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This chapter proposes to establish a multifactorial model for the development of capitalisation in Early New High German in handwritten texts, which accounts for a range of linguistic dimensions of analysis, including the semantic, syntactic and pragmatic domains. Diachronic patterns of capitalisation are discussed in view of a range of contextualising factors which are judged to have an impact on the trends, including animacy, frequency, semantic roles, syntactic functions and socio-pragmatic factors. The authors develop a systematic and empirical approach to understanding the development of diachronic capitalisation in German, which promises to become increasingly more complex and precise during the course of its development.
This chapter considers the role of human rights law in attributing responsibility for harm associated with the impacts of climate change. The suitability of human rights law to address harm caused by climate change depends upon whether a victim can substantiate a claim that a duty bearer has contributed to climate change, in such a way as to amount to a human rights violation. Qualifying the effects of climate change as human rights violations, however, poses technical obstacles concerning causality, retrospectivity, apportionment, as well as the provision of an adequate remedy. Yet, these obstacles are not insurmountable. As scientific knowledge improves, tracing causal connections between particular emissions and resulting harms is becoming less difficult. This chapter looks at the Carbon Majors petition, which is currently under investigation by the Human Rights Commission of the Philippines, to critically appraise the role of human rights law in solving complex questions associated with responsibility for the impacts of climate change.
In support of the ICRF experiments planned on the Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) stellarator, i.e. fast ion generation, wall conditioning, target plasma production and heating, a first experimental study on plasma production has been made in the Uragan-2M (U-2M) stellarator using W7-X-like two-strap antenna. In all the experiments, antenna monopole phasing was used. The W7-X-like antenna operation with launched radiofrequency power of ~100 kW have been performed in helium (p = (4–14) × 10−2 Pa) with the vacuum vessel walls pre-loaded with hydrogen. Production of plasma with a density higher than 1012 cm−3 was observed near the first harmonic of the hydrogen cyclotron frequency. Operation at first hydrogen harmonic is feasible in W7-X future ICRF experiments.
Background: Cultivation of targeted pathogens has been long recognized as a gold standard for healthcare surveillance. However, there is an emergent need to characterize all viable microorganisms in healthcare facilities to understand the role that both clinical and nonclinical microorganisms play in healthcare-associated infections. Metagenomic sequencing allows detection of entire microbial communities, in contrast to targeted identification by cultivation. Widespread application of metagenomic sequencing has been impeded in part because the sensitivity and specificity are unknown, which inhibits our ability to interpret results for risk assessment. To assess the impact of sample preparation methods on sensitivity and specificity, we compared several pretreatment steps followed by metagenomic sequencing, and we performed culture-based analyses. Methods: We collected 120 surface swabs from the medical intensive care unit at Rush University Medical Center, which we aggregated to create a representative microbiome sample. We then subjected aliquots to different processing methods (DNA extraction methods, internal standard addition, propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment, and whole-cell serial filtration). We evaluated the effects of these methods based on DNA yields and metagenomic sequencing outcomes. We also compared the metagenomic results to the microbial identifications obtained by cultivation using environmental microbiology methods and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Results: Our results demonstrate that bead-beating and heat lysis followed by liquid-liquid extraction is the optimal method for the identification of low-biomass surface-associated microbes, as opposed to widely used column-based and magnetic bead-based methods. For low-biomass surface-associated samples, ~590,000 reads per sample are sufficient for ≍90% coverage in metagenomic sequencing (Fig. 1). The ZymoBIOMICS microbial community standard is not appropriate for methods assessing membrane integrity. For the identification of putatively viable microorganisms, PMA treatment is promising, although elimination of signals from nonviable organisms will reduce the overall detectable signal. Combining PMA-treated metagenomic sequencing with cultivation yields the most comprehensive results, particularly for low-abundance taxa, despite high sequencing coverage (Fig. 2). To distribute more detection resources to bacteria, our target domain, we tried whole-cell filtration prior to extraction, attempting to isolate bacterial cells from eukaryotic cells and other particles. For low-biomass surface-associated samples, the sample loss and the difficulties in performing filtration outweigh the slight increase of bacterial signal. Conclusions: Despite optimization, we observed certain blind spots in both cultivation and metagenomic sequencing. This information is essential for informed risk assessment. Further research is needed to identify additional limitations to ensure that results from metagenomic sequencing can be interpreted in the context of healthcare-acquired infection prevention.
Funding: This work was supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (BAA FY2018-OADS-01 Contract 02915).
The chapter traces the origins of Roman civil service and the office of the scriba in Etruscan models and tries to understand the workings of decurial organisation, i.e. the recruitment, assignment and organisation of the public scribal apparitores. It postulates a high susceptibility of the system to the Roman phenomenon of patronage and social relations.
The chapter serves both as a summary of the classical model of scriba-ship established throughout the book and as an epilogue to the history of the scribae in the Later Roman Empire and beyond. It follows the sparse traces of scribae and revivals of the post in the institutions of the Late Roman state. It argues for the pervasive nature of the idea of the scriba using the example of a public scribe in the Ostrogothic Kingdom of the seventh century.
In a society in which only a fraction of the population was literate and numerate, being one of the few specialists in reading, writing and reckoning meant the possession of an invaluable asset. The fact that the Roman state heavily relied on these professional scribes in financial and legal administration led to their holding a unique position and status. By gathering and analysing the available source material on the Roman scribae, Benjamin Hartmann traces the history of Rome's public scribes from the early Republic to the Later Roman Empire. He tells the story of men of low social origin, who, by means of their specialised knowledge, found themselves at the heart of the Roman polity, in close proximity to the powerful and responsible for the written arcana of the state – a story of knowledge and power, corruption and contested social mobility.
The chapter serves as an introduction to the topic and the study. It presents the theoretical framework and the available sources on the scribae, addresses methodological questions and discusses previous research and establishes the focus on the cultural history of the scribae.
The chapter examines political corruption, i.e. embezzlement and extortion, and explores material aspects of forgery with regard to the close connection of the scribae with public documentation. It discusses accountability and the oath of due diligence and, as a result, public perception of the scribae in light of accusations of corruption and abuse. It highlights the profiteering character of the post and discusses examples of scribal enrichment and its consequences for the individuals' social mobility.
The chapter reconstructs the grand themes of the social history of the Roman scribae. It tells stories of low social origin and subsequent high social mobility, of social upstarts entering the senate and the equestrian order, and of local notables acting as generous patrons of their hometowns. It analyses known lives and careers of scribae to arrive at a picture of social opportunities and possibilities of scribae in any given period.