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Fackenheim was one of the philosophically serious, knowledgeable, and provocative contemporary Jewish thinkers. His original focus as a philosophical theologian was mainly on revelation, but in his later work he concerned himself primarily with the wide-ranging implications of the Holocaust. In this book, Kenneth Green examines Fackenheim's intellectual trajectory and traces how and why he focused so intently on the Holocaust. He explores the deeper thought that Fackenheim developed about the Holocaust, which he construed as a cataclysmic event that ruptured history and one that also brought about a change in the very structure of being. As Green demonstrates, the Holocaust, according to Fackenheim's interpretation, changes how we view all things, from God to man to history. It also radically affects Judaism, Christianity, and philosophy, the major traditions that have shaped the Western world.
The Coronavirus pandemic has led to physical distancing measures in numerous countries in an attempt to control the spread. However, these measures are not without cost to the health and economies of the nations in which they are enacted. Nations are now looking for methods to remove physical distancing measures and return to full functioning. To prevent a massive second wave of infections, this must be done with a data-driven methodology. The purpose of this article is to propose an algorithm for coronavirus testing which would allow for physical distancing to be scaled back in a step-wise manner which limits ensuing infections and protects the capacity of the healthcare system.
Colombia is the fourth largest country in South America. It is an upper middle-income country with an estimated population of 49.2 million people, and road traffic collisions (RTCs) are the second most common cause of traumatic death. The United Nations (UN) proclaimed 2011 to 2020 as the “Decade of Action for Road Safety.” In this context, the government of Colombia established the National Road Safety Plan (PNSV) for the period 2011-2021, aiming to reduce RTC-related deaths by 26%. Some road safety laws (RSLs) were implemented before the PNSV, but their impact on deaths and injuries is still not known.
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether these RSLs have had a long-term effect on road safety in the country.
Data on RTC casualties, deaths, and injuries from January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2017 were collated from official Colombian governmental publications. Three different periods were considered for analysis: 2001-2010 to evaluate the Transit Code; 2011-2017 to evaluate the PNSV; and 2001-2017 to evaluate a composite of the full study period. Analyses of trends in deaths and injuries were related to dates of new RSLs.
A total of 102,723 deaths (12.7%) and 707,778 injuries (87.3%) were reported from 2001 through 2017. The Transit Code period (2001-2010) showed a 10.1% decline in deaths, 16.6% decline in injuries, and rates per 100,000 inhabitants and per 10,000 registered vehicles also declined. During the period of the PNSV (2011-2017), there was an increase in the number of deaths by 16.6%, injuries decreased by 1.7%, and death rates per 100,000 inhabitants also increased. During the total study period, a 12.4% reduction in the total number of casualties was achieved, and death and injury rates per 100,000 inhabitants decreased by 12.4% and 27.5%, respectively.
Despite the introduction of the PNSV, RTCs remain the second most common cause of preventable death in Colombia. Overall, while the absolute number of RTCs and deaths has been increasing, the rate of RTCs per 10,000 registered vehicles has been decreasing. This suggests that although the goals of the PNSV may not be realized, some of the laws emanating from it may be having a beneficial effect. Further study is required over a protracted period to determine the longer-term impact of these initiatives.
In our introduction to this Special Issue on early modern cities and globalization, we explore the current place of cities before 1850 in global urban history and address the promise of a greater focus on their role. We argue that the interplay between the large scale and the small scale in the imperial global city is an essential dialogical force in the formation of each city's relationship to the wider early modern world. Furthermore, early modern global urban history can help explain the creation of spaces that facilitated connections between distant, global locations, as well as illuminate the emergence of networks of exchange between city communities around the globe. Yet, it also reveals the tense, messy negotiation of the meaning of these urban spaces, as well as the incredibly diverse communities they harboured.
Comorbidity has profound implications in both the clinical field and research, yet little is known about the prevalence and structure of comorbid mental disorders. This article aims not only to present data on the prevalence of mental disorders and comorbidity, but also to explore relationships between comorbid mental disorders by using a network approach.
Data used in this cross-sectional study are part of a prospective cohort study within penitentiary psychiatric centers (PPCs) in the Netherlands. It includes DSM diagnoses of 5,257 unique male patients incarcerated in one of the PPC's. Prevalence rates of mental disorders and comorbidity were calculated, the network of comorbid DSM diagnoses was constructed using regression coefficients.
Schizophrenia spectrum and substance-related disorders were most prevalent within this sample (56.7 and 43.1%, respectively), and over half of all patients were diagnosed with a comorbid disorder (56.9%). Four distinctive groups of disorders emerged from the network analysis of DSM diagnoses: substance use, impulsivity, poor social skills, and disruptive behaviors. Psychotic disorders were considered as a separate group as it was unconnected to other disorders.
Comorbid mental disorders can be described, at least in part, as connected networks. Underlying attributes as well as direct influences of mental disorders on one another seem to be affecting the presence of comorbidity. Results could contribute to the understanding of a possible causal relation between psychopathology and criminal behavior and the development of treatment programs targeting groups of disorders.
Older adults often collaborate with others to recreate past events and reminisce. In the current chapter, we discuss the patterns of gains and losses associated with social memory and aging specifically as they relate to research on collaborative remembering and social contagion. Within the collaborative remembering literatures, we focus on different methods of measuring group and individual memory performance and the role of partner familiarity. Within social contagion, we focus on age differences in susceptibility to socially suggested false memories and how perceptions of age influence the effects. Across literatures, there is some disagreement on precisely how and when collaboration benefits and/or disrupts older adults’ memories. However, there is strong agreement that collaboration influences memory and that social influence is an important contextual factor on older adults’ cognition.
Between 1800 and 1820, Buenos Aires and the former colonial Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata faced an unprecedented fiscal crisis caused by the revolutionary wars, eventually solved by levying forced loans. This paper considers the unintended institutional consequences of these loans. The novel devices allowed (1) the holders of forced-loan coupons to use these bonds to pay off debts incurred in customs duties and (2) the holders of bills of exchange involved in the provisioning of the military to use these bills to pay part of their forced loans. Starting with the conceptualisation of the institutional order as a complex system, this paper examines the interactions among the circulation of financial paper bills, the financing of war and changes in the position of the merchants' guild and the legal framework for Atlantic trade. It thereby contributes to renewing institutional change approaches in the Spanish-American context.
The social model of disability was implemented in the United States partially through the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), and most notably through certain universal accommodations for physical disabilities. The social model has also been applied to mental health, but the ADA did not provide for universal accommodations in mental health. In this Chapter, the authors conduct a systematic review of PubMed and PsycARTICLES to identify evidence for potential universal accommodations in mental health and discuss the policy and ethical considerations of implementing universal accommodations in mental health.
Juvenile sex offending all too often is the reason of public commotion and concern. About 20% of all rapes and 20–50% of cases of child abuse are perpetrated by juveniles. However little is known on the psychiatric characteristics and recidivism rates of these youths. In the present study the prevalence of psychopathology in (subgroups of) juvenile sex offenders and its relation with criminal recidivism two to four years later were investigated.
Semi-structured psychiatric interviews (K-SADS-PL) and a parent-report questionnaire (CSBQ) were carried out with 106 adolescent sex offenders (mean age 15.0 ± 1.5 years, 60 group offenders, 27 solo rapists, and 19 child molesters) referred to the Dutch child protection agency and juvenile justice institutions. Recidivism was ascertained from registration systems.
Three quarters of juvenile sex offenders met criteria for at least one psychiatric disorder and comorbidity was found in more than half of the subjects. Child molesters showed the highest rates of internalizing disorders and showed most pronounced autism spectrum disorder core symptomatology. Forty percent of juvenile sex offenders had committed multiple sexual offenses, but none recidivated sexually within the 2–4 years after the study. Compared to one time sex offenders, multiple sex offenders were higher in DBD and anxiety disorder.
Child and adolescent psychiatric care should be given to juvenile sex offenders, with particular attention to multiple sex offenders and child molesters. However, the predictive value of psychopathology for sexual recidivism remains unclear and warrants further research.
Edward Said, who is a key intellectual figure in the theory and interpretation of western European colonization and decolonization, sees criticism as personal engagement and a matter of character and not simply scholarship. He is highly influential in the fields of colonialism, postcolonialism, representation and interpretation. Of the many influences Said in turn has undergone, those in French deserve specific exploration. This article explores some of these influences, but it also looks at some of Said’s own representations of French and French-speaking culture. To this end I will examine how Said in some of his key works addresses, among other things, the role of the intellectual, Orientalism, colonialism, and literary theory. My approach is chronological. I will first turn to the role the French-speaking world plays in Said’s first published book, Joseph Conrad and the Fiction of Autobiography (1966), and then to a couple of Said’s most celebrated works: Orientalism (1978) and Culture and Imperialism (1993).
People with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have abnormalities in frontal, temporal, parietal and striato-thalamic networks. It is unclear to what extent these abnormalities are distinctive or shared. This comparative meta-analysis aimed to identify the most consistent disorder-differentiating and shared structural and functional abnormalities.
Systematic literature search was conducted for whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of cognitive control comparing people with ASD or ADHD with typically developing controls. Regional gray matter volume (GMV) and fMRI abnormalities during cognitive control were compared in the overall sample and in age-, sex- and IQ-matched subgroups with seed-based d mapping meta-analytic methods.
Eighty-six independent VBM (1533 ADHD and 1295 controls; 1445 ASD and 1477 controls) and 60 fMRI datasets (1001 ADHD and 1004 controls; 335 ASD and 353 controls) were identified. The VBM meta-analyses revealed ADHD-differentiating decreased ventromedial orbitofrontal (z = 2.22, p < 0.0001) but ASD-differentiating increased bilateral temporal and right dorsolateral prefrontal GMV (zs ⩾ 1.64, ps ⩽ 0.002). The fMRI meta-analyses of cognitive control revealed ASD-differentiating medial prefrontal underactivation but overactivation in bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortices and precuneus (zs ⩾ 1.04, ps ⩽ 0.003). During motor response inhibition specifically, ADHD relative to ASD showed right inferior fronto-striatal underactivation (zs ⩾ 1.14, ps ⩽ 0.003) but shared right anterior insula underactivation.
People with ADHD and ASD have mostly distinct structural abnormalities, with enlarged fronto-temporal GMV in ASD and reduced orbitofrontal GMV in ADHD; and mostly distinct functional abnormalities, which were more pronounced in ASD.
This brief introduction to a special section on Digital History in African Studies situates three articles on recent digital humanities initiatives among African historians within the broader histories of the use of digital methodologies in the study of Africa. In particular, it highlights the way that Africanist digital scholarship sits at the intersection of digital historical representation, community engagement, and academic research. While Africanist digital history builds on the work of a much broader digital humanities community, historians of Africa also draw on their discipline’s long history of methodological innovation to raise important questions about the potential contributions and limitations of digital technologies in academic research.
Disasters are high-acuity, low-frequency events which require medical providers to respond in often chaotic settings. Due to this infrequency, skills can atrophy, so providers must train and drill to maintain them. Historically, drilling for disaster response has been costly, and thus infrequent. Virtual Reality Environments (VREs) have been demonstrated to be acceptable to trainees, and useful for training Disaster Medicine skills. The improved cost of virtual reality training can allow for increased frequency of simulation and training.
The problem addressed was to create a novel Disaster Medicine VRE for training and drilling.
A VRE was created using SecondLife (Linden Lab; San Francisco, California USA) and adapted for use in Disaster Medicine training and drilling. It is easily accessible for the end-users (trainees), and is adaptable for multiple scenario types due to the presence of varying architecture and objects. Victim models were created which can be role played by educators, or can be virtual dummies, and can be adapted for wide ranging scenarios. Finally, a unique physiologic simulator was created which allows for dummies to mimic disease processes, wounds, and treatment outcomes.
The VRE was created and has been used extensively in an academic setting to train medical students, as well as to train and drill disaster responders.
This manuscript presents a new VRE for the training and drilling of Disaster Medicine scenarios in an immersive, interactive experience for trainees.
Hillary Clinton had a thousand reasons to be upset by the 2016 presidential election. Her book, What Happened, lists them all. In Chapter 16 (helpfully entitled Why), Clinton lays out her reasons in 120 well-crafted paragraphs. FBI director James Comey is her star performer, far outdistancing Vladimir Putin & Co. Clinton also acknowledges her own shortcomings as a candidate and recounts other popular explanations for the election’s outcome – angry blue-collar workers in the Midwest, a disorganized Democratic Party, fear of immigrants swarming the southern border, etc.1What Happened is a conflicted book, as Clinton tries to explain “how sixty-two million people – many of whom agreed Trump was unfit for the job – could vote for a man so manifestly unqualified to be President.”2
Politics is a deadly serious business until 11:30 p.m. Eastern Standard Time. Then the klieg lights shine. Donald Trump’s name is embossed in gold on his penis, declares Stormy Daniels on Jimmy Kimmel Live.1 Ivanka Trump is a “feckless cunt,” observes Samantha Bee on Full Frontal.2 Donald Trump is a “presidunce” and a “pricktator,” announces Steven Colbert on The Late Show.3 Clearly, nothing is now off-limits when it comes to presidential humor. Researchers have found that Trump was the butt of late-night jokes three times more often than Hillary Clinton during the 2016 presidential campaign, a ratio that seemed foreordained given Trump’s media history.4 Before running for office, after all, Trump had mugged with Duck Dynasty characters, overseen the Miss America pageant, and fired people on The Apprentice – all on national TV. What could possibly be verboten in a Trump presidency?
Although football has stood for quintessential American values – competition, sportsmanship, teamwork – and afforded prized cultural bounties, including pageantry, tradition, celebrity, etc., things have gone poorly in the Age of Trump. “Sports fans should never condone players who do not stand proud for their National Anthem or their Country,” Trump tweeted in September of 2017. “NFL should change policy,” he commanded.1 The President was referring to the mini-revolution begun by San Francisco 49ers quarterback Colin Kaepernick on August 14, 2016, when he remained seated during the anthem to protest police brutality. “People of color have been targeted by police,” Kaepernick explained, and “they are put in place by the government. So that’s something that this country has to change.”2