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Through a long history of co-evolution, multicellular organisms form a complex of host cells plus many associated microorganism species. Consisting of algae, bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists and viruses, and collectively referred to as the microbiome, these microorganisms contribute to a range of important functions in their hosts, from nutrition, to behaviour and disease susceptibility. In this book, a diverse and international group of active researchers outline how multicellular organisms have become reliant on their microbiomes to function, and explore this vital interdependence across the breadth of soil, plant, animal and human hosts. They draw parallels and contrasts across hosts in different environments, and discuss how this invisible microbial ecosystem influences everything from the food we eat, to our health, to the correct functioning of ecosystems we depend on. This insightful read also pertinently encourages students and researchers in microbial ecology, ecology, and microbiology to consider how this interdependence may be key to mitigating environmental changes and developing microbial biotechnology to improve life on Earth.
Herodotus in the Long Nineteenth Century traces the impact of Herodotus' Histories during a momentous period in world history - an era of heightened social mobility, religious controversy, scientific discovery and colonial expansion. Contributions by an international team of specialists in Greek historiography, classical archaeology, receptions, and nineteenth-century intellectual history shed new light on how the Histories were read, remembered, and re-imagined in historical writing and in an exciting array of real-world contexts: from the classrooms of English public schools and universities to the music hall, museum, or gallery; from the news-stand to the nursery; and from the banks of the Nile to the mountains of the Hindu Kush. They reveal not only how engagement with Herodotus' work permeated nationalist discourses of the period, but also the extent to which these national and disciplinary contexts helped shape the way both Herodotus and the ancient past have been understood and interpreted.
How landscapes respond to, and evolve from, large jökulhlaups (glacial outburst floods) is poorly constrained due to limited observations and detailed monitoring. We investigate how melt of glacier ice transported and deposited by multiple jökulhlaups during the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, modified the volume and surface elevation of jökulhlaup deposits. Jökulhlaups generated by the eruption deposited large volumes of sediment and ice, causing significant geomorphic change in the Gígjökull proglacial basin over a 4-week period. Observation of these events enabled robust constraints on the physical properties of the floods which informs our understanding of the deposits. Using ground-based LiDAR, GPS observations and the satellite-image-derived ArcticDEMs, we quantify the post-depositional response of the 60 m-thick Gígjökull sediment package to the meltout of buried ice and other geomorphic processes. Between 2010 and 2016, total deposit volume reduced by −0.95 × 106 m3 a−1, with significant surface lowering of up to 1.88 m a−1. Surface lowering and volumetric loss of the deposits is attributed to three factors: (i) meltout of ice deposited by the jökulhlaups; (ii) rapid melting of the buried Gígjökull glacier snout; and (iii) incision of the proglacial meltwater system into the jökulhlaup deposits.
While the Berlin government was making major strides in the mid-2000s in remembering the Wall and commemorating its victims with the Gesamtkonzept, several memory wars played out in the process of institutionalizing federal policy regarding the Berlin Wall.
For many years after the fall of the Wall, a small minority of memory activists worked to counter the majority impulse to remove the Wall from the landscape and from memory. The combination of the physical dismantling of the Wall, the joyous performances of Beethoven, and the trials connected to deaths at the Wall were all meant to draw that period of German history to a close and allow people to move on, even as others were focused on the deeper, more problematic past connected to the Holocaust.
With the toppling of the Berlin Wall and soon thereafter the East German SED regime, Horst Schmidt wanted to make sure “the murderers” at the Wall would pay for what they had done. His twenty-year-old son Michael had been killed on December 1, 1984 while trying to escape across the Berlin Wall. When the Wall fell, Horst and his wife Dorothea “could not feel anything of the excitement…they would have felt without Michael’s tragic death.
On October 31, 2004, two weeks in advance of the fifteenth anniversary of the toppling of the Wall, the director of the private Checkpoint Charlie Wall Museum, Alexandra Hildebrandt, unveiled 1,065 wooden crosses in memory of the people killed at the Berlin Wall and along the entire former East German border.
Since the fall of the Wall, memory activists had long centered the memory of the Wall on victims, particularly those killed trying to escape. Manfred Fischer’s efforts to preserve the Wall as a “crime scene,” the erection of the Kohlhoff & Kohlhoff memorial at Bernauer Strasse, Alexandra Hildebrandt’s cemetery of crosses at Checkpoint Charlie, Berlin’s master plan (Gesamtkonzept) for remembering the Wall, and the federal government’s plan for memorials (Gedenkstättenkonzeption) were all illustrative of this focus. This would remain the case with the expansion of the Berlin Wall Memorial Site at Bernauer Strasse. Simultaneously, however, a contentious process of examining and remembering the perpetrators also took place, yet this time outside of the courtroom.
While the conflicts with the Sophien parish played out over creating a Berlin Wall Memorial, and a whole site for remembering the Berlin Wall in the former death strip, Manfred Fischer oversaw activities in his own parish to remember the Wall and its victims.
Just as there is a spectrum of views on the role of border soldiers in the system surrounding the Berlin Wall, so Germans have differing perspectives on the attitudes and policies of both East and West Germans regarding the Wall when it stood, on the reasons for its fall, and its legacy.
After years of putting the memory of the Wall aside, followed by a period of focusing on the victims of the Wall and finally on proud celebration of the brave and peaceful East German people who pushed open the Wall, the official narrative as well as its contemporary relevance changed again in the wake of the 2015 refugee crisis in Germany and the resulting rise of right-wing, sometimes violent, extremism in Germany.