent π-electron core layers and alkyl-chain layers within the crystals. Here, we discuss that the bottom-gate/top-contact OTFTs composed of single-crystalline Ph-BTBT-C10 channel layers exhibit noticeable effects in the device characteristics caused by the highly insulating nature of the alkyl-chain layers. Notable layer-number (n) dependence was observed in the nonlinear current–voltage characteristics and the device mobility (2–14 cm2/Vs, with TFT ideality factor 15–46%, mainly due to large threshold voltages), which can be clearly ascribed to the tunneling-based interlayer access resistance across the alkyl-chain layers. The gated-four-probe measurements of single-crystalline OTFTs also revealed quite high mobility more than 40 cm2/Vs along the channel semiconducting layer, whereas highly insulating effects due to the alkyl-chain layers were also apparent as the large hysteresis in the gate-off states of OTFTs. We discuss the whole features of the tunneling-based access resistance in the device operations of single-crystalline OTFTs, on the basis of comparison between experimental results and model simulations.